Skip to main content

Full text of "History of Yuba and Sutter Counties, California : with biographical sketches of the leading men and women of the counties who have been identified with their growth and development from the early days to the present"

See other formats



3 1223 90150 9977 


979.435 D375 



Digitized by the Internet Archive 

in 2011 with funding from 

California State Library Califa/LSTA Grant 





Biographical Sketches 


The Leading Men and Women of the Counties Who Have Been 

Identified with Their Growth and Development 

from the Early Days to the Present 








Portrait, Peter J. Delay page 34 

D Street, Marysville, in 1923 page 48 

Marysville's First Fire, 18S1 page 132 

Marysville in 1854 page 132 

Portrait, Mary Murphy Covillaud page 136 

Company C, Champion Marksmen page 196 

Benny Lynch and General Sutter's Gun page 218 

Sutter Buttes, Sutter County page 226 

Sutter County Court House, Yuba City page 270 

Yuba County Heroes pages 286 and 292 

Sutter Count}' Heroes page 300 



(Numbers refer to pages.) 

List of Illustration's 2 

Table of Contents 3 

Index of Names 1 1 

Introductory 35 

"Tierra de las Uvas!" — Origin of the name Yuba — Location and area of 
Yuba County — Boundaries — Climate — Products and natural resources — Marys- 
ville. "The God-made Home of Tree and Vine" — Fertility of Sutter County's 
soil (p. 36) — The Sutter Buttes — Gen. John A. Sutter and Hock Farm — Viti- 
cultural and horticultural importance of Sutter County. Author's acknowledg- 
ments (p. 37). 



The Days of the Indian and the Trapper.. 39 

Yuba County's place in the history of the State — Condition prior to 
Sutter's arrival — Gen. John A. Sutter and the founding of New Helvetia — Sutter 
and Bidwell's relations with Governor Micheltorena (p. 40) — Fremont's rela- 
tions with Castro and De Arce (p. 42) — Fremont's camp in the Buttes — The 
"Bear Flag Party." Early Settlers and Early Grants (p. 43) : John Sinclair, 
1841 — Hock Farm, 1842 — Cordua's Ranch, 1842 — The Flugge Grant — Sicard's 
Grant, 1844 — Johnson's Grant, 1844 — Theodore Sicard (p. 44) — Don Pablo 
Gutierrez — William Johnson and Sebastian Kyser — George Patterson, 1845, and 
"Sutter's Garden" — Charles Roether, 1845 (p. 45) — Jack Smith, 1845 — Michael 
Nye. 1847 — Claude Chana — Baptiste Rouelle — Nicolaus Allgeier (p. 46). 


The "Tragedy of the Sierras" _ 49 

William G. Murphy, survivor of the Donner Party — Reminiscences of the 
sufferings of the Donner Party, as related by Mr. Murphy to C. G. McGlashan, 
and recounted by the latter in his history of the tragedy — Tuthill's account — 
Vicissitudes of the Donner Party as related by James F. Reed, a member of the 
party, who was instrumental in procuring relief (p. 51). 


The Story of Joseph Brown 53 

Diary of a Forty-niner — The Brown family — Organization of the train — 
"Larbert" ox and "starbert" ox — Dissatisfaction, and division of the train (p. 
54) — A second division at the Lassen Cut-off — Trouble with Indians (p. 55) — A 
feast at Lassen Ranch — Help and advice from Bidwell (p. 56) — Life in the 
mining camps — Murder of Mrs. Bader — Floods of 1852 and 1853 (p. 57) — 
Marysville in the early fifties (p. 58) — Indian raids, and the killing of the 
Heacock children — Prospecting in Nevada (p. 59) — Trouble with the Indians 
(p. 60) — In the cattle business in Nevada (p. 62) — Return of the Brown family 
to Yuba County — Early settlers in Marysville (p. 63). 


Yuba County in the Late Forties 63 

Discovery of gold in Yuba County — Realty transactions and changes made 
by the early settlers — Credit for first discover}- of gold north of the American 
River and in the vicinity of Marysville (p. 64) — Discoveries by Michael Nye 
and Jonas Spect — Camp Far West — Realty transactions in 1849 (p. 65) — Board 
of commissioners elected at Sacramento to frame a code of laws for the dis- 
trict — First election under the code — Town of Vernon founded — Changes in pro- 
prietorship of "Nye's Ranch (p. 66) — The Kennebec Company — Survey of the 
town of "Yubaville." later named Marysville (p. 67) — A lively real-estate 
market — Settlements on Bear River — A counterfeiter of 1849. 


Yuba County in the Fifties 68 

An era of growth and progress — Advantages in Marysville's situation — 
Quieting of the title to Marysville lands (p. 69) — Choice of tribunal, and dealing 
with the criminal element — Nicolaus Allgeier and the town of Nicolaus (p. 70) — 
Appearance and population of Marysville in 1850 — Early public religious ser- 
vices — Business firms (p. 71) — Eliza, Linda, Featherton, and other early settle- 
ments — First white child born in the county (p. 72) — First election of county 
officers, April, 1850 — First session of district court in Marysville, June 3. 1850 
(p. 73)— The Squatter movement in Marysville — First issue of the Marysville 
Herald, August 6, 1850 — State election, October, 1850 — Epidemic of cholera — 
City charter drafted for Marysville (p. 74) — Settlers in the early fifties — Bound- 
aries of Yuba County, as established on February 18, 1850 — Marysville the 
county-seat (p. 75) — Division of county into fifteen townships, August 24, 
1850 — Legislative bill incorporating Marysville passed February 5, 1851 — Elec- 
tion of city officers — Boundaries of the city, as laid down in original charter — 
Boundaries of Yuba County changed, April 25, 1851 — Farming at Hock Farm in 
1851 — Prospecting at Marysville landing — County divided into eleven townships, 
August 9. 1851 (p. 76) — Rents in 1851 — A Marriage at Hock Farm — Repeal of 
the city charter, April 10, 1852 — Reincorporation of Marysville, March 7, 1876, 
and new boundaries — Comparison of county's population, 1852, 1860, 1870 and 
1877 — Marysville Township — Gray's City Hospital (p. 77) — Practicing attor- 
neys — Newspapers — Business firms and real-estate projects — Literary and 
musical talent (p. 78) — Gold shipments — Depressing effect of Fraser River 
and Washoe excitements — State Fair. 

Navigation on the Rivers 79 

Status of navigation previous to 1849 — Arrival of the Linda at Rose's 
Ranch (p. 80) — The Lawrence and the Governor Dana — Steamboat fares and 
traffic — The channel cleared — Fate of the Fawn — California Steam Navigation 
Company and Citizens' Steam Navigation Company — The C. M. Small and the 
D. E. Knight — Filling of the channels by hydraulic mining, and cessation of 
navigation — The move to reestablish navigation on the Feather River. 


Transportation in Early and Later Days.. 81 

Pack Trains and Wagon Trains: W. H. Parks, J. B. Whitcomb, and 
Charles Daniels; pack train from Marysville to Foster's Bar — John Seaward; 
pack train from Downieville to Foster's Bar — Extent of the traffic to the 
mines — The wagon trains. Stage Lines (p. 82) : Growth of the traffic — The 
California Stage Company — An old landmark. The Pony Express: Bronze 
marker at site of Western terminal of pony express, Sacramento — Significance 
of the pony express — Organization and methods (p. 83) — The arrival of the first 
rider — Regulations and service (p. 84) — Suspension, October 27, 1861. First 
Local Telegraph Lines: Line from business section of San Francisco to Golden 
Gate — Line connecting Marysville, Sacramento, Stockton, and San Jose — Line 
from San Francisco to Placerville, via Sacramento. The Railroads: California 
Pacific Railroad — California Northern Railroad (p. 85) — California Central Rail- 
road — Western Pacific Railroad (p. 86) — Earlier attempts — Sacramento Valley 
Railroad — Present railway facilities (p. 87) — Remembers first train. 


Gold Mining in Yuba County 88 

Old landmark at Timbuctoo — Early-day terms, customs, and methods — 
Development of hydraulic mining and dredge mining (p. 90) — Yuba County's 
leading place as a mining centre (p. 91). Proposed Dams at Bullards Bar and 
Smartsville: Interests behind the project (p. 92) — Prospective resumption of 
hydraulic mining — Water and power interests — Possibilities of danger (p. 93) — 
Letter of Major Grant — Replv of the editor of the Bee (p. 94) — Later details 
of the project (p. 98). 

Floods and Flood Control : 99 

Notable Floods: Indian tradition of a great flood, about 1805 — Indian 
Peter's account of the flood in the winter of 1825-1826 — Floods of the late 


forties— Account of the floods of 1852-1853 — Other early floods (p. 100) — The 
flood of 1875 (p. 101). Flood Control (p. 103): The levees; their construction 
and improvement — Levee district and levee commissioners (p. 104) — Reclama- 
tion districts (p. 105). 


Crimes and Criminals 106 

Near lynchings, in cases of Greenwood and Keiger. Noted Road Bandits: 
Holding up of the Camptonville stage, October, 1852 — Tom Bell (p. 107) — Jim 
Webster (p. 108) — "Jack Williams' Ghost" — Tommie Brown and brother — 
"Black Bart." Other Noted Criminals and Crimes: Killing of "Mountain 
Scott" — Murder of Dr. Gray (p. 109) — Decker-Jewett bank robbery (p. 110) — 
Killing of Dennis Dufficy (p. Ill) — Race-track murder (p. 112) — Murder in 
Schimpville (p. 114) — Assassination of George Bell — A Christmas Day crime 
(p. 115) — Robbery of Oregon express — Murder of Julius Pier (p. 116) — Tragic 
results of I. W. W. agitation in the hop-fields (p. 117) — In memoriam (p. 119) — 
Murder of the Picards. Victims among the Police (p. 120) : John Sperbeck — 
James Mock (p. 121) — Francis M. Heenan. 


Courts and Bar of Yuba County :.... 122 

The Whipping-post in Yuba County: Case of the People of the State of 
California against Frederick Burcholder and John Barrett, from the Register 
of Suits, April 7 and 8, 1850 — Directory account of a whipping-post case. The 
Code of Honor (p. 123) : Near-duel between judges — Cause, a woman — News- 
paper men mix — Another bloodless duel — Turner-Howser duel (p. 124) — Last 
on the county records. Judicial Organization: District Court — Court of Ses- 
sions — C oun ty Court (p. 125) — Probate Court — Recorder's, Mayor's and Police 
Courts — Justices of the Peace. Bar of Yuba County (p. 126): Associates of 
Judge Field in Marysville — Other Members of early bar of county — Marysville 
attorneys of a later day (p. 128) — Present-day members of Yuba County bar. 


County Officials, Past and Present 128 

Judges and Justices: District judges — County judges — Superior Court 
judges — Justices of the peace — Constables in the Justice Court of Marysville 
Township (p. 129). District attorneys — Sheriffs and coroners — Public Ad- 
ministrators — Members of the board of supervisors — County assessors, treas- 
urers, and tax-collectors (p. 130) — County clerks and county auditors and 
recorders. Other County Officials: Superintendents of schools — County 


The City of Marysville -— - 133 

The Christening of the City: Account of Stephen J. Field's early activi- 
ties — The city named (p. 137) — A tribute to Marysville's godmother — A highly 
prized souvenir (p. 138). An Early Account of the City (p. 139): History 
of Nye's Ranch in preface of first Marysville directory, 1853 — Earliest form of 
government — First county election — New city incorporated (p. 140) — Old toll- 
bridge between Marysville and Yuba City. The Baptism of Fire: Marysville's 
first fire — Other early fires (p. 141) — The fire at the Southern Pacific freight 
sheds (p. 143) — Fire and flood combine — Frost and Shaffer fire (p. 144) — 
Later fires — Esteemed youth loses life (p. 145) — Burning of the old theater 
building — Fire chief loses life — Destruction of the Binet Row — Other fires 
(p. 146)— Biggest of all. Marysville Fire Department: The city's first fire 
company — Other early companies — Fraternity and rivahy among the early 
companies (p. 147) — Personnel of the department (p. 148) — Improvements 
in equipment. Newspapers of the City (p. 149) : The Marysville Herald — 
The California Express— The Daily Inquirer (p. 150)— The Weekly Spiritual- 
ist — Marysville Daily News, and Daily National Democrat— The Daily 
and Weeky Appeal— The Marysville Daily Standard (p. 151)— The Marysville 
Democrat. Early Industries and Business Firms: Marysville Foundry — Em- 
pire Foundry— Marysville Woolen Mills (p. 152)— The Marysville Winery- 
Buckeye Flour Mills— A faithful watchman— Trayner & Ellis Flour Mills (p. 
153) — Early carriage and wagon works— Union Lumber Company—Other 
manufacturing industries of the early days — Earlv express companies (p. 154) 
Other early business firms. Financial Institutions (p. 155): Earliest banking 


houses — Decker-Jewett Bank — The Rideout string of banks (p. 156) — Northern 
California Bank of Savings — First National Bank of Marysville. Hotels, Past 
and Present (p. 157): Early structures, 1850-1852 — The Western Hotel— 
The Dawson House — United States Hotel (p. 158) — Other early-day hos- 
telries — Projected hotel. Public Buildings: Public buildings erected in the 
early fifties— The Courthouse (p. 159)— The County Hospital— The City Hall 
and other buildings. The Packard Free Library (p. 160): The Marysville 
Library Association — Organization and growth of the City Library (p. 161) — 
The library building — John Q. Packard, philanthropist (p. 162). Public Parks . 
and Grounds (p. 163) : Cortez, Napoleon, Washington, and Yuba Squares — 
Knight Recreation Park — Marysville's Free Motor Park — List of city's breath- 
ing spots (p. 164) — Fealty of a fraternity. Amusements and Sports (p. 165) : 
First public entertainment in Marysville — Shows and showhouses — The famed 
Intrepid Baseball Club (p. 166) — Harvest Festival in Marysville's Chinatown. 
Marysville's Police Department (p. 167) : Early Vigilance Committees — 
Officers of the police department (p. 168). City Officials, Past and Present (p. 
169): Mayors and aldermen, 1851-1875 — Mayors and councilmen, 1875-1919 
(p. 170) — Mayors and councilmen under new charter (p. 171) — Other city 


Schools of the City and County 172 

Birthplace of the school system of Marysville: the private school of Rev. 
S. V. Blakeslee, May. 1850— Rev. Mr. Thatcher's school. Early Public School 
System: Organization and growth, in detail, 1851-1870. Other Early-day 
Schools (p. 173) : Marysville Eclectic Institute — Poston Seminary — State Re- 
form School (p. 175) — Knoxville Institute (p. 176) — Other private schools 
(p. 177). The County's Present School System: Marysville High School — 
Growth of the city schools (p. 178) — Present rural schools. 

Churches of Marysville 179 

Early religious work of Revs. Washburne, Wilson, Burrell, Blakeslee, 
Hunt, and Brier. First Presbyterian Church (p. 180) : Extracts from the jour- 
nal of Rev. W. W. Brier, 1850, and account of the church to date. Methodist 
Episcopal Church (p. 181): First Methodist quarterly conference, June 15, 
1850 — First meeting house erected in Marysville, on D Street, 1850 — Pastors 
and officials — Present church edifice. St. Joseph's Catholic Church (p. 182) : 
Work of Fathers Acker, Anderson, Ingraham; and Magganotta. 1851-1853 — Erec- 
tion of cathedral, 1855, and subsequent history. The Baptist Church (p. 183): 
■ Organization of work in 1854, under Rev. O. B. Stone — Founding of Mt. Olivet 
Baptist Church, 1856; officials and church building. African M. E. Church: 
Organization in 1854 — First pastor and trustees — Destruction of old church and 
erection of new. St. John's Episcopal Church (p. 184) : Formation of society, 
April 30, 1855 — First officials — Successive rectors — Church edifice. German 
Methodist Church — Church of the Immaculate Conception — First Christian 
Church — First Church of Christ, Scientist (p. 185). 


Fraternal, Social and Literary Organizations 185 

Influence and work of the benevolent orders in the early days — The 
Masons— Marysville Lodge, No. 9, F. & A. M. — Marvsville Masonic Hall (p. 
186)— The DeLong Collection— Corinthian Lodge, No. 9, F. & A. M.— Inde- 
pendent Order of Odd Fellows (p. 187)— Independent Order of B'nai B'rith— 
Ancient Order of Hibernians — Benevolent and Protective Order of Elks (p. 
188) — The Elks' Home — Foresters of America — Knights of Columbus (p: 
189) — Other fraternal orders. Societies and Clubs: Marvsville Pioneer So- 
ciety— Marysville Art Club (p. 190)— The Shakespeare Club. 


Military and After-War Organizations 191 

Local military organizations during the Civil War— The Yuba Guards 
(p. 192)— Marysville Rifles— Marvsville Union Guards— Marvsville Zouaves— 
Marysvdk- Light Artillery— Sherman Guards— Marysville GuaVds. Company 
C, Champions of the World (p. 193): List of local contestants, account of the 
event, and subsequent history of the company— World's championship record 


(p. 194) — Key to plate. After-War Organizations (p. 197) : Yuba-Sutter Post. 
American Legion — Bishop-Langenbach Post, Veterans of Foreign Wars — 
Women's Auxiliary to the American Legion, and "40 and 8" (p. 198). 


Other Towns of the County.... 198 

Marysville's sister settlements. Wheatland: ,_J>etrlement and history — 
Farmers Bank of Wheatland (p. 199) — Organizations of the town — The weekly 
newspaper — Men who made Wheatland (p. 200). Browns Valley : l_Mines and 
mining claims — Hotels, stores, and stopping places (p. 201) — The Hooker 
Guards. Indiana Ranch: Early settlers and origin of name; Miss Phillips' 
private school. Dobbins Ranch \Jjp. 202) : William Dobbins — Subsequent 
owners of the ranch. Greenville: L^ct&ation and early history — "Nine-horse 
Ditch" — School. Strawberry Valley: Name and early history — The town at 
present (p. 203). Hansonville: Location and early settlers — Former popula- 
tion — School. Brownsville (p. 204) : Location and early industries — Odd 
Fellows and Good Templars lodges — Methodist Episcopal Church — Later 
growth. Challenge: Origin of name — Industries. Foster's Bar: Location — 
William Foster, original proprietor and mine-owner. Bullard's Bar: Dr. Bul- 
lard, pioneer miner — Other early settlers — First bridge (p. 205) — Bullard's 
Guards — Other bars in the vicinity — Bullard's Bar dam. Camptonville: Loca- 
tion and early mining operations — Early stores and hotels — Robert Campton 
(p. 206) — Stage lines — Early schools — Early water companies — Yuba Light 
Infantry. Smartsville (p. 207) : Pioneer settlers of the town — Union Church — 
Church of the Immaculate Conception — Sketch of Catharine Johnson Berry. 
Timbuctoo (p. 209) : Origin of the name — Early importance as a mining center 
— Wells, Fargo & Company's building — Former population — Amusements — 
First school (p. 210). Sucker Flat tformeriv Gatesville) : Early settlers — 
Near-by towns. Rose Bar: First discovery of gold on Yuba River. June 2, 
1848, by James Spect — Other early settlers — William H. Parks — Mining on 
the river and in the ravines. Sicard Flat: Theodore Sicard, 1860 — Surface 
diggings and hydraulic mining. Long Bar (p. 211): Mining begun, 1849 — A 
state visit to the Nash girls — Population in 18S0. Oregon House: An early 
landmark — A grand party at the Oregon House, 1853 — The Yuba Mountaineers. 
Parks Bar: David Parks, 1848 — Immense profits of his trading post and store 
(p. 212) — Richness of the gold deposits. Settlements of Short Duration: A 
list, by townships, of the early mining camps. 


Who Remembers? ,.... 213 

A chapter of reminiscences of local interest, featuring scenes of b3'gone 
days, customs long since outgrown in' the progress of change and improvement, 
unique characters once familiar on the streets of the city, social events of the 
past, and the pastimes and pranks of boyhood days. 


General Sutter's Gun •-- 219 

Description of General Sutter's gun — The gun now in Dr. J. H. Barr's 
collection of firearms and curios — Affidavit of authenticity — A companion relic, 
air-rifle brought from Switzerland by General Sutter — Description of the 
weapon — Benny Lynch, Marysville's Lilliputian pioneer — Brief account of 
his life. 

Sutter County 220 

One of the original counties — Subsequent territorial changes. County 
Seat and County Buildings: Various changes in location of county scat — Judge 
Keyser's review — County Courthouse (p. 221) — Hall of Records (p. 222) — Nico- 
laus, Auburn and Vernon as county seat — The courthouse fire of 1871 — Details 
of the fire of 1899 (p. 223). Sutter County Buttes (p. 224): Description—Min- 
eral deposits. Climate and Water Supply: Peculiar adaptability of soil and 


climate to agricultural and horticultural pursuits — Irrigation (p. 227). Reclam- 
ation and Levee Districts: Number of districts — Names and locations of dis- 
tricts — The Sutter Basin Project. Agricultural Products and Industries (p. 229) : 
Summary of most important products — Dairying, poultry-raising, and stock- 
raising. Transportation: Exceptional transportation facilities by land and 
water — Early ferries and toll bridges. Other Advantages (p. 231) : The first 
"no-saloon" county in California — Birthplace of Thompson Seedless Grape 
industry and of the Phillips Cling Peach — Fish and wild game. 


Native Indian Tribes : - 232 

Yuba City once the site of an Indian village — Brief review of the tribes 
and their locations — Bancroft's classification of the Indians of the Coast — 
Johnson's comment, in government report of 1850 (p. 233) — Johnson's list of the 
tribes — Locations of tribes according to Bidwell — Location and description of 
other tribes. Early-day Indian Troubles (p. 234) : Reference to these troubles, 
and to measures taken for their settlement, in the Placer Times of May 20, 
1850 — General Green's report (p. 235) — Copy of the treaty. 



Crimes and Criminals '. — 238 

Comparative peace and quiet of the county — Early-day appeals to mob 
law: Record of an early court proceeding, and the hanging of Washington 
Rideout and of John Jackson — Attitude of the press (p. 239) — Necessity for 
occasional activities outside the law in early days — Joaquin Murietta and Tom 
Bell (p. 240)— William Wells. 


The Era of Agriculture 241 

Present remarkable transformation of the county from agricultural to 
horticultural and viticultural district — Early agricultural and stock-raising 
activities (1845-1846) — Primitive methods of farming — Introduction of modern 
methods (p. 242) — Other crops and further development — Importation and 
exportation of wheat (p. 243) — The Farmers' Cooperative Union of Sutter 
County (p. 244) — Farmers' Union Bank — Producers' Bank of Yuba City 
(p. 245) — Nicolaus Farmers' Grain Warehouse — Early-day growers of grain — 
Rice a new crop in Sutter County (p. 246) — Beans and the full dinner pail. 


Horticulture and Viticulture 247 

Marvelous transformation of Sutter County from vast grain fields to a 
panorama of orchards and vineyards — A three-fold union of earth's greatest 
riches: soil, water, and climate — The remarkable valley deposits of silt-like 
loam. Beginnings of the Fruit Industry: First orchard in Northern California, 
planted by Gen. John A. Sutter, at Hock Farm — Commissioner Stabler's 
account of the beginnings of the fruit industry in Sutter County — Abbott and 
Phillips (p. 248) — Birth of the Phillips cling peach — Other pioneer fruit growers 
(p. 249). Present status of the Fruit Industry (p. 250): Data from Commis- 
sioner Stabler's census of the county — Quality, and tonnage per acre — New 
early-fruiting midsummer peach (p. 251) — Viticulture — Almonds at home in 
Sutter County — Prunes and plums (p. 252) — Growing and packing of figs — Fruit 
plantings in 1923. 


The Fight Against Hydraulic Mining... 253 

Strained relations between the mountain and valley sections during period 
of litigation against hydraulic mining — Work of the Anti-Debris Associations — 
Hydraulicking defined (p. 254) — Magnitude of the menace — Litigation in the 
State courts (p. 255) — Relief in the Federal courts — The Sawyer Decision 
(p. 256) — Valley men who stood in the vanguard (p. 257) — George Ohleyer 
(p. 258)— A song of victory (p. 260)— The Caminetti Act (p. 261). 



Work of the Women's Clubs 261 

The six clubs of the county affiliated with the California Federation of 
Women's Clubs — Bi-County Federation of Women's Clubs — Unveiling of mon- 
ument to Fremont (p. 262) : Newspaper account of the ceremonies on the 
occasion of the unveiling of the memorial — Cross to surmount the Buttes 
(p. 263) : Bishop Moreland's statement in advocacy of the movement for the 
erection of a permanent cross (p. 264) ; formation of the Sutter Butte Cross 


Public Officials and Professional Men 264 

Political and judicial association of Yuba and Sutter Counties — Senators 
of the Sixth District (1851-1923) — Members of the Assembly, Eighth District 
(1851-1923) (p. 265) — District, County and Superior Court judges — District 
attorneys (p. 266) — Sheriffs, coroners, and public administrators — Members of 
the board of supervisors — County assessors and county treasurers — County 
clerks and county auditors and recorders — Other county officials (p. 267) : Su- 
perintendents of schools, county surveyors. Professional Men: Yuba City 
barristers of early and later days — Physicians practicing in Sutter County in 
early and later days. 


Yuba City 268 

The City in Early Days : Deeding of the site of the city by Capt. John A. 
Sutter, July 27, 1849 — Survey of the prospective city — Early historian's state- 
ment of the advantages of the site of Yuba City over that of Nye's Ranch 
(Marysville) — The first store — Rivalry between Yuba City and Marysville — 
Reminiscences of 1850 (p. 273) : Facts and incidents related by William Arm- 
strong — Early development (p. 274) — Incorporation of the c^ty. Yuba City 
Today (p. 275) : Resume of city, as given in article prepared by Sutter County 
Chamber of Commerce and San Francisco magazine — Municipal water-works — 
Street-paving and zoning (p. 276) — Memorial Park — Masonic Lodge — Odd Fel- 
lows Lodge (p. 277) — Other Yuba City lodges — Resident veterans of Corinth 
Post, No. 80, G. A. R. (p. 278). 


Other Towns of the County 278 

Rapid development of the thriving farming communities of the county. 
Live Oak: Location and business interests — Transformation of outlying dis- 
tricts under irrigation — Chief products — Public schools. Nicolaus: Shipping 
and commercial center for southern part of Sutter County — Judge Keyser's 
reminiscences (p. 279) — First Christmas in California — Churches of the city 
(p. 280). Sutter City: Location and description — Churches — Sutter City High 
School (p. 281). Meridian: Advantageous location — Reclamation District No. 
70 — Church activities — Settlement and early growth. Pennington. Pleasant 
Grove (p. 282), and other towns. 



Summary of Patriotic Activities in the "Twin Counties" During the 
World War..... ----- 283 

Loval Americanism of the people — Work of the Red Cross and its auxili- 
aries — Yuba-Sutter Chapter of the Red Cross, and its work at the Packard 
Library — Branch meeting places — Sutter County headquarters — Research work 
of Mrs. G. W. Harney, of Marysville, and Mrs. Hugh Moncur, of Yuba City, 
in gathering and preserving the records of Yuba and Sutter Counties' hero 
dead — Mr. Henry M. Rideout's introduction to their work. 



Yuba County Heroes 284 

Lester A. Bishop — Lewis J. Blodget — Claude Bayne Boswell — Fred T. 
Bottler (p. 287)— James M. Brown— Charles Fred Cassano (p. 288) — Richard 
Norton Coupe — Patrick Henry Dugan — Frank Raymond Gengler (p. 289) — 
Lawrence Gray — Bert J. Hale — Earl Dewey Hall (p. 290) — Preston Francis 
Hendricks — Edward Hove — Arthur Eugene Linnell — Charles William McCon- 
aughy — Lewis Melton McCurry (p. 293) — Wilton Lyle McDonald — Edward J. 
McGanney (p. 294) — John E. Milligan — William Lee Norton — Horatio Devore 
Poole (p." 295)— Wilfred Rudolph Smith— Charles S. Waller— William Oliver 
White (p. 296) — John Zvijerkoviclv 

Sutter County Heroes 297 

Trugva M. Bordsen — Joseph Miner Burns — William Stewart Cannon (p. 
298) — Manuel F. Gomes — Herman L. Hansen — Paul John Lagenbach — Sidney 
Henry Lyall (p. 301) — Harold J. Moore — Elmer Elwood Van Lew — Everett 
Kelly Wisner (p. 302). 

Roll of Honor 303 

Classified List of War Heroes from Yuba and Sutter Counties who made 
the supreme sacrifice in the service of their country during the World War, and 
those since deceased, including: Yuba County Heroes — Sutter County Heroes 
— Heroes Deceased Since the War. 


(Numbers refer to pages.) 


Abbott, Alexander Franklin 326 

Abbott, Mary E 326 

Adams, Burwell B 660 

Addington, David Morgan, M.D... 410 

Adkins, Oliver Perry 1186 

Adloff, Mrs. Mary K. Dean 1312 

Alban, Conrad 1303 

Albrecht, Louis F 587 

Alderman, Foster Ferber 1181 

Alderman, Roger L 871 

Alexander, Clarence M 1226 

Alexander, Claude W 1324 

Allen, Edward W 951 

Allnett, John W 1263 

Alvernez, Antone 797 

Ames, John L 560 

Anderson, William 1233 

Andreason, John C 1192 

Andreason, John Christian, Sr 959 

Andreason, Laurentine 959 

Arbucco, Andrew G 715 

Arfsten, Anton Dietrich 1232 

Armstead, Albert Hamilton 617 

Armstrong, Jasper N., Jr 546 

Arnold, Wylo J. 921 

Arnoldy, Elmer Francis 709 

Arnoldy, Mat 575 

Ashburn, Charles Edmund 1258 

Ashford, Nelson D 999 

Ashford, Richard Carleton 1048 

Ashford, Wilson Weslev 1204 

Ashley, J. A 1066 

Ashley. Jav W 1270 

Atherton, William G 1 157 


Backus, John Horace 1294 

Bailev, Arthur 1258 

Bailev, Mrs. Elizabeth : 951 

Bailey, R. H 1310 

Bainbridge, Albert Pike 508 

Baker, Frank 1322 

Baker, George B 956 

Baldwin, Arthur T 748 

Baldwin, James C 532 

Ball, Frank 796 

Barker, Herbert 475 

Barrett, John Joseph 1263 

Barrie, James B 1255 

Baumgardner, George M 1015 

Baun, Louis D 784 

Bean, Arnold R 752 

Bean, Joel 440 

Bean, John A 639 

Bean, Mrs. Marv A 440 

Bean, Paris G 1316 

Becker, Adolph Fred 1302 

Becker, Charles J 527 

Becker, Charles J 1269 

Beik, William 526 

Beilby, Charles W 1295 

Beilby, Chester R 1323 

Bell, J. W 759 

Bender, Joseph (Krull & Bender) . . . 564 

Benton, Fred Norman 1119 

Berg, Henry Frederick 543 

Bernal, Valentine E 403 

Berry, Mrs. Ida E 783 

Best, Charles G ' 1327 

Best, Henry 321 

Best, Samuel E 552 

Betty, Horace Ackley 614 

Betty, Leonard 676 

Bevan, Richard Edwin 538 

Bevan, Thomas Edward 467 

Bigelow, W. F 595 

Bihlman, Anthony William 1288 

Bihlman, George 316 

Bihlman, George H 600 

Billings, E. F 550 

Binninger, M. H 445 

Bissett, Lee H 1257 

Bisset, Thomas McCov 1275 

Blackford, Price 433 

Blanchard, Milton Eugene 1116 

Blue, Henry 605 

Boardman, Cassius F 849 

Bohon, George B 1254 

Booth, Frank Martin 1080 

Bosard, Andrew Keller 830 

Boulton, Arthur H 980 

Bourgeois, Joseph T 1087 

Bowen, Chester L 896 

Bovd, C. R S13 

Bovd, Charles R., Jr 1225 

Bovd, Eugene, M 1262 

Bovd, George T 623 

Bovnton, Ed A 578 

Bradlev, Capt. C. T 555 

Bradley, Miss Eva M 332 

Brass, Joseph • • • 334 

Bremer, Frank G 1040 

Brill, Mrs. Evelyn J 566 

Brittan, George E 353 

Britton, Sam Bradley 1016 

Brock, Isaac Norton 347 

Brock, Mrs. Jeanette M 347 

Brockman, John Henry 679 

Brown, Antone Francis l-'l 

Brown, Dan F 1012 

Brown, James Jh 

Brown, Kenneth R 624 

Brownlee, Archie L }15o 

Bruce, Edward Wilcoxon 1 307 

Bruce, Frank H 1123 

Bryant, Walter J 929 

Brvdeu, James £« 

Buchanan, Wilson Murray MU 

Buckingham, Mrs. Amanda Ellen... 563 

Buckingham, Henry 1032 

Burch, Harry A 830 



Burmood, William Henry 1202 

Burns, Clarence W 1265 

Burns, John 1031 

Burris, Byron 826 

Burris, Byron, Sr 1272 

Burroughs, William Curt 537 

Burroughs, William R 992 

Butler, Edward 551 

Butz, Peter J 491 

Byers, Philip M 763 

Byrne, James 1249 

Byrne, James D 1249 


Caldwell, Annie (Winship) 409 

Calvin, M. G. 1011 

Campa, Faustino 980 

Campbell, Mrs. Ida Virginia 1157 

Capaul, Ulrich Antone 1127 

Carlson, Carl P 819 

Carlson, Sett Thure 823 

Carmichael, Peter L 1112 

Carpenter, James C 1248 

Carroll, James D 420 

Carroll, John J., Jr 420 

Carter, William S 1 182 

Case, Edward L 1247 

Casev, Katherine B 372 

Casey, Martin E 372 

Cassano, John Baptist 1292 

Cate, Horatio Clifford 976 

Catlett, Howard R 1 180 

Channon, John Francis 634 

Chase, Arthur W 935 

Chism, Mary Julia 362 

Chism, William H 362 

Christ, Conrad 1168 

Christman, Rollie, S., D. V. M 691 

Christopherson, George Washington 496 

Clark, Cvrus B 1019 

Clark, H". W 457 

Clark, Walter Sherman 942 

Clarke, Albert J 1305 

Clements, William Andrew 607 

Coats, William A 1084 

Colford, John Patrick 810 

College of Notre Dame 891 

Colley, Ellsworth A 1190 

"Collins, John S 1035 

Connarn, William M 594 

Conneghan, Cornelius 1279 

Cook, Seely 881 

Cooley, Verdenal W 731 

Coplantz, Elvis Lafayette 1301 

Coppin, George E 1240 

Coppin, James Robert 1168 

Coppin, Samuel Miller 952 

Corliss, Amos R 1 1 72 

Corliss, Henry Brown 1172 

Correll, George 888 

Costa, Martin 699 

Coupe. Henry 1268 

Cramsie, John E 759 

Creed, John J 1296 

Cremin, J. M 319 

Creps, Roscoe S 1173 

Cress, J. M 550 

Crook. Leslie B 1236 

Cuddcback, Dewitt Clinton 1299 

Curran, Dennis D 1076 

Curry, George Washington 1140 

Cutts, Walter B 572 


Da Cosse, Charles A 1238 

Dahling, Louis E 596 

Dam, Arthur King 751 

Dam, C. K 1144 

Dam, Cyrus Harry. . . .- 1211 

Dam, Frances L 1 144 

Darrach, Peter A 1220 

Davis, C. F 1292 

Davis, Grant 668 

Dean, Edward 1048 

Dean, Edwina S 1048 

Dean, Capt. Thomas 322 

Delay, Peter J. 310 

Dempsey, Daniel 968 

Dempsey, John F 963 

Dempsey, William J 1321 

De Wayne, Mrs. Harriet E 764 

De Witt, Mrs. Florence Welthy 341 

De Witt, Frank W 1164 

De Witt, Richard C 1254 

De Witt, William Golder 341 

Disernia, Antonio M 1273 

Dobbins, Homer L 834 

Dolan, Timothy J 815 

Donaldson, Frank 666 

Drake, Harvey Scott 498 

Drake, Isaac 581 

Dunning, Halsey H 307 

Durst, D. P., M. D 1187 

Durst, Ralph H 1187 

Dutra, Frank M 1290 


Eager, Oscar 1328 

Eich, Harvey D 510 

Ely, Calvin Luther 779 

Engel, Peter 481 

Engstrom, Theodore F., D. 904 

Erickson, Alvin 1253 

Erickson, Isaac 1161 

Erickson, Paul 1179 

Esenman, Paul George 738 


Fairlee, Earl 1252 

Farington, Charles Frederick 612 

Farington, Irwin Edson 612 

Farmer, Lee J 1327 

Fehr, Frederick C 1069 

Fellows, George W 850 

Ferguson, Thomas A 1301 

Fichter, Richard Milton 482 

Filter, Joseph 1289 

Finch, David U 1178 

Finch, Walter H 1247 

Finch, Willey L 1100 

Fippins, J. D 507 

Fippins, Lillie Mae 507 

Fisher, Frank L 1317 

Fitts, Amasa E 1207 

Flannery, Patrick J 618 

Fleshman, John W 1300 

Folsom, Albert Franklin 659 

Forbes, Alexander R 1197 

Forbes, Gen. E. A 1197 

Forderhase, Edward Henry 922 



Forderhase, Otto B 785 

Foster, John Rupert 876 

Foster, Marie D 876 

Foulk, George H 867 

Eraser, Samuel J 428 

Freeman, Lavern L 342 

. G 

Gage, Arthur Braxton 859 

Galligan, Andrew L 887 

Galligan Bros 887 

Galligan, Clarence F 887 

Galligan, George A. and William L. 1245 

Galligan, Matthew 1245 

Garmire, Preston E 1200 

Garrett, James Rilev 315 

Gates, Chester 534 

Gee, George Edgar 1053 

Gern, William 779 

Gianella, Thomas A 570 

Gianella, Vincenzo 570 

Giblin, John Warner 671 

Giblin, Thomas Francis 1044 

Gibson, William C 1000 

Girdner, Henry Tutt 355 

Girdner, Joseph 337 

Gledhill, Harrison Morton 1201 

Glenn, George R 1207 

Glenn, John Polk 1160 

Glenn, John Thomas 1218 

Goetz, Antone William 967 

Goetz, Carl 1320 

Gomes, Manuel F 1285 

Goolsby, Thomas Sierra Nevada.... 509 

Gorwood, Arthur 772 

Gottwals. George William 1039 

Grams, Alonzo 1083 

Grahn, Gustaf 1115 

Grant, Allan H 1284 

Grant, William 655 

Graves, Albert William 601 

Gray, Allen Earl, M. D 711 

Gray, Everett E., M. D 814 

Grav, James Clarence 747 

Gray, Mrs. Minnie M 1274 

Gray, Walter S 1230 

Greely, Fred Henry 313 

Greet, Alfred. 945 

Gregor3', Marion Eugene 665 

Griffith, Clarence V 863 

Griffith, John 578 

Griffith, Mrs. Martha Matilda 521 

Groh, Charles H 1243 

Groh, Fred D 1243 

Gurney, Elmer E 1277 

Gurney, Leo B 1261 


Hageman, Henrv H 795 

Hall, Elmer S. R 1065 

Hall, Francis F 1074 

Hall, George W 710 

Hall, Joseph H 613 

Hamm, Robert C 565 

Hammon, Wendell P 1194 

Hamon, Charles E 1241 

Hampshire, George T 1242 

Haney, Milton 700 

Hansen, John H 533 

Hanson, Elof 1246 

Harkey, Mrs. Clarinda 1020 

Harkey, William Pinckney 1020 

Harmon, Charles Wilder 963 

Harris, Edgar A 618 

Harris, Edward H 1043 

Harris, Jeremiah A 899 

Harris, Jesse C 945 

Harris, Mrs. Rhoda E 899 

Harrison, William 1293 

Hartley, Joseph Robert 1139 

Harvey, Charles F., Sr 1162 

Harwood, Benjamin R 825 

Hauck, Ernest R 545 

Hauss, Elizabeth 1073 

Hauss, Ferdinand 1073 

Hauss, Fred 1074 

Havey, John, Sr 846 

Hawley, Roland Henry 606 

Hayne, William Alston 381 

Haynes, Norman E 692 

Haynes, Thomas W 945 

Heier, Mrs. Anna 1193 

Heier, George W 1193 

Heiken, Fred H 860 

Heiken, John B 602 

Heisch, Edward F 696 

Helsem Bros 1032 

Hemstreet, D. A 911 

Henderson, Thomas J 809 

Henrichsen, Hans 1286 

Henson, William Leonard 1058 

Herboth, B. J 1284 

Herrin, Edward Walker 1035 

Herzog, Albert 1326 

Herzog, George F 975 

Hewitt, Edna Jane 992 

Hiatt, Glenwood J 833 

Hickeson, L. P 1289 

Hicks, Champ 908 

Hicks, Judge Stephen D 987 

Hill, Arthur L 675 

Hill, Elbert L 1224 

Hill, Robert .' 1190 

Hite, Herbert L 672 

Hite, Lincoln Edward 813 

Hixson, Carroll Wilber 988 

Hixsou, Wilmer W 1229 

Hoeppner, Emil A 419 

Hoffman, George J 1070 

Hoke, Harmon August 502 

Hollingshead, Joseph Easton 352 

Holman, Jesse L 1036 

Holmes, Thomas E 1119 

Hoist, Henry 767 

Hosking, Frank 728 

Howser, Steve 525 

Hull, Mrs. Maggie 704 

Hunn, Edwin A 699 

Hunt, Jasper J 1324 

Hust, Charles 9° 7 

Hutchinson, Ernest E 531 

Hutchinson, F. L 8 °1 

Hutchinson, Oscar R 841 

Hutchinson, Ralph 1251 

Hutchinson, Ray Elmer 1222 

Irwin, Alex C 1279 




James, Lewis Franklin 1070 

Jasper, Henrv Carrington 768 

Jeffery, H. B 1308 

Jenkins, Clarence Wilmot. 819 

Jensen, John T 806 

Joaquin, John 628 

Johnson, Albert John 1252 

Johnson, Charles 1220 

Johnson, Charles H 1322 

Johnson, Edward Carl '1007 

Johnson, Ephraim 106S 

Johnson, Fred 871 

Johnson, John Sanders 991 

Johnson, Mrs. Sadie L 871 

Johnson, Samuel David 531 

Jones, Mrs. Bell 635 

Jones, David N 1171 

Jones, David Nevens, Sr 1174 

Jones, M. Elmer 1266 

Jones, Mrs. Maria 635 

Jones, Raymond Henry 544 

Jopson, Alonzo 1128 

Jopson, Charles Willows 972 

Joseph, Thomas 426 

Joubert, Frederick J 1091 

Joy, William H 434 


Kaas. John 703 

Karstens, John Henrv 1299 

Keck, Robert 696 

Kcelcr, G. F 540 

Keesy, Fred A 1151 

Kells, Robert C 1087 

Kennedy, David 996 

Kerr, Joseph 1309 

Kerrigan, P. A 583 

Keys, William Julius 1169 

Kimball, George H 519 

Kimball, John H 519 

Kimerer, Carl 639 

Klenzendorf, Henry J 555 

Klenzendorf, Lillie 555 

Kline, Claude C 1317 

Knight, George W 629 

Knoop, Fred 1230 

Kramer, Austin 941 

Krehe, Fred J 1221 

Krehe, Henry 414 

Krehe, J. J 414 

Krull, Christina Hagemann 1202 

Krull, E. C 564 

Krull, Joseph 1228 

Krull & Bender 564 

Kupser, Mrs. Anna Mary 1115 

Kussenberger, John G 979 

Kuster, Emery Ellsworth 1231 

Kuster, Samuel, Jr 1250 

Kynoch, Walter A 912 


Labadie, Benjamin F 522 

Labadie, Francis S 712 

Labadie, Orson P 737 

Lambert, Rev. George M 1095 

Lambert, Harriet I . . .' 1095 

Lamme, John Hamilton 608 

Langdon, Everett B 377 

Langdon, Judge W. E 377 

Lange, Harry Conrad 806 

Lanzendorf, Oscar W 1015 

Lauritzen, Harold C 549 

Lawton, Maurice E 1 100 

Lay, John D 741 

Leal, Manuel 719 

Lehner, Ludwig M 907 

Lemmon, Andrew Jackson . . 1123 

Lewis, A. Walter 325 

Lewis, Mrs. Emma M 353 

Lewis, James Edwin 338 

Lewis, Rov Henry 594 

Lewis, William A 895 

Liebig, Fred 556 

Linggi, Albert 1177 

Lipp, Frank Milton 972 

Littlejohn, George Washington.... 649 

Littlejohn, Helen D 742 

Littlejohn, Howard Grant 387 

Littlejohn, James 742 

Littlejohn, James A 452 

Lohman, Louis D 1155 

Long, Thomas H 687 

Lopes, Mrs. Mary 1104 

Losey, Isaac S 627 

Luckensmeyer, Henry W 653 

Luther, Everett Wheaton 1267 

Luther, H 492 

Luther, J. F 1257 

Lybecker, Erick B 478 

Lysell, Edwin C 640 

Lytken, William 1256 

Lytle, Mrs. Clara P 661 


McAnulty, Joseph B 1155 

McCarty, Andrew Joseph 802 

McCarty, Matthew H 752 

-McCoy, Charles J 386 

McDaniel, E. W 400 

McDaniel, Hon. Eugene P 421 

McDaniel, George E 959 

McDevitt, Mrs. Almeda E 850 

McFadden, Andrew 825 

McKinney, John A 361 

McLean, Stanley Ralph 1069 

McNamara, Michael James 1127 

McPherrin, Earl Elwood 1306 

McQuaid, Charles E 395 

McQuaid, Isaac Clark 395 

McRae, Jack Wilson 1165 

McRoberts, William G 623 

McWilliam, George 1170 


Magruder, George Henrv 514 

Mahon, Hon. Kirby Smith 356 

Major, George Lawrence 1244 

Malaley, Jennie 1108 

Mangels, William D 854 

Manwell, Ray 359 

Marders, Cay Nelson 976 

Martignone, Andrew 1270 

Martin, Omar Hartzell 755 

Martini, Nicolaus 805 

Matthews, George W 1261 

Meek, Jason Russell 925 

Meek, William Mayo 1291 

Meier, Frederick A 630 

Meier, Christ 760 



Meier, William F 926 

Mellon, William J 1124 

Merriam, Charles E 644 

Merriam, Henry G 900 

Merriam, Joseph Chester 449 

Merz, Charles W 837 

Messick, Charles C 1217 

Metteer, Charles H 351 

Metteer, George Baxter 334 

Meyer, Charles William 1264 

Meyer, Edna No}'es 946 

Meyer, LeRoy Henry 946 

Michel, Mrs. Anna 1003 

Michel, Mrs. Anna Margretha 1135 

Michel, Casper J 1003 

Michel, Frank Joseph 1235 

Miller, L. F 590 

Miller, Mark J 853 

Miller, Solomon Page 659 

Mills, Frank L 1159 

Mills, James William 1008 

Minden, August Edward 1136 

Minden, C. J. Henrv 1136 

Minden, John A 1218 

Mix, F. L 1104 

Monson, Earl E 780 

Montna. Peri 1203 

Moon, Wesley Abel 820 

Mooney, Thomas 983 

Moore, Fred S 775 

Moore, Thomas Jefferson 468 

More, John Wesley 741 

More, Mrs. Mao<- E 741 

Morehead, Franklin Foley 400 

Morley, Harold J ". 888 

Morrison, David 683 

Morrison, Hugh A 1303 

Morrison, J. Eugene 1308 

Morrison, James H 860 

Morrison, John Hobson 649 

Morrissev, James M 627 

Muck, Charles 687 

Mudgette, Rose F 1026 

Mudgette, Sidney William 1026 

Mullin, William "T 756 

Murchie, Durrell H., D. D. S 1225 

Murphy, Matthew B 1283 

Murray, Mrs. Annie B 319 

Murray, George A 1298 

Murray, James 319 


Nail, Ira E 1212 

Nance, James M 1162 

Nash, Fred A 1325 

Nelson, Mrs. Elna 882 

Nelson, Eric 882 

Nelson, James F 571 

Nelson, John Walter 1315 

Newbert, William L 868 

Newman, David 1 875 

Newman, Sarah E 875 

Nicholau, Charles 1321 

Niemeyer, William II 654 

Niesen, William P 955 

Nix, Mrs. Lillie May 864 

Noronha, Henry Reis 437 

Norris, William Kent 1313 

Noyes, E. A 368 

Noyes, Fred B 431 

Nunes, William Souza 1215 

Nutt, Arthur Francis 1 140 

Nutt, George Ernest 1143 

Nutt, Margaret L 1 143 

Nutt, Samuel Doty 1143 


Oakley, Amasa George 477 

O'Brien, James 1091 

O'Brien, William A 1249 

O'Connor, Howard 1242 

O'Connor, Neal 1237 

Ohlever, George 464 

Ohlever, George, Sr 320 

Olsen, Arthur J 1153 

Olson, Aaron 867 

Olson, Albert Theodore 1304 

Olson, Per 667 

O'Neil, John 1298 

Onken, William F 1079 

Onstott, George W 416 

Onstott, John Paxton 388 

Onstott, Lizzie Flvnn 388 

Ostrom, George W 1191 

Ottney, Garth H 446 


Palmer, John E 1233 

Parks, William H 892 

Payton, Henrv Burtt 829 

Payton, Nora A 829 

Pease, Leroy 1219 

Pease, Mark 456 

Pease, Mark, Jr 1226 

Peckham, Thomas W 838 

Peirano, Rose 559 

Peirano, Thomas William 559 

Pendola, James William 935 

Percy, A. J 348 

Perry, Aaron 1096 

Peters, Charles P 1314 

Peters, Claus 723 

Peters, John F 539 

Peterson, Charles M 695 

Peterson, Peter 915 

Peterson, William T 1268 

Phelan, Charles . . 1278 

Pieratt, Louis Franklin 706 

Pierce, Mrs. Mary A 463 

Plantz, Timothy" A 1287 

Plaskett, James Edman 903 

Poffenberger, Hazekiah 396 

Poole, Frank D 1167 

Poole, Frank W 1260 

Poole, James D 676 

Poole, Samuel G 72S 

Poole, William C 1216 

Potts, William 1267 

Powell, Charles H 608 

Price, George Lewis 596 

Probst, Barbara W 1047 

Probst, Jacob 1047 

Proper, Edward Eugene 968 

Pugsley, Charles 1296 

Purinton. James Parker 1206 


Queen, Hugh S 1180 

Quenell, E. William 508 




Rackerby, Paul A 1120 

Rednall, Charles F 611 

Reed, C. Wesley 692 

Reed, Howard 1227 

Reeves, Edward Everette 643 

Rehermann, Herman 1325 

Reimers, O. J 1143 

Reische, C. P 727 

Reische, Frederick T 964 

Reische, Samuel E 1314 

Reissinger, Michel 633 

Reusser, Gottfried 675 

Reusser, Sophia D 675 

Richards, George William 1083 

Rickerts, John R 1007 

Rideout, Norman Dunning 1188 

Robinson, James W 915 

Robson, Andrew A 1107 

Robson, Mrs. Deborah 1025 

Ross, James Alex 1183 

Rowe, Pleasant William 593 

Rudge, Harry 1318 

Ruff, Miss Ida 960 

Russ, William Henry 767 

Russell, John 526 

Ruth, Daniel B 427 


Sanders, John H 842 

Sanders, Mrs. M. A 404 

Sanders, William 404 

Sanford, Wallace J 1208 

Sartori, Victor 995 

Scheiber, Ambrose Emil 916 

Scheiber, Anna Theresa 930 

Scheiber, Catherine L 936 

Scheiber, Emma M 854 

Scheiber, John 930 

Scheiber, Morris 854 

Scheiber, Oswald 936 

Scheiber, Rose Katherine 916 

Schellenger, Adelbert Edmond. . .. 680 

Schlag, Josephine (Whvler) 650 

Schloss, Rose 1282 

Schmidt, Andreas C. H 1266 

Schmidt, Erich 470 

Schoch, Frank B 1224 

Schuler, Elmer C 1234 

Schultz, August 723 

Schultz, William J 394 

Schwall, Peter 999 

Scott, Arthur H 1269 

Scott, Arthur Winfield 1276 

Scott, Charles R., Sr 823 

Scott, Dwight Sanford 1076 

Scott, Louis Nelson 450 

Selinger, Charles 584 

Shannon, Grover C 1205 

Shearer, William 971 

Shepard, W. J 378 

Shields, Marshall R 636 

Silva, Manuel E 1062 

Simpson, Mrs. Elizabeth A 515 

Slingsby, Mrs. Mary 489 

Slingsby, William 484 

Smith, Calvin Alexander 1281 

Smith, Chester A 720 

Smith, Edwin M 462 

Smith, Frank Edward 497 

Smith, James William 801 

Smith, Thomas L 495 

Snygg, Simon P 1228 

Soderlund, Noack 785 

Soderlund, Noah Edwin 1011 

Sorensen, Marianne 955 

Sorensen, Soren A 955 

Southern, Miss Fannie E 413 

Sowles, John W 1259 

Spencer, Allan Thomas 1061 

Spencer, Carl Ray 925 

Sperbeck, Jacob F 1277 

Spring, Gardiner Whittier 921 

Springer, Samuel 1213 

Srite, Mary Olive 1 186 

Staas, August 1309 

Stafford, William H 577 

Stagner, Albert C 475 

Stagner, Mrs. Louise C 475 

Stam, George John 1131 

Starr, Roy D 1297 

Stephens, William L, M. D 700 

Stewart, Desseau Arthur 490 

Stohlman, Charles Henry 816 

Stohlmann, Henry 606 

Stohlmann, Louis C 606 

Stoker, Mrs. Elizabeth J 416 

Stoker, George Smith 1271 

Stoker, Jesse Albert 1214 

Stolp, Cornelius 432 

Stottlemyer, Emeral Hanford 461 

Strain, James Edward 399 

Straub, William Asburv 646 

Sugg, A. C. . 1318 

Sullivan, Daniel Francis 462 

Sullivan, James Thomas 845 

Sullivan, Jeremiah Peter 984 

Summy, Charles 422 

' Summy, G. William 772 

Sumner, Charles N 1294 

Sutfin, Willis A 1004 

Sutter Union High School 921 

Sweeney, B. M 576 

Swift, Clarence Eugene 1057 

Swift, John Pierce 1165 

Syvertsen, Thomas A 545 


Taffinder, Robert Albert 1234 

Tapley, Fred Bovd, M. D 501 

Taresh, John 1099 

Tarke, Louis 786 

Tarke, Nancy E 786 

Taylor, Cary Peebles 1075 

Taylor, Clyde 1280 

Taylor, Thomas J 516 

Thalls, Charles H 469 

Tharp, Charles H 1135 

Tharp, Harvejr 1311 

Tharp, William Monroe 1079 

Thompson, George . . 371 

Todd, M. M 528 

Todd, Nelson F 425 

Travis, Cyrus E 988 

Trevathan, Thomas William 1239 

Triplett, Claude 771 

Troncatty, James Sebastian 1223 

Trowbridge, L. D . 1200 

Tubbs, Dr. G. Parker 1103 



Tucker, Judge W. E 569 

Turner, Charles 727 

Turner, Mrs. Susie 727 


Ullrey, Bertie Miles 792 

Ullrey, Clyde T 705 

Ury. George Murray 1150 


Vagedes, Antone 1520 

Vagedes, John Henry Theodore. . . 576 

Van Buskirk, Henry 1003 

Van Lew, Fred 582 

Van Male, J. J., M. D 656 

Van Tiger, Roy J 1019 

Velasco, Joseph Alfred 1111 

Vestal, J. H 1238 

Vieira, Mariano P 716 

Vineyard, William B 734 

Vogan, Charles E 684 


Wadsworth, Edson Schuyler 621 

Wadsworth, Leo Ainslie 621 

Walker, John William 1054 

Walkup, Claude V 791 

Wallace, Orlain W 1131 

Walsh, John E 833 

Walsh, William P 1179 

Walton, Harry A 455 

Wanzer, James Olin 360 

Ward, William W 841 

Watson, John W 929 

Watson, Stanley Efkin 798 

Weber, M. J.. ." 1288 

Weber, Nicholas J., Jr 775 

Weis, Charles J 1319 

Welch, James Chester 1166 

Welch. Mrs. Lillie E 1166 

Weldon, Augustus L. and Harry P.. 1182 

Wellman, Aaron Sargent 1153 

Wellman, Miles 1 153 

Wells, William S 1286 

Wessing, G. A U65 

Wheaton, Allan Given 724 

White, Mrs. Amanda Catherine 396 

White, Arthur H 1274 

Whiteside, Mrs. Louisa 1045 

Whiteside, Orlo 1043 

Wiget, Dominie 1184 

Wilcoxon, Lewis Boyd 483 

Wilcoxon, Noah J 688 

Wilcoxon, Strother E 360 

Wilkie, John 458 

Wilkinson, J. Augustus 538 

Williams, Lowell Cortez 599 

Williams, Thomas J., Sr 643 

Willis, Harvev Ray 1210 

Wilson, John Bell 1240 

Winship, Chester Douglas 1305 

Winship, Edwin 588 

Winship, Foster E 776 

Wise, John A 1199 

Wisner, Calvin Sylvester 589 

Wisner, Marvin E 589 

Wissler, Ed L 904 

Wood, Arthur M 1 185 

Wood, Joseph 588 

Worth, James A 1176 

Wright, Aden J 895 

Wright, Mrs. Mary 895 

Wurm, Herman A 1211 


Young, Jacob 645 

Young, James Redmond 1311 

Yuhre, William F 1192 


Zbinden Gottfried 1040 

Zerga, Antone 621 

Zwanck, Arnold Emil 1307 


The object of -this work is to give a connected history of the Counties 
of Yuba and Sutter from their first occupation by the Indians and trappers 
down to the present time. For the very earliest data the editor wishes to 
give credit to William H. Chamberlain, Ph. B., and Harry L. Wells, who 
compiled a highly creditable history of the territory in the late seventies. 
In gathering the later story of Yuba County we have received much informa- 
tion from Eugene P. McDaniel, present judge of the superior court of Yuba 
County ; from Fred H. Greely, the present auditor and recorder ; and from 
Airs. John C. Dooley, daughter of a pioneer of Yuba County, who has a diary 
kept by her father, the late Joseph Brown, during the days he was on the 
emigrant trail "crossing the plains," and after his arrival here. The compiler 
also wishes to acknowledge courtesies extended by C. Stephen Howser, 
member of the Marysville police force, who has a collection of the directories 
of the City of Marysville issued from time to time in the Argonaut days. 
Lewis B. AYilcoxon, present agent for the Masonic order in Marysville, also 
has helped, in giving the early history of that .organization in Yuba County. 

On the Sutter side of the river, the compiler received invaluable aid from 
Miss Ada Ohleyer, daughter of George Ohleyer, the pioneer defender of the 
farmers during hydraulic mining days. Miss Ohleyer is actively in charge 
of the landmarks section of the Federated Women's Clubs of the northern 
district, and is performing excellent work along that line. Miss Edna 
Hewitt, county librarian in Yuba City, also has the thanks of the editor for 
suggestions and help. C. E. McQuaid, county assessor and former news- 
paper man, also has been of service. To County Horticultural Commissioner 
Harry P. Stabler, the editor is indebted for data of a highly interesting nature. 

As was said in the prospectus to this volume, "What a team are Yuba 
and Sutter Counties ! Sutter County matching her golden flow of fruit with 
the fruitful flow of Yuba County's gold each, year certainly makes a com- 
bination of resources difficult to parallel. It means that this wonderful sec- 
tion shall always be an empire in itself, independent, if the test came, 
of all the world." 


Marysville, Yuba County, California. 




The contiguity of Yuba and Sutter Counties renders the record of their 
early settlement almost inseparable. However, it will be the aim of the 
compiler of this history to treat these remarkable sections separately. 

California has no more historic county than Yuba, of which the Citv of 
Marysville has virtually always been the county seat. During- the exciting- 
times of the mining fever, the reputation of its wonderful riches spread far 
and wide, and it received its full share of the immense immigration which 
poured into the State during that memorable period. Marysville early occu- 
pied a prominent position among the cities of the Coast, both in population 
and in the extent of its mercantile interests. 

Yuba County was an uncultivated tract of plain and mountains, occupied 
by the lowly Digger Indian and traversed occasionally by the nomadic trap- 
per employed by American and foreign fur companies, when Capt. John A. 
Sutter, original white owner of the tract, first knew it. That was in 1841, 
at a time. when the southern portion of California was essentially Spanish 
and Mexican in its population — the northern part being left to the occupation 
of foreigners. Not until Captain Sutter began his activities in the northern 
end of what was destined to become the great Pacific Coast commonwealth, 
and not until he established his New Helvetia, did the Sacramento Valley 
attract attention. Until then it went comparatively unnoticed. Following 
his entry, however, it became the theater for grand operations and achieve- 
ments. Sutter's Fort became the nucleus about which congregated nearly 
all of the early emigrants. To the influence of Captain Sutter and those 
associated with him, is largely due the annexation of California to the Union. 

It is deemed fitting at this stage of our story to give a brief history 
of the ever hospitable and generous Sutter, friend of all the early settlers 
and explorers, the man to whom they repaired for advice and sustenance. 
His name is inseparable from even the' slightest historical reference to either 
Yuba or Sutter County. 

Tohn Augustus Sutter was born in Baden, Germany, at midnight. 
February 28, 1803. of Swiss parents. After the completion of his education 
he became a captain in the French army; hence his military title. Becoming- 
tired of the superficial nature of French society and customs, he set out for 
America, to find some secluded spot where he might surround himself with 
a home and associations more in consonance with his ideas and tastes. Aew 
York was reached in July, 1834; and from there, after a sojourn of only one 
month, the Captain set out for the far-famed "West." He journeyed to New 
Mexico, and having heard of the marvelous beauty and fertility of California, 
he joined a party of trappers, expecting soon to reach his destination. But 
the journey ended at Fort Vancouver, and Captain Sutter's only wax In 
reach California was to go to the Sandwich Islands and from there by a 


sailing vessel to Monterey. After waiting a long time in Honolulu he took 
passage in a ship bound for Sitka. By singular good luck the vessel was 
driven into San Francisco Bay, July 2, 1839. 

Having reached the goal of his ambition, Captain Sutter received per- 
mission from the Mexican authorities to select a place for settlement in the 
Sacramento Valley. After much difficulty he succeeded in reaching the 
junction of the Sacramento and American Rivers on the 16th of August, 1839. 
and being fully satisfied with the conditions and prospects of the region, 
a location was made, and he commenced the construction of a house. 

The spot was named "New Helvetia" in honor of his mother country. 
But on account of the strength, armament and formidable appearance of 
the buildings, the place was called by all the early settlers "Sutter's Fort," 
which name is now the only one that clings to it. This fort was commenced 
in 1842 and finished in 1844. In 1841, when his grant of deed was to be 
made, it became necessary to have a map of the tract, and he employed for 
that purpose Capt. Jean Vioget, a seaman, and a Swiss by birth. The survey 
was made by lines of latitude and longitude. Sutter made his application 
under this survey in 1841, the same year the map was completed. The 
Mexican laws allowed only eleven leagues to be granted to any one person, 
but Sutter's map contained fifty leagues or more. Nevertheless, he got the 
idea he could hold it, and with this came the idea he could sell it. The 
original claim embraced a considerable portion of Sacramento and Placer 
Counties, all of Sutter, the valley portion of Yuba, and a little point of 
Colusa. It was in this same year, 1841, that John Bidwell, later the founder 
of Chico in Butte County, and Michael C. Nye, who played a prominent 
part in the early history of Yuba County, came to California from Independ- 
ence, Mo., with thirty-four others, seven of whom returned to Missouri, 
and died there. 

Little of note occurred in the valley during 1842, but during the next 
two years Captain Sutter and his newly formed friend, John Bidwell. saw 
the monotony — if there was such thing in those days — relieved. It was 
in 1843 that General Micheltorena, an "enlightened and educated gentleman 
and an agreeable personage, arrived from Mexico to take the place of Alvarado 
as Governor of California. Rightly anticipating trouble, Micheltorena would 
not consent to act as Governor without the presence of troops. The Mexican 
government sent him 500 trained soldiers. Captain Sutter, learning of the 
presence of the new Governor, sent him a congratulatory message. In due 
time Micheltorena went to Monterey and made it his capital. A very 
friendly correspondence sprang up between the Governor and Captain 
Sutter. The latter had never seen Micheltorena, although he had been in 
frecpient correspondence ; hence, in the fall of 1844 he concluded to make 
him a visit at Monterey, and accordingly started upon the journey accom- 
panied by two persons, John Bidwell of Chico being one. They traveled 
on horseback, crossing the San Joaquin River on improvised rafts, and camp- 
ing out every night, except one in San Jose. It was there that the Captain 
heard of a revolt brewing among the native Mexicans, and he was first 
to convey the intelligence to Governor Micheltorena; and while the party 
was there, the first blow was struck. This convinced Sutter and Bidwell 
that they had better return north. Sutter, on his return, put his fort in 
a more secure state of defense, as was usual upon an uprising of the natives. 

The native Californians desired the possession of the country and the 
formation of an independent republic ; but their leanings were against the 
Americans, and more prejudiced, in fact, than were the Mexicans themselves. 
It was to the interest of Governor Micheltorena to encourage the settlement 
in the country of intelligent and energetic foreigners ; hence he was friendly 
disposed toward that class.. In the struggle going on at that time, the 


majority of the Americans were on his side, because hostility toward the 
government meant hostility to American interests. The other foreigners 
naturally took sides with the Americans, and any on the opposing- side 
were, in the nature of the case, extremely obnoxious. 

One Capt. C. M. Weber, however, was one American who took sides 
with and aided the leaders of the Mexican malcontents against Governor 
Micheltorena ; and he carried the insurrection so far as to proceed to Sutter's 
Fort and attempt to stir up dissatisfaction among the occupants. In case 
of any disturbance in the political affairs of the country, the foreigners, for 
miles around, assembled at the fort for mutual protection. Captain 'Weber, 
even after being cautioned, continued in his insurrectionary work, until 
finally the occupants of the fort held a meeting and, after consultation, framed 
and signed the following document: 

"We, the subscribers, chosen as a Council of War, have unanimously 
resolved the following: First, that Mr. Weber be put in irons and detained 
in the fort. New Helvetia, until such time as we may receive orders from 
his Excellency, the Governor, as regards his disposal ; Second, that Mr. 
Pearson B. Reading be requested to keep Mr. Weber in a convenient room 
and afford him such necessaries as circumstances may admit of and his safe 
detention may require." 

The sentence and instructions were not carried out in full, but Weber 
was closely watched and guarded. 

Micheltorena appealed to Sutter for assistance, which he agreed to 
render in view of certain advantages to be derived by himself and the foreign 
residents in the vicinity. The conditions imposed by Sutter, who was the 
magistrate in this region, were that every petition for a grant of land 
which he as justice should approve, was to be taken as granted, and that 
a copy of the general title which the Governor then confirmed should be 
considered as binding as a formal grant. 

Sutter started south with one hundred men, and was met at the resi- 
dence of Dr. Marsh, near Mt. Diablo, by J. Alexander Forbes, who in vain 
tried to dissuade him from his undertaking'. The result was that when the 
nostile armies met, the foreigners were found on both sides, and, after a 
consultation, withdrew, leaving the Mexicans to fight out their quarrel 
alone. Micheltorena was defeated, and compelled to return to Mexico: 
Sutter was captured by the insurgent leader, Castro, and only given his 
liberty upon the personal interposition of Weber and others, to whom Castro 
was under obligations for assistance. 

The country now being in the hands of the native Californians, the 
California "Deputation" declared Pio Pico Governor. Castro, not relishing 
this selection, renewed his acts of dissension ; but his plans were frustrated 
by the appearance of John C. Fremont on his second exploring expedition 
in March, 1846. Fremont had reached Sutter's Fort in 1844 and at that 
early date was known as "The Pathfinder," being bent on establishing a 
transcontinental trail from the East to the Pacific Coast. This time Fremont 
came down the Humboldt River, directing the larger part of his exploring 
party to bear to the south until they came to a certain pass which he imag- 
ined to exist there, and await his orders, while he, with about eight men, 
followed the emigrant trail (which now had an existence) into California. 
He came up the Truckee River, and down the north side of the Bear River. 
At the time when General Bidwell's party crossed over the mountains, in 
1841, there was as yet no trail in existence. 

Castro, having given Fremont permission to pass through the San 
Joaquin Valley, soon proved untrue to his promise and ordered Fremont t<> 
leave. The explorer was obliged to fortify himself on Hawks' Peak, thirty 


miles from Monterey. Castro's forces appeared, but beyond a few mock 
assaults, did no fighting-; so that on the fourth day Fremont deemed it 
expedient to avoid actual collision, and slowly marched north toward Oregon. 
Having passed the border, he was overtaken by Lieutenant Gillespie, an 
army officer, with despatches, the contents of which, together with the exist- 
ing state of affairs, caused him to return. Passing down the Sacramento 
Valley, he encamped for a time in the Buttes, in Sutter County. The spot 
in the Buttes where Fremont camped now bears a marker telling of the 
history attending it. This marker was placed on Sunday, April 15, 1923, 
during a "landmark" celebration conducted under the auspices of the Sutter- 
Yuba Bi-County Federation of Women's Clubs. The parlors of the Native 
Sons and Native Daughters of Marysville took part in the program, which 
was arranged by Miss Ada Ohleyer, daughter of George Ohleyer, pioneer 
of Sutter County and newspaper man in his lifetime in Yuba City. Miss 
Ohleyer was aided by Miss Edna Hewitt, then librarian in Sutter County's 
free library, and by the chairmen of History and Landmarks in the Bi- 
County and District Federations of Women's Clubs. The marker consists 
of a bronze tablet fittingly engraved and attached to a huge boulder on the 
DeWitt place, not far from Sutter City. Many organizations of Yuba and 
Sutter Counties took part in the celebration over the placing of the marker, 
and there were many visitors from adjoining counties at the behest of the 
civic and commercial bodies of Marysville and Yuba City. A more detailed 
account of the celebration is given in a later chapter devoted to the work 
of the women's clubs, in the History of Sutter County. 

Fremont, while camped in the Buttes, was informed by a Mr. Knight 
that a party of Mexican soldiers, under Lieutenant De Arce, in charge of 
a band of horses, were traveling from Sonoma to the southern county. 
Fremont immediately sent out a party, which, after passing Sutter's Fort, 
and without the knowledge of Captain Sutter or any consultation with him, 
attacked the Mexicans on the Cosumnes River, on June 11, capturing the 
horses and sending Lieutenant De Arce and his men to report to Castro. 
The movement was claimed to be in de'fense of the American settlers, but 
the real facts in the case were that no settler ever implored Fremont for 
aid. All Americans believed, it is true, that the territory should come 
under the control of the United States ; but they desired the change to be 
brought about by peaceful measures. The hunters who usually wintered 
at Sutter's Fort were the first to rally around Fremont's camp. Sutter 
having at one time complained of the acts of Fremont, the latter came 
down and told the generous old pioneer that if he did not like what he 
(Fremont) was doing, he would send him across the San Joaquin River 
and he could join the Mexicans. Tuthill, in his "History of Califorina," 
states that the party who attacked Lieutenant De Arce were under the 
leadership of Captain Merritt, and that they were the persons who marched 
on Sonoma and formed the nucleus of the "Bear Flag Party." 

Following this assault on the Mexicans and the acts of the "Bear Flag 
Party," Castro retreated to Los Angeles, and was promptly followed by 
Fremont. Before any action occurred, the news of the raising of the Stars 
and Stripes at Monterey by Commodore Sloat was heralded. Then followed 
a series of conflicts, mostly of slight importance, the battles in California 
being supplementary to the war in the East and South. After the war 
was ended, it became necessary for the conquering forces to appoint a 
Governor. A contest ensued as to whether Lieutenant Fremont, who had 
received a commission from Commodore Stockton, or General Kearney 
should be the ruler. It was finally ended when Fremont, under orders, 
accompanied General Kearney upon his march East. At Fort Leavenworth 


Fremont was arrested, and at Fortress Monroe a court martial found him 
guilty of mutiny, disobedience and disorderly conduct, and he was by its 
sentence deprived of his commission. This ended his connection with the 
army, but did not serve to dampen his ambition, or to sully his reputation 
as one to whom the gratitude of all American citizens is" clue. 

The early settlements of Yuba and Sutter Counties were parts of a 
series extending through nearly the whole Sacramento Valley, and an 
account of the most important will doubtless prove interestino-". Sutter's 
map included a much larger area than the Mexican laws would allow, and 
in order to hold the land he placed tenants on various portions of the terri- 
tory embraced within its limits. Subsequently, when it was thought that 
he could not hold all the land applied for, he endeavored to obtain a sobrante 
grant for his children ; and this was partly the motive that induced him 
to visit Governor Micheltorena at Monterey in 1844. 

After the settlement at Xew Helvetia, the next point where a dwellino- 
was located was about two miles northeast of the fort, on the American 
River, in 1841. This location was made by John Sinclair for Capt. Elias 
Grimes and Hiram Grimes, to whom Sutter afterwards sold it. It made a 
fine ranch and farm, and was extensively stocked. 

In 1842. Nicolaus Allgeier was placed on what is known as the town 
of Nicolaus on the east bank of the Feather River. 

The next two places were settled almost simultaneously in the fall of 
1842. Hock Farm, which subsequently became the home of Captain Sutter, 
was established and made his principal stock farm, the animals ranging 
over that part- of Sutter County lying west of the Feather River and south 
of the Butte Mountains. The land in the vicinity of the site of Marys- 
ville was leased to Theodore Cordua. Cordua made a stock farm of it, 
and, to a limited extent, a trading post. He obtained a few otter and 
beaver skins, and was continually passing to and from Yerba Buena, trad- 
ing, in his launch. The settlement of George Patterson on the opposite 
side of the Yuba River, in 1845, was another of .these locations in the interest 
of Sutter, to hold the land. 

The next grant was made to Charles YY Flugge, and was located on 
the west bank of the Feather River adjoining the northern portion of 
Sutter's grant and called the "Flugge Grant." It fell into the hands, by 
purchase, of Thomas O. Lawton, as did also the Hernandez Grant. Larkin 
tried to locate the Flugge Grant in the mining regions, but failed. Sicard's 
Grant (four leagues) and Johnson's Grant (four leagues) on Bear River. 
were secured in 1844. About the same time, grants were made to the 
present site of Vacaville, and to various other points located in Yolo, Butte, 
and Tehama Counties. 

The bottom lands of Yuba and Sutter Counties offered special induce- 
ments to settlers, on account of their fertility and their contiguity to Sutter's 
settlements. Having obtained from Captain Sutter, in the fall of 1842, a 
lease for nineteen years of the tract of land upon which Marysville is now 
located. Theodore Cordua erected, at what is now the foot of D Street, 
an adobe dwelling house, a storehouse or trading room, culinary depart- 
ment and outhouses. The walls of the dwelling were thick, and well con- 
structed for withstanding a siege. The spot was named "New Mecklen- 
burg" by Captain Sutter, in honor of the place of nativity of Cordua. It soon 
became known, however, as "Cordua's Ranch." the neighboring settlers 
choosing the latter title in preference to the more European name. Many 
of the Indians in the vicinity gathered about Cordua, and he was able to 
utilize them in herding his animals, in tilling the soil, and in gathering 
the products. Their village was located near where the railroad crosses 


the Yuba River. On December 30, 1844, Cordua obtained from the Mexican 
government a grant of land bounded on the north by the Feather River 
and Honcut Creek, on the east by the foot of the Sierra Nevada Mountains, 
on the south by the Yuba River, and by the tract of land previously leased 
from Captain Sutter, and on the west by the same land and the Feather 
River, embracing about seven square leagues. 

Cordua's house was located on the trail leading from the upper to the 
lower portion of the Sacramento Valley ; and as the country became more 
closely settled, travel on this route became more extensive, until finally, 
in 1846, Cordua conceived the idea of establishing a trading post at his 
adobe structure. Provisions and supplies were brought from Yerba Buena 
and the lower settlements in the valley, which, with the products of his 
own land and flocks, enabled him to provide a suitable stock for his store. 
It is said that in 1847 and 1848 he exported to the Sandwich Islands a large 
quantity of the products of his farm. He soon found abundant opportunity 
to dispose of all he could produce in a nearer market — a change brought 
about by the discovery of gold. In the summer of 1847, when William G. 
Murphy, father of the present deputy postmaster of Marysville, arrived at 
the ranch, Cordua had in his employ fifteen or twenty Indians and white 
men, among whom was Charles Covillaud, who acted as mechanic and 
overseer. At that time Cordua had about 10,000 or 12,000 cattle and 500 
wild mares. The latter were used for raising colts, while their luxuriant 
manes and tails furnished material for "hair ropes." The bottom lands 
near the buildings were cultivated to a small extent. 

Theodore Sicard was a French sailor, and first came to California on 
a voyage in 1835. Later he decided to remain in the country. He worked 
for Captain Sutter at one time, in 1842 and 1843, superintending the opera- 
tions at Hock Farm in Sutter County. He petitioned for, and obtained 
from the Mexican government, a grant of four Spanish leagues, extending 
from opposite the north of Dry Creek ten miles up the south side of Bear 
River. His settlement was made in 1845, and was on the south bank of 
Bear River, about half a mile above Johnson's Crossing. In 1844, a Mexican, 
Don Pablo Gutierrez, who had been in the employ of Captain Sutter, 
obtained a grant of five leagues on the north side of Bear River, now 
known as the Johnson Grant, at the center of which is now the city of 
Wheatland, often referred to as the "Hop Center of Yuba County." During 
this year, Gutierrez built a mud house at the place afterwards called John- 
son's Crossing. Gutierrez was killed late in 1844, or early in 1845, and his 
grant and cattle were sold at auction by Captain Sutter, as magistrate of 
the region, being purchased for $150 by William Johnson and Sebastian 
Kyser, who settled there the same year. Johnson was a sailor who had 
made voyages to California quite early, and for several years previous to 
this purchase had traded between the Sandwich Islands and Yerba Buena. 
Kyser had gone with Captain Sutter from Missouri, accompanying him 
on his wandering tour from that State to New Mexico and up to Oregon ; 
here he remained while the Captain went on to the Sandwich Islands. 
When Sutter arrived in California, in 1839, Kyser came down from Oregon 
and again entered the service of his old employer. After the purchase, 
the grant was divided, Johnson taking the east half, and Kyser the west. 
In 1846, they built an adobe house below the crossing. 

In 1845, George Patterson settled on the south side of the Yuba River, 
opposite Cordua's ranch, under a lease from Captain Sutter, and constructed 
an adobe house. He cultivated some land and dug a ditch, which at that 
period was the substitute for a fence. Jack Smith at one time lived with 
Patterson on this grant. This was known as "Sutter's Garden," and the 


occupation of the tract was made by his proxy, Patterson. The soil was 
cultivated only sufficiently to comply with the laws under whose terms 
land was held. 

During the year 1845, Charles Roether, a German, settled on the north 
side of Honcut Creek, in Butte County, one-half mile from the stream and 
about two miles from its mouth. 

Jack Smith, an old sailor, who had been in Sutter's employ, obtained 
from him in 1844 a grant of land on the south side of Yuba River, extending 
from the site of Linda three miles up the stream and one mile back. He 
settled there in 1845, and built a cabin on the location of the subsequent town 
of Linda. In 1846, Smith sold the center mile of this tract to George 
Patterson. The purchaser had come to California in 184-1, in one of the 
ships belonging to the Hudson Bay Company. He escaped from the vessel 
at night and took refuge on Goat Island in San Francisco Bay. An attempt 
was made that night by John Rose to rescue him in a boat, but it was 
unsuccessful. Patterson found his way to this valley and entered the employ 
of Sutter. In 1847, Michael Nye purchased a portion of the Sutter grant 
adjoining Smith on the west. The tract was one mile in extent along the 
south bank of the stream, and one and one-half miles in depth. In the 
latter part of 1847, when William G. Murphy moved from Cordua's ranch 
to Nye's place, Nye had 700 head of cattle, and Smith, 800; in partnership 
they owned 150 wild horses. The house occupied by Smith was of peculiar 
construction. Ends of stout poles were sunk into the ground, and willows 
interwoven horizontally, forming a sort of basket work ; a heavy coating 
of soft clay was placed on both sides and the roof thatched with tules 
brought from Nicolaus. The floor was constructed of sunburned brick 
and earth pounded down firm and smooth. A coat of whitewash was the 
only covering of the bare and unsightly walls. Nye built his dwelling in 
1847, making a more pretentious and commodious structure of two rooms. 
The walls were thick and constructed of adobe ; the roof was covered with 
split shakes, brought from the river bottom opposite Cordua Ranch. 

On October 18, 1846, there arrived at Bear River a company of emi- 
grants, several members of which were to play important parts in the 
settlement and development of Yuba and Sutter Counties. Of these, Claude 
Chana, late of Wheatland, was one of the leading spirits. Born in the 
department of Rouen, France, in 1811, he came to New Orleans, arriving 
on March 7, 1839, where he worked as a cooper. He was one of the first 
settlers of the town of St. Joseph, Mo., where he settled in 1841. While 
there, he heard from an old trapper who had been through the Sacramento 
Valley, of the wonderful climate of California and of the flourishing settle- 
ment of John A. Sutter. In 1846 he sold his property in St. Joseph to 
this trapper and joined a train that was crossing the plains. This train 
consisted of 500 wagons and over 1000 men. They crossed the Missouri 
River on May 10, 1846. The train contained emigrants for Oregon, Utah, 
California and other destinations. The emigrants organized into compa- 
nies, according to the place of their destination, Mr. Chana being in what 
was called the California Company, and this party led the train. In 1846 
Charles Covillaud, who was a member of the same company, and Michael 
Nye, a member of General Bidwell's party, entered the employ of Cordua; 
Chana, who had brought his cooper tools, went to work for Sutter, at the 
fort, making water tanks, barrels, churns, pails, etc., for settlers through- 
out the whole valley. 

In 1847, Baptiste Rouelle, the discoverer of gold in the mountains near 
the Mission of San Fernando, settled near Sutter's Garden on the south 
bank of the Yuba River. During the spring of 1S47. the survivors of the 


Dormer party arrived, many remaining at the settlements in this vicinity; 
among these were the members of the Murphy family, a direct descendant 
of which family, Ernest Murphy, is at present a resident of Marysville, 
and occupies the position of deputy postmaster of the city. 

The contiguity of Yuba and Sutter Counties, we here repeat, renders 
the record of their early settlement almost inseparable, and to fully appre- 
ciate the situation of affairs during that period, it is well to understand 
the relative locations in Sutter County. There were only two settlements 
of note in that county up to 1848 — at Hock Farm and Nicolaus. At Hock 
Farm, after its location, lived Theodore Sicard and a man named Dupont. 
In the spring of 1843, John Bidwell went up to take charge of the farm. 
He built the house during the summer, the adobes being made on the place. 
Sicard and Dupont sawed boards for its construction out of the cotton- 
wood trees. These were the only white men there until near the close of 
the year, when J. C. Bridges came from Kentucky ; he died during the 
winter. On Hock Farm, Sutter had about 5000 head of cattle and 1200 
horses. He. employed about twenty-five Indian vaqueros in herding the 
animals and breaking horses. General Bidwell remained there fourteen 
months, to the early part of the summer of 1844, and during that time 
planted some trees and otherwise improved the spot. William Bennitz 
then took charge and continued there for a year, to the summer of 1845. 
Major Hensley followed, remaining until the spring of 1846, when nearly 
all of Sutter's force went into the Mexican War, the farm being left in the 
charge of "Yankee Jim," a Kanaka, whom Captain Sutter had brought 
from the "Islands." It was not until the spring of 1850, after the discovery 
of gold, that Sutter moved to Hock Farm. His fort was so occupied with 
traders, that every available room was taken, and every suitable place was 
in demand for the numerous stores to supply the rush of miners to the min- 
ing districts. Peter H. Burnett was left as Sutter's agent for the sale of lots 
in Sacramento, and when the former was elected Governor, H. A. Schoolcraft 
was appointed in his place. Burnett received a commission of 25 per cent 
for effecting sales and making deeds. Sutter fixed up the house on Hock 
Farm and built the iron structure. It was erected for a storehouse, and 
was bought from parties who had brought it "around the Horn." 

In 1842, as mentioned above, Nicolaus Allgeier was settled at the loca- 
tion of the present town of Nicolaus. This gentleman was born in Freiberg, 
Germany, in 1807, and came to America about 1830. He went into the 
employ of the Hudson Bay Company as a trapper, and in that capacity 
spent a number of years in the wilds of British America. It was while in 
this service, in 1839 or 1840, that he came overland to California. A short 
time after his arrival here, he left the employ of the company and engaged 
to work for Captain Sutter. He assisted in the construction of an adobe 
house, about one and one-half miles below Hock Farm, in the winter of 
1841-1842. This was Sutter's first establishment in Sutter County, and the 
first settlement of any kind made in this vicinity. The plains between 
the Sacramento and Feather Rivers were used by Sutter as a grazing 
range for immense bands of horses and cattle. The road from his estab- 
lishment at New Helvetia to the one at Hock Farm crossed the river at 
Nicolaus, and Sutter desired some one stationed at that point with a ferry 
to assist in the transportation of men, cattle, horses, supplies, etc., across 
the stream. He therefore deeded to Allgeier a tract one mile scpiare at 
that place, in consideration of the labor he had performed, and of the 
services he should render in the future in the manner described, all valued 
at $400. This land commenced 400 yards above the old adobe house and 
extended one mile down the stream. When Allsreier first settled there in 


1842, he built a small hut of poles covered with tule grass and dirt. In this 
he lived for several years, until, in 1847, he constructed a small adobe house 
near the old ferry crossing, about 150 yards above the landing recentlv 
abandoned when, in 1921, a bridge was built by Sutter County as a sub- 
stitute for the ferry. A primitive ferry-boat was constructed in 1843, which 
the Indians rowed across in transacting the business of the crossing. 



A history of Yuba Count}- without a chapter on the Donner Party, the 
"Tragedy of the Sierras," would be incomplete, as a number of the survivors 
of that awful experience were among the early settlers of this section. 

"William G. Murphy, member of the Yuba County liar in the earlier days 
of Marysville, and father of the present assistant postmaster of the city, was 
one of the survivors of the Donner Party who located here. In the family 
with Murphy were his mother and six children. C. G. McGlashan, in his 
history of the Donner Part}-, says Murphy described to him how the party 
at Donner Lake gathered up the old castaway bones of the cattle — bones 
from which all the flesh had been previously picked — arid then boiled, and 
boiled, and boiled them until they actually would crumble between the teeth 
as they ate them. The little children playing upon the fire rug,in his moth- 
er's cabin used to cut up little pieces of the rug, toast them crip upon the 
coals, and then eat them. In this manner, before any one was fairly aware 
of the fact, the fire rug was entirely consumed. - 

Murphy saw the hides that had served over the cabins in lieu of shingles 
taken down and eaten. The green rawhides were cut into strips and laid 
upon the coals, or held in the flames, until the hair was completely singed off. 
Either side of the piece of hide was then scraped with a knife until completely 
cleansed, placed in a kettle, and boiled until soft and pulpy. There was no 
salt and only a little pepper, and yet this unsavory substance was all that 
stood between them and starvation. When cold, the boiled hides and the 
water in which they were cooked became jellied and exactly resembled glue. 
The tender stomachs of many of the children revolted at this disagreeable 
diet, and the loathing they felt at sight of this substance persisted for a long 
time in the minds of the survivors. 

The terrible experiences of the Donner Party are given in TutTiill's 
History of California, from which we quote : 

"Of the overland emigration to California in 1846 about eighty wagons 
took a new route, from Fort Bridger around the south end of Great Salt Lake. 
The pioneers of the party arrived in good season over the mountains, but 
Mr. Reeves' and Mr. Donner's companies opened a new route through the 
desert, lost a month's time by their explorations, and reached the foot of the 
"Truckee Pass" in the Sierras on October 31st instead of the first as intended. 
The snow began to fall two or three weeks earlier than usual that year, and 
was already so piled up in the pass that they could not proceed. They 
attempted it repeatedly but were as often forced to return. One party built 
their cabin near Truckee (afterward Donner) Lake, killed their cattle and 
went into winter quarters. The other (Donner's party) still believed they 


could tread the pass, and so failed to build their cabins before more snow- 
came and buried their cattle alive. Of course they were soon destitute of 
food, for they could not tell where the cattle were buried and there was no 
hope of game on a desert so piled with snow that nothing without wings 
could move. The number of those who were thus storm-stayed at the very 
threshold of a land whose winters are one long spring, was eighty, of whom 
thirty were women and children. The Mr. Donner who had charge of one 
company was a native of Illinois, sixty years of age, and a man of high 
respectability and abundant means. His wife was a woman of education 
and refinement, and much younger than he. 

"During November it snowed fifteen days ; during December and Jan- 
uary, eight days each. Much of this time the props of the cabins were below 
the snow level. It was six weeks after the halt was made that a party of 
fifteen, including five women and two Indians, who acted as guides, set out 
on snowshoes to cross the mountains and give notice to the people of Cali- 
fornia settlements of the condition of their friends. At first the snow was so 
light and feathery that even with snowshoes they sank nearly a foot at every 
step. On the second day they crossed the 'divide,' finding the snow at the 
summit twelve feet deep. Pushing forward with the courage of despair they 
made from four to eight miles a day. 

"Within a week they were entirely out of provisions, and three of them, 
succumbing to cold, weariness and starvation, had died. Then a heavy snow- 
storm came on, which compelled them to lie still, buried 'neath their blankets 
under the snow for thirty-six hours. By evening of the tenth day three more 
had died, and the living had been four days without food. The horrid alterna- 
tive was accepted — they took flesh from the bones of their dead, remained in 
camp two days to dry it, and then pushed on. 

"On New-year's Day, the sixteenth day since leaving Truckee Lake, 
they were toiling up a steep mountain. Their feet were frozen. Every step 
was marked with blood. On the second of January their food again gave out. 
On the third day they had nothing to eat but the strings of their snowshoes. 
On the fourth the Indians deserted, suspicious that they might be sacrificed 
for food. On the fifth one of the party shot a deer, and that day there was 
another death. Soon after, three others died, and every death served to pro- 
long the existence of the survivors. On the seventh all but one gave out. 
concluding that their wanderings were useless. This one, guided by two 
friendly Indians, dragged himself on until he reached a settlement on Bear 
River. By midnight the settlers had found and were treating with all Chris- 
tian kindness what remained of the little company that after a month of most 
terrible sufferings, had halted to die. 

"The story that there were emigrants perishing on the other side of the 
snowy barrier ran swiftly down the Sacramento Valley to New Helvetia, and 
Captain Sutter, at his own expense, fitted out an expedition of men and of 
mules laden with provisions, to cross the mountains and relieve them. The 
story ran to San Francisco ; and the people, rallying in public meeting, raised 
$1500 and with it fitted out another expedition. The naval commandant of 
the port fitted out others. 

"The first of the relief parties reached Truckee Lake on the 19th of 
February. Ten of the people in. the nearest camp were dead. For four days 
those still alive had fed on bullocks' hides. At Donner's camp but one hide 
lemained. The visitors left a small supply of provisions with the twenty- 
nine whom the}' could not take with them and started back with the remain- 
der. Four of the children they carried on their backs. 

"Another of the relief parties reached the lake about the first of March. 
They at once started back with seventeen of the sufferers ; but a heavv snow- 


storm overtaking them, they left all, except three of the children, on the road. 
Another party went after those left on the way, found three of them dead and 
the rest sustaining life by eating the flesh of the dead. 

"The last relief party reached Donner's camp late in April, when the 
snows had melted so much that the earth appeared in spots. The main cabin 
was empty, but some miles distant they found the last survivor of all lying 
on the cabin floor smoking a pipe. He was ferocious in aspect, savage and 
repulsive in manner. His camp kettle was over the fire, and in it his meai 
of human flesh preparing. The stripped bones of his fellow sufferers lay 
around him. He refused to return with the party, and only consented when 
he saw there was no escape. Mrs. Jacob Donner was the last to die. Her 
husband's body was found at his tent. Circumstances led to the suspicion 
that the survivor had killed Mrs. Donner for the flesh and money, and when 
he was threatened with hanging he produced $500, which he had probably 
appropriated from her store." 

Many books have been written on the subject, no two giving precisely 
the same facts. One of the most interesting accounts is that of James F. Reed, 
who for years was one of the prominent and reputable citizens of San Jose. 
He left Springfield, 111., in the middle of 1846 and was accompanied by George 
and Jacob Donner and their families. George Donner was elected captain. 
At Fort Bridger, William McCutcheon, wife and family joined the partv. 
Leaving the fort, they unfortunately took a new route, and had' man}- vicissi- 
tudes, not the least being the loss of cattle. Other would-be settlers joined 
them before they reached California. The narrative now continues in Air. 
Reed's own words : 

"After crossing the desert, it became known that some families had nut 
enough provisions to carry them through. As a member of the company, I 
advised them to make an estimate of the provisions on hand and what amount 
each family would need. After receiving the estimate, I then suggested that 
if two gentlemen of the company would volunteer to go in advance to Sutter's 
Fort near Sacramento, I would write a letter to the Captain for the whole 
amount of provisions wanted, also stating that I would become personally 
responsible to him for the amount. I thought, from the generous character 
of Captain Sutter, that provisions would be sent. Mr. McCutcheon came 
forward and said that if they would take care of his family he would go. This 
the company agreed to. Mr. Stanton, a single man, volunteered to go with 
McCutcheon if they would furnish him with a horse. McCutcheon, having 
a horse and mule, generously gave the mule. Taking blankets and provisions, 
the two men started to California. After their leaving us we traveled for 
weeks, none of us knowing how far we were from California, and soon all 
became anxious to know wdiat had become of McCutcheon and Stanton. It 
was now suggested that I go in advance to California and hurry up the sup- 
plies. This was agreed to and I started, taking with me three days' provi- 
sions, expecting to kill game on the way. The Messrs. Donner were two 
days in advance of the party when I overtook them. With George Donner 
there was a young man named Walter Herren, who joined me. With all the 
economy I could use, our provisions gave out in a few days ; so I supplied our 
wants by shooting wild geese and other game. 

"The day after I was joined by Herren I proposed, as I had the only 
horse, that he should ride half the time. The proposition was joyfully 
accepted. Soon no game was to be seen, hunger began to be felt, and for 
days we traveled without hope or help. We reached the Sierra Nevada 
Mountains. I believed I could have made a stop here, hunted and found game. 
But as this would have delayed our progress and success might not have 
rewarded my hunting efforts, I kept on. The second day before we found 


relief, Herren wanted to kill the horse. I persuaded him from the deed, 
promising that if relief did not come soon I would kill the horse myself 
Soon afterward he became, delirious. That afternoon I found a bean and gave 
it to him, and then never was a road examined more closely than this one. 
We found in all five-beans. Herren's share was three of them. We camped 
that night in a patch of grass a short distance off the road. Next morning, 
after traveling a few miles, we saw some deserted wagons. 

"We soon reached and ransacked the wagons, hoping to find something 
to eat, but found nothing. Taking the tar bucket that was hanging under 
one of the wagons, I scraped the tar off and found a streak of rancid tallow 
at the bottom. I remember well that when I announced what I had found, 
Herren, who was sitting on a rock near by, got up hallooing with all the 
strength he had and came to me. I handed the tar paddle to him. It had 
on it some of the tallow about the size of a walnut. This he swallowed with- 
out giving it a smell. I then took a piece myself, but it was very repulsive. 
Herren craved more and I gave him another piece. Still wanting more, I 
positively refused, stating that it would kill him. After leaving the wagons, 
probably fifty yards, I became deadly sick and blind. In resting myseif 
against a rock I leaned my head on the muzzle of my gun. Herren, seeing 
my condition, came to me and said, 'My God, Mr. Reed, are you dying?' 
After resting a few minutes I recovered, much to his joy. 

"The wagons were within a short distance of the steep hill going down 
into Bear Valley. After descending the first steep pitch, I discovered wagons 
in the valley below us. 'Herren,' said I, 'there are wagons in the valley.' 
When he saw them he gave vent to his joy, hallooing at the top of his voice ; 
but on account of weakness he could not have been heard ten rods off. On 
reaching the wagons we found several families of emigrants, who supplied us 
with bread. I here met Mr. Stanton with two Indians, on his return to the 
company with provisions supplied by Captain Sutter. Next morning they 
started for the company and I went on to Sutter's Fort." 

At the fort, Reed found McCutcheon, who had been prevented by illness 
from accompanying Stanton. Captain -Sutter furnished horses and saddles 
with which to bring the women and children out of the mountains. The expe- 
dition failed on account of the snow, which at some points was eighteen feet 
deep. The party returned for more help, but unfortunately the Mexican War 
was on and every able-bodied man was away. At Captain Sutter's sugges- 
tion Mr. Reed went to San Francisco to see if he could not procure help there. 
He was compelled to make the journey by land and reached San Jose when 
it was in a state of siege. Arrived at San Francisco, a public meeting was 
held and relief parties fitted out. Mr. Reed, with Mr. McCutcheon, accompa- 
nied the first of these, which went by the river. On the route he met his 
wife and children rescued by a relief party that had gone ahead of them. 
He only stopped a few minutes for greetings and then pushed on to the. relief 
of the other sufferers, whom they reached about the middle of the next day. 
The first camp was that of Mr. Breen. Mr. Reed says : 

"If we left any provisions here it was a small amount, he and his family 
not being in want. We then proceeded to the camp of Mrs. Murphy, where 
Kessburg and some children were. Here we left provisions and one of our 
company to cook for and attend to them. From here we visited the camp of 
Mrs. Graves, some distance further east. A number of the relief party 
remained here, while Messrs. Miller, McCutcheon, another, and myself pro- 
ceeded to the Donner camp. We found Mrs. Jacob Donner in a feeble condi- 
tion. She died after we left. Her husband had died early in the winter. We 
removed the tent and placed it in a more comfortable position. I then visited 
the tent of George Donner, close by, and found him and his wife. He was 


helpless. Their children and two of Jacob's had come out with the party 
that went ahead of us. I requested Mrs. Donner to come with us, stating 
that I would leave a man to take care of both George Donner and Mrs. jacuii 
Donner. She positively refused, declaring that she would not leave her hus- 
band in his enfeebled condition. 

"We took the remaining three children of Jacob Donner, leaving a man 
to take care of the two camps. Leaving all the provisions we could spare. 
and expecting a party from Sutter's Fort would be in in a few days, we 
returned to the camp of Mrs. Graves. Notice was given in all the camps 
that we would start on our return to Sutter's early next day. About the 
middle of the day we started, taking with us all who were able to travel." 

The relief party that came after Mr. Reed, did not reach the sufferers as 
soon as expected and disasters occurred in consequence. The full details of 
the sufferings of the unfortunate party would fill a book. Each of the relief 
parties, especially that conducted by Mr. Reed, endured sufferings equal to 
those experienced by the unfortunates in the winter camp. History has no 
parallel to the heroism displayed by these people in their efforts to rescue 
suffering relatives and friends. 



Of the splendid army of pioneers who set the stakes for the civilization 
of Yuba and Sutter Counties, the editor of this history can find but one who 
kept a diary of his "ups and downs" for the perusal of his descendants. That 
one is Joseph Brown, who for many years, until his death, in 1917, made 
Marysville his home, and who left a family of sons and daughters esteemed 
highly in the community. To one of the daughters. Airs. John C. Dooley of 
this city, the editor is indebted for the interesting account contained in this 
chapter, which is made up from her father's diary. 

Joseph Brown, with his parents and 500 others, left their home in 
Iowa, May 15, 1849, to cross the plains for the new El Dorado. In the 
party were many women and children. They made their first camp in 
California on October 25, 1849. The Brown family consisted of the father 
and mother and six children. The editor uses Mr. Brown's own language 
in following his trials and tribulations while on the way to the Golden 
State. The story follows : 

"Our train consisted of about 110 wagons, mostly new, all covered with 
heavy white canvas, forming a line about two miles in length, and making 
quite a display. There were some horses and mule teams, having four 
animals on each wagon, the ox teams having from two to four yoke of 
oxen, with one exception. An old Scotch sea captain and his two sons had 
one yoke of oxen and a mare on their team. Their oxen, not being well 
broken, lay down, and in getting up turned the yoke, which brought the 
near ox on the off side and the yoke underneath, instead of on top of then- 
necks. The mare became tangled' in the harness and began kicking furiously. 
The boys had never before experienced anything like this, and calling their 
lather, explained in their way that the iarbert' ox was on the 'starbert side 
and the 'starbert' ox was on the iarbert' side, and the mare foul in the rigging, 


and all going to hell together. Having had no further trouble, we reached 
the Platte River, followed it a number of days, and crossed it back and 
forth. Large herds of buffalo could be seen at any time. They seemed to 
care little for us. On one occasion a herd ran through our train, stampeding 
some of our cattle and creating some little excitement, especially among the 
women and children. However, little damage was done. Usually we trav- 
eled from fifteen to twenty miles a day, one or two men going ahead to 
secure suitable camping grounds, where water and grass could be had. 
In camping at nights, our wagons would be brought around in a circle, one 
behind the other, making a large yard where the cattle were yoked and 
hitched each morning. 

"Our party soon became dissatisfied, some anxious to make better time, 
while others declared their teams could not stand longer drives. The follow- 
ing night two separate camps were made, and all in favor of faster driving 
camped together. The following morning the train divided up, about one- 
half going ahead. My father, John Kupser (father of Bayard Kupser, who 
lived near the Seven Mile House in this county until his death recently), 
and the Burris and Cordell families decided to stay with the party behind. 
This reduced our train to about forty-five wagons. The cattle were begin- 
ning to wear out, and, being sore-footed, travel was slow. 

"We reached Green River, a beautiful stream rising in western Wyo- 
ming and flowing south through Utah. On the way we found notices to the 
trains behind warning them against Indians. Cattle that gave out had to 
be left behind with the wagons and most of their contents ; and almost every 
day we would pass cattle, from twenty to thirty in number, left by parties 
ahead of us, which were unable to go farther. Some of our party exchanged 
their wagons for lighter ones, as many of the wagons left behind formerly 
belonged to the train that had left us and gone ahead. 

"In November, we reached Humboldt River, in the State of Nevada, 
followed it down perhaps ISO miles or more, passing what are now thriving 
mining camps and railroad towns, namely, Elko, Carlin, Battle Mountain, 
Golconda, Winnemucca and others. Two clays before reaching Battle Moun- 
tain, the Indians attacked the train ahead of us, driving off a number of 
their best cattle, beside killing three of the party and wounding a number 
of others. Eighteen or twenty Indians were killed in the battle, which 
lasted two or three hours. Had the immigrants not been protected by their 
wagons, they undoubtedly would have been murdered. The three men 
killed were buried side by side, with their names on their headstones and the 
words: 'Killed by Indians September 10, 1849.' The dead Indians were 
taken away by their tribe. Arrows almost hid the ground where the battle 
took place. Not having any use for these, we passed them by as fast as 
possible, moving on until almost dark, and then we put a double guard on 
our cattle. 

"After following the river for a number of days, we came to what was 
called the 'Lassen Meadows,' where we found notices to emigrants to take 
the Lassen Cut, a very dim road, or trail, turning directly west, as the nearest 
and best road to California. There being an abundance of feed and water 
here, we stopped for a day to rest our cattle. The following morning our 
party divided again, some following down the Humboldt River to the Sink 
and across the desert known as the 'Hennis Pass Route.' Father, with a 
number of others, including the Kupser and Cordell families, took the Lassen 
Cut-off. The Burris family, which later settled at Browns Valley in Yuba 
County, recently had had a son added to the family. They started off on the 
Cut-off, but after driving a few miles wisely turned back to the Hennis 
Pass. The road was very difficult and dangerous to travel. In a number 


of places, our wagons had to be let down by ropes into canyons, requiring 
three or four teams to draw them out on the opposite banks. About day- 
break one morning, Indians, thirty or forty in number, attacked the men on 
guard and tried to drive off some of our cattle, but failed in their attempt. 
Being fired upon from different points by the men on guard, they left for 
the hills. Three Indians were seen to fall from their horses, and undoubtedly 
a number of others were wounded. One of the guards was slightly hurt by 
arrows. The "cattle were then brought to camp, and without waiting for 
breakfast we took to the road. Here another of the men had to leave his 
wagon, having only three cattle able to go further. These three oxen were 
put on the next weaker team and his outfit taken along. 

"Our provisions, as well as our teams, were giving out, and the weather 
looking as though winter would soon overtake us. Everything was unfav- 
orable and discouraging. Our only hope was to move ahead, which we 
did. Indian campfires could be seen at night. With the knowledge of our 
previous trouble, we did not know at what hour we might be attacked, and 
this added to the suffering of our little party. There were now but six 
families, perhaps twenty-five or thirty able men in all. They could make 
but a very feeble resistance against 300 or 400 Indians if we were attacked, 
as we fully expected retaliation for the killing of the three or four Indians 
who had attempted to drive off the cattle previously mentioned. However, 
we moved along steadily and finally reached the summit of the Sierra 
Nevadas. Father was appointed to go ahead and look over the road and 
pick a camping ground. He reported that night that we had reached the 
summit of the Sierra Nevada Mountains and the valley could be seen be- 
low. These were the first words of encouragement we had had since leav- 
ing our homes in Iowa. 

"After we had passed over the summit and were going down grade, we 
made much better time. We reached Pitt River, the headwaters of the Sacra- 
mento River; and following it down, we came to the Lassen Ranch, where 
we found a party that had gotten in a few days ahead of us and had driven 
their cattle toward the hills for feed. AVhile guarding their cattle, they saw 
another large band of cattle, with two Indians herding them, and they 
recognized some of them as cattle that had been taken at the Battle Mountain 
encounter, but said nothing. One Indian, who spoke a few words of English, 
said that Lassen had bought the cattle. The Lassen Cut-off was at least 
130 miles or more out of our way, and a worse road could not be found in 
the Sierra Nevadas. Our party went to the ranch to buy flour, but was 
refused by the man in charge ; but each man helped himself to some wheat 
and went to our camp. The party ahead of us had just killed a fat calf 
belonging to Lassen ; and dividing with us, we all feasted on cracked wheat, 
veal and acorns, at Lassen's expense. 

"Early the next morning found us on the road again. It had rained 
during the night, leaving the road very heavy. We traveled a number of 
days before we got in sight of Table Mountain. Here we found a notice 
to emigrants directing them to different mining camps, giving the name and 
clislance to each camp, signed "Bidwell," Morris Ravine being the nearest. 
After a long talk, my father decided to try that, the others deciding to go on, 
saying that it was another Lassen Cut-off fake. However, father ordered 
me to turn and follow him, which I had trouble in doing, as our team had 
been used to following in line and refused to obey. However, being an 
expert with the whip, I brought them around, following father along the 
base of the Table Mountain, where we made our first camp in California. 
October 25, 1849. 


"After arranging our camp, the following morning father walked clown 
to the Feather River and to the Morris Ravine, where he found a few 
miners at work. After talking with them and seeing them wash out a few 
pans of dirt, he' returned to the camp, which was three or four miles distant. 
Next morning he took his pan, shovel and pick, located a claim, and com- 
menced his first day's work in California. He would work until late, lay 
the gold taken from each pan 1 of dirt on a flat rock, and at night take it to 
camp in his pan, having, he thought, about two ounces of gold, or about 
thirty dollars, for his clay's work. He continued walking back and forth 
for several days, rain or shine. One very stormy day, a stranger on horse- 
back came to our camp, driving two oxen. He talked with my mother and 
told of the different mining camps and advised us to move our camp down 
the river. He left the two steers with my brother George and myself, saying 
that if he came back for them within a few days he would pay us for our 
trouble in looking after them, but if not, we could keep them. He said that 
we could ride or lead them like horses. He gave his name as Bidwell. 

"Father, acting on Bidwell's advice, decided to move our camp to the 
river. We gathered our steers and packed them with bedding and clothing. 
Father took the lead with a load on his back, and my brother George and 
I took charge of the steers, while mother and my- oldest sister handled the 
three younger children. YVe reached the river with little trouble. Some 
of the miners came and assisted us in arranging our camp. The next day 
we made two trips to our wagon, taking all of our plunder and part of the 
wagon bed, from which father made a rocker and furniture. Here we spent 
the winter of 1849. 

"Provisions at that time were not to be had. We, like the others, lived 
mostly on game, of which there was an abundance of all kinds. However, 
after a few days, a pack train of eight or ten mules came in with provisions, 
mostly flour and beans, and some bacon. Flour sold at that time for $1.50 
per pound ; other things in proportion. Soon another and larger train came 
in with a general assortment of provisions, dry goods, etc. Flour then took 
a drop to $1 a pound. Mother bought a pint jar of pickles and two sweet 
potatoes for $11; a paper of needles and two spools of thread, $7.50; three 
pairs of shoes, $10 and $14 per pair ; rubber boots ran $28 and $30 a pair. 

"We worked every day but Sunday. Father would dig and carry dirt 
to the river in a sack while I handled the rocker, often making as high as 
$100 or $150 per day; but this did not last long. We remained here until 
the spring of 1850, when we moved up the south fork of the Feather River, 
where father, with twelve or fifteen others, undertook to flume and turn 
the river, with the idea of getting' rich quick, but after working all summer 
and spending their money, the water came up and swept away in a night 
what had taken them all summer to accomplish. 

"Our next move was to a new camp (afterwards named Forbestown), 
with the late James Forbes. This camp proved to be very lively. Forbes 
entered into the mercantile business. Father kept public house later, but 
mining was his principal occupation. Soon there were a number of saloons, 
each having tw r o or more gambling tables. The principal games then were 
monte, faro and roulette. Thousands of dollars exchanged hands every 
night. Stacks of gold coin and sacks of gold dust were on the tables. There 
was what was then called a 'slug,' containing $50, with other smaller coins. 

"There were a few older settlers of Forbestown besides Forbes, one M. 
McMurtry of North Butte, Ed Bogardus, and M. Gaskell, butchers; three 
Turpire brothers, Dolph and Ed Moses, teamsters ; and John Snell, express- 
man, besides the noted gambler, V. Hitchcock, from the 'Sunny South,' where 
'they shoot, cut, and drink whiskey,' this being his usual expression when 


drunk. At his table he usually had from $5000 to $10,000 in coin and dust, 
with his loaded revolver always at hand. 

"The miners usually left the gold in the pans in front of their camps to 
dry, unmolested ; but on one occasion a stranger came to town, and seeing 
things lying around, decided to help himself, which he did by entering a camp 
and taking clothing, a gold watch, and $40 or $50 in gold. He was found 
with most of the plunder on him, was taken to a tree, his shirt stripped off, 
and he was tied with his arms around the tree. He was given twenty-five 
lashes with a rawhide, and ordered to leave town, which he did. 

"We remained in Forbestown until the fall of 1852, when we moved to 
Sutter County and located a few miles below Captain Sutter's place, now 
Hock Farm. Father, after getting our house well under way and leaving 
men to finish it, returned to the mine in Forbestown. Our nearest neigh- 
bors were Mr. and Mrs. Bader, who kept the public house and sold liquor. 
It will be remembered that Mrs. Bader was murdered by a man named 
Jackson, and thrown into the slough where she usually did her washing. 
Jackson had come there the evening before. The following morning, Bader 
rode up to Captain Sutter's place of business, leaving Jackson with Mrs. 
Bader. During his absence, Jackson shot and killed Mrs. Bader, and, after 
secreting her body in the slough, went through the house in search of money 
they were supposed to have. On Bader's return, Jackson met him at the 
door and fired two shots at him, neither taking effect. Bader ran down to 
our house, inquired for his wife and told what had happened, and, after 
getting together a few of the nearest neighbors, returned to his house. 
Jackson had taken Bader's horse, and rode toward Yuba City. A party 
followed him and found him about four miles below Yuba City, asleep, with 
his horse tied near by. He was taken back. In the meantime, a number 
of people had heard of the murder and collected. Jackson was given a trial 
and sentenced to be hanged the following evening. Some of the jurors were 
Captain Allender, Stephen Shores, Ed Tobin, Captain Sutter, Jr., Jim Hum- 
phreys, and others, with Judge Lynch presiding. . He was taken to a near-by 
tree and hanged. The news had reached Yuba City by this time, and a 
number came down, including the sheriff and other officers, but they were 
too late. There was quite a discussion among them over the hasty pro- 
ceedings, but nothing was done. Jackson was allowed to hang there until 
about dark, when he was taken down and buried near the same spot, with 
his boots on. This all took place the 'same day. Mrs. Bader's body was 
found in the slough, was taken to her house and prepared for burial by 
my mother, sister, and Mrs. Brighton, a neighbor, and was buried at Cap- 
tain Sutter's place. 

"We remained there until the winter of 1852, when the first flood that 
came took away our house and most of its contents. The first warning we 
had of water was hearing the pans and kettles floating about in the house. 
We were soon up and hastily dressed with whatever we could find. With 
the wind blowing a gale and the water two feet deep in the house, we started 
for a high knoll about 300 or 400 yards away, where we remained until day- 
break, when we were rescued by parties camped near and taken to Mrs. 
Brighton's, on high ground. As she had a large family, it was an easy matter 
for us to get dry clothing. When father heard of the high water in the 
valley, he came down and removed to Yuba City, then a lively camp with 
one or two grocery stores, two saloons, and some business houses. There 
were two ferries, one about where the bridge now is, known as Hanson Ferry, 
and handled by one John Frank; the other was a ferry about half a mile 
above, known as Webb Ferry. The latter was of short duration. The road 


or street to Marysville, now Fifth Street, was then much the same as Third 
Street is to the boat landing. 

"The second flood, which came in 1853, covered the whole country 
almost to the Buttes. Marysville was in water two to four feet deep ; Yuba 
City the same, with one exception, the Indian mound, where fifty or seventy- 
five Digger Indians were camped near where the Dr. J. H. Barr residence 
now is. Plouses and stacks of hay, with pigs and poultry on top, went down 
the river, greatly interfering with the ferry ropes. Marysville could be 
reached only by rowboats, one of which I handled. The fare from Yuba 
City to Marysville and return was $1. The water soon went down, leaving 
the roads and streets in bad condition. 

"Marysville was then perhaps the best business town on the Coast. Ten 
or fifteen large teams would go out almost daily, loaded with supplies for 
the mines, besides a number of stages with four to six horses, many of them 
only partly broken, carrying passengers. Mail and express went to all 
points in the mountains where such conveyances could reach. There were 
also a number of pack trains having fifteen to twenty, or more, mules, loaded 
with supplies, that went to the mines higher up, wdiere wagons could not 
reach. One of the first pack trains from Marysville was run by the late 
J. Bustillos of La Porte. Most of the freight then came to Marysville by 
water, there being five or six boats making regular trips. There was one 
large-sized wheel boat called the Comanche, besides the Urilda, J. Bragdon, 
and the Governor Dana. The last two boats alternated, making trips to 
Hammontown and Oroville, the latter a lively mining town, where a number 
of freight teams and pack trains left daily. The boat-landing, or wharf, was 
near and below where the W. T. Ellis grocery was operated for years. The 
Merchants' Hotel, then operated by John C. Fall, one of the leading mer- 
chants in Marysville, was doing a wdiolesale business mostly ; but he finally 
became involved and broke up, losing his $50,000 residence on G and Seventh 
Streets, now owned by Richard Belcher, Marysville attorney. 

"Marysville had its first State Fair in 1853, same being well attended. 
Many of the older settlers were there with their stock and other exhibits. 
Among these settlers were Captain Sutter, Major Bidwell, Charles Covillaud. 
father of the late Charles Covillaud, Peter Lassen, and others; but the moat 
conspicuous person There was Kit Carson. He could be known by his dress, 
as he wore a buckskin suit with red stripes and tassels down the back, 
Panama hat and red sash. He carried with him a general assortment of 
Indian reiics, bows and arrows, beads, moccasins, and many other curiosities, 
besides two Indian scalps, which he claimed were taken from an Apache 
chief and warnor in a battle. 

"We remained in Yuba City until the fall of 1854, when we made another 
move to West Butte, locating two miles above where the West Butte store 
now is, and adjoining the property of the late Squire Hamlin, for whom I 
later went to work, remaining with him for a number of years. My prin- 
cipal work was riding after stock, which he dealt in. W. H. Parks and 
Frank Parks, the latter the father of the late William H. Parks of the Decker 
& Jewett Company, bankers, had a large number of cattle, which I also 
looked after. Their cattle at times ranged as far north as Chico in Butte 
County, and above, which was then a small place. 

' "At that time the Indians frequently made raids through and around 
Chico, driving off the stock and murdering whenever an opportunity pre- 
sented itself. The Heacock family will still be remembered. They were 
living above Chico, when one day three of the family and a man named 
Thomas Allen, a teamster, were murdered. With Allen was an Indian boy, 
raised by M. Keefer, who saw the Indians coming down towards them. 


Realizing: their intention, he ran to the Heacock house, telling of the coming 
of the Indians. He insisted that Mrs. Heacock go to the Sadorus house; 
but she refused, saying that her two girls and boy were gathering blackber- 
ries on the creek, and she would wait until they returned. The Indian boy 
then took her baby and ran toward the Sadorus place, calling her to come. 
Finally she followed, and when they reached the house, the boy reported 
seeing the Indians. Owing to Sadorus not being home, nothing could be 
done. On his return, however, he was told by the boy that the Indians were 
going toward Mr. Allen's, who was then attaching his team to his loaded 
wagon. Sadorus did not dare to leave his family, which consisted of his wife 
and three daughters, Mrs. M. J. Bryden and Mrs. Joseph Brown (still resi- 
dents of Marysville) and Mrs. J. P. Cope of Central House, Butte City, and 
two sons, John and Charles Sadorus, now of Illinois. After sending a man 
to warn the neighbors along the creek, he sent to Chico for help. A party 
was quickly formed and started. They found Allen lying near his team, shot 
to death with arrows. After caring for him, further search was abandoned 
for the night. The following morning, a larger party started in search of 
the two girls, and the boy. Late in the day the two girls were found dead, 
their clothing stripped from their bodies, which were pierced with arrows. 
From one of the girls, thirty-two arrows were taken. There were two deep 
gashes in the face of this girl, one under each eye. These girls were fourteen 
and sixteen years of age. The girls' remains were taken to the home of the 
Sadorus family, where their mother was waiting for them. Their father, 
who was then in the mountains, was sent for, and arrived in time to attend 
the funeral, which was held in Chico. Further search for the boy, with an 
additional force of men, was made for a number .of days, but without success, 
as the Indians were alert, wore moccasins, and left no tracks by which the 
men in search could follow. However, at the end of eight or ten clays, and 
perhaps seventy-five or eighty miles from the scene of the murder, they came 
to where the Indians had camped and had a war dance over their victim. 
The boy had been forced to walk the entire distance. When found, he had 
a rope around his neck and was tied to a stake. He had not been shot, but 
was tortured to death by degrees in a most cruel manner. His remains were 
taken back and buried beside his sisters, without his mother seeing them, 
as they were so badly decomposed and otherwise mangled and bruised. 

"I remained with Squire Hamlin until the year of the silver excitement 
in Nevada State in 1862, when the Squire decided to go to Nevada and locate 
a stock range and perhaps a silver mine. He had lost very heavily in cattle 
during the winter and spring just passed, when thousands of cattle along 
the river were drowned and those in the Buttes and on higher ground died 
from lack of food. The Squire purchased a large wagon, loading it mostly 
with provisions, and with four yoke of cattle started for Nevada, taking 
along about 100 head of stock. Travel was rather slow, as we had consid- 
erable trouble with the stock. AYe had reached Dogtown on the Honey 
Lake route, when the Squire met with an accident from which he never fully 
recovered, causing us to lay off for a few days. He grew worse daily, and 
after one teamster and two other men left him, he decided to return home. 
selling the whole outfit and stock to a Mr. Miller, of Humbug Yalley. 1 
then took the Squire to Dogtown, where he took the stage for Marysville. 
took the saddle-horse back to \Yest Butte. Having only two of my own, I 
bought two more and with a light wagon made the trip alone, going to \ ir- 
ginia City and across the desert to the Sink of the Humboldt River, where 
I found a man named James Emery camping. He was going to a new camp 
called Trinity District, near where is now the Rochester Mine. We camped 
together and spent the first month in prospecting. As Finery was an old 


prospector, I depended a great deal on him. We found two or three ledges 
that we considered good, which we located, naming one the West Butte. 
There was only one mine working, and turning out some good ore. How- 
ever, for lack of machinery, it could not be worked properly. In the camp 
were two families, Mr. Lovelock and family, and Mrs. Ellis. Indians were 
then committing murders almost daily. There were three or four Indians 
around the different camps who were supposed to be peaceable. They were 
supplied with food and clothing, even with powder and caps, as they had guns. 

"Emery and myself decided to move to Unionville, then a gold mining 
camp, with a number of mines at work. However, before leaving we 
thought it best to do some work on the ledges we had discovered, and set 
the following day to go ; but as Emery met with a slight accident, he was 
unable to go. A friend of his, Frank Gregg, was anxious to go along, so the 
following morning we were ready to start, when a man named Joe Bartlett, 
better known as 'Black Rock Joe,' an old Indian fighter, advised us to take 
a gun along. He gave us a Henry rifle with sixteen cartridges in it and a 
belt with twenty or thirty more cartridges, which we took along. 

"They had noticed our pet Indians, as we usually called them, were 
missing; but this was nothing unusual. As it was only three or four miles 
to the first ledge, we soon reached it, commenced work, and were about 
ready to move to the next claim, when three shots were fired almost at once. 
I saw Frank stoop over and rise again, and asked him if he were hit, and he 
said he was. I ran for the rifle, which lay a few steps away, and moved up 
a few steps, and could see where the Indians were trying to reload their 
rifles. I fired two or three shots among them. When they arose and started 
to run over a short rise, I fired at the last one, and when they came in sight 
again there was one Indian missing. Knowing what had happened, I 
directed my firing at the next one behind. After two or three shots, he 
lagged behind. The one in the lead came back to assist him, but could not 
raise him, and left. He was then 250 or 300 yards away, but in plain sight. 
I fired three or four shots at him, and could see one arm hanging at his side, 
and knew he was badly wounded. 

"Running back to where Frank lay, and examining his wound, I could 
see that he was fatally shot. Something had to be done and done quickly, 
as we did not know what minute we might be attacked by other Indians 
that might have heard our shooting. After consulting with one another, 
we decided that I should go to the camp for help. Gathering some sage- 
brush and making a temporary shed over him, I started for camp and had 
gone perhaps a half a mile, when I saw four or five, as I supposed. Indians 
coming directly toward me from the camp. I secreted myself, replacing all 
my empty shells with loaded ones, and determined not to let a single Indian 
pass me. (I have just begun to realize how little I knew about Indians.) 
The supposed Indians soon came in sight again. I then realized they were 
white men, which was a great relief to me. I soon met them and told them 
what had happened. They had heard the report of our guns, and knew we 
were in trouble. Black Rock Joe was with them. He had borrowed a rifle, 
for I had his. He remarked : 'That is you fellows' pet Indian that you have 
been feeding and furnishing ammunition." I took one man back to camp 
with me, after showing the others about where Frank was. We made a 
stretcher with sacks and two poles to take Frank back to camp. While I 
was gone, Black Rock Joe thought he would see if the first Indian that fell 
was still there. He walked carefully around where he could see the Indian 
lying, his gun a few feet from him. He was still alive. Black Rock Joe 
recognized him as 'Billy,' one of the Indians that we had been feeding and 
clothing. While examining the Indian's wound, his rifle was discharged, the 


bullet passing through Billy's head, accidentally, I suppose. Billy was 
buried, but the men did not look after the other Indian. We returned with 
our temporary stretcher, to take Mr. Gregg to Mr. Lovelock's place, where 
he had formerly worked. After two days' suffering, he died. 

"A number had already left the camp and others were afraid to stay. 
Mr. Emery was now able to be around; so we decided to move to Unionville, 
then a lively town of about 600 or 700 inhabitants, and a number of mines 
at work. John C. Fall, a former Marysville merchant, was there and in the 
same business. Being interested in a number of mines, he employed me to 
take charge of one called the 'Gem,' about eighteen miles north of Unionville, 
where Emery and myself worked for about two years. The mine, then in 
litigation, was closed down. Emery and myself decided to return to Trinity 
District and do some work on our claims there. Before reaching our desti- 
nation, we met a party of four men, who were planning to go on a ten- or 
fifteen-day prospecting trip ; and among them was our old friend, Black Rock 
Joe, who was anxious to have us go along. They were all armed with 
Henry rifles. Emery was anxious to go. He took along the only shotgun 
he had. I had always kept it loaded with twelve buckshot in each barrel, 
which he fired off, reloading it. It was understood among us that any dis- 
covery or location made by them was to be shared equally with me. The 
following morning they started on their trip, and I went back to Unionville 
for another outfit and a man to do our work in the Trinity District. Emery 
had taken our outfit with him. 

"The second day out, they camped on what is known as Willow Creek, 
eighteen miles west from the Humboldt River. At daybreak the next morn- 
ing, wdiile some of them were still in their beds, they were attacked by In- 
dians, fifty to seventy-five in number. Mr. Arnold, being the first to arise, 
was looking after their horses, which were staked near by, when he was shot 
and disabled. The others in the party were soon out of their beds and ready 
for action, they having the advantage of the Indians by being partly pro- 
tected by the willows. The Indians on horseback would circle around them, 
firing at them mostly with arrows, but some had rifles. After discharging 
them, they would fall back out of sight, reload their rifles, and make another 
attack. With Arnold wounded in the first attack, they were left with but 
four men to contend with perhaps seventy-five Indians. The Indians made 
another attack, getting very close and firing from their horses on the run. 
Three or four were shot within a few steps from the camp. Emery was 
fatally shot while reloading his gun after killing one Indian and wounding 
another. The Indians left for the hills after about ten or twelve of their 
tribe were either killed or wounded. After attending to the two wounded 
men, Bartlett, following his usual habit of taking an Indian's scalp whenever 
an opportunity offered, took six scalps. He could have taken more, but did 
not molest those who were still alive. They recovered three of their horses; 
one was taken by the Indians. 

"The wounded men were placed on the wagons and returned to Mill 
City on Humboldt River, then owned by the Thacker Brothers. John Thacker 
was later a detective for the Wells Fargo Company. Emery died the fol- 
lowing day. The news was soon spread to the different mining camps. Two 
others and myself went to Mill City, getting there in time to assist in the 
burying of Emery. Arnold was taken to Unionville for treatment, and soon 
recovered. Emery was buried near where two others killed by Indians were 
buried. One, a minister named John Kellogg, formerly of Yuba City, was 
killed near Granite Springs. His body was cut in many pieces and hung 
on sagebrush along the road. His remains were found and brought in Mill 
City by the Spence brothers, teamsters, well known in Butte County. Mill 


City is situated on the Humboldt River and was formerly known as Hum- 
boldt Meadows, or Lassen Meadows, where many immigrants to California 
were led perhaps 150 miles out of their way by the Peter Lassen Cut-off. 

"Our prospecting trip was abandoned, and a party of about one hundred 
determined to go in pursuit of the Indians, who were committing devasta- 
tions. John Bryden, brother of the late James Bryden, of Honcut. acted as 
our leader, taking along two Indians as guides. The Indians we were in 
pursuit of were of the Shoshone tribe, then at war with the Piutes, each tribe 
claiming the other was trespassing on its hunting grounds. We followed 
them a number of days and finally reached their camp, where there were 
twenty or thirty women and children, with five or six young bucks, who 
tried to escape, but were shot down. The able-bodied men and warriors 
had left camp the evening before. For several days we followed them, 
but were invariably a day behind, as the Indians had the advantage 
of us in knowing the country. As our supplies were getting short, we 
decided to return. 

"To illustrate the really brutal and murderous disposition of an Indian. 
I will relate an incident I saw. While at their camp gathering up the women 
and children, who were scattered and in hiding, one of our Indian guides, 
seeing a child near by, rode up to it, took it by the hair, raised it into his 
saddle, and then took it by one leg and dashed its head against a stone, killing 
it instantly. This was reported to Mr. Bryden, our captain, who repri- 
manded the Indian severely. The women were taken to Unionville and 
held as prisoners, but were soon released. 

"I then branched out into the cattle business. Purchasing a small band, 
I remained with them, occasionally working in the mines, until the year the 
Central Pacific Railroad came through in 1869, when myself and A. M. 
Sadorus engaged in the butchering business, furnishing beef for the graders 
and construction camps. It was not long before the first cars came through, 
and we shipped our beef by cars until the camps got too far ahead. We then 
opened a shop in Battle Mountain, where we built the first frame or lumber 
house. It was then a lively railroad town of tents. AYe remained in the 
butchering business until the year 1872, when we sold our shop and business 
and went back into the cattle and sheep business. We then made Golconda, 
on the Central Pacific Railroad, our headquarters. Having different camps, 
our cattle ranged in Clover Valley and Kelly Creek, while our sheep were 
kept mostly in Edin and Paradise Valley. Paradise Valley and Clover Val- 
ley are now two of the most highly cultivated valleys in Nevada, running 
parallel with and lying on the west side of Humboldt River, extending north. 
In Clover Valley, many thousands of tons of alfalfa are put up yearly, fed 
mostly to stock, and dairying is carried on extensively. 

"We continued in the cattle and sheep business until the fall of 1880. 
when we closed out our entire business in Nevada. My family and I then 
returned to Yuba County, where I purchased what was then known as the 
Fort Hawley place (now known as Olive Hill), with its entire flock of sheep. 
We remained here until the fall of 1888, when I disposed of my place, con- 
sisting of 980 acres of land, to Messrs. H. Juch, Ehmann and Allen, founders 
of Olive Hill colony. I then returned to my old home in Marysville, after 
an absence of eighteen years in Nevada State. 

"Mr. Sadorus returned from Nevada to his home farm in Champagne 
County, 111., in 1882, where he remained until called by death, October 13, 
1915. He had crossed the plains to California in 1849 by ox team over the 
extreme southern route, landing in San Diego in the late fall of 1849. where 
they remained about two years, then moving to Butte County, and locating 
on Rock Creek, above Chico. During their stay in San Diego, a daughter 


was born to them, November 26, 1850, now Mrs. Joseph Brown, of H Street. 
in Marysville. 

"Among- the earliest settlers in Marysville, were Capt. John Sutter, who 
arrived in 1839; Gen. John Bichvell. 1841; L. W. Hastings of Colusa. F. B. 
Redding of Shasta, and Peter Lassen. 1844: Fremont and Kit Carson, in 1845: 
Townsend. and Murphy and the Covillauds of the Donner party, in 1846. 
Mr. W. G. Murphy became a well-known attorney in Marysville. In spite 
of the wild and uncivilized nature of the country in the earlv davs, there 
were many good men among the settlers. Many acts of kindness were shown 
our family in different ways, which were appreciated and never forgotten 
by my mother and sister. Captain Sutter was one of the most liberal and 
hospitable of men. It was through his kindness and hospitalitv that he 
became heavily involved. He lost his lands, together with his vast herds of 
stock, and was left with only his home place, Hock Farm, which was later 
taken from him. Leaving- Hock Farm, he returned to Pennsylvania, his 
former home, dying in "Washington. D. C. January 19, 1888. 

"These are my recollections of the 'days of 49.* They were indeed 
wonderful days. And if my story in any way enables you to appreciate 
them, the telling has been worth while." 

The story of Joseph Brown's hardships is typical of the life and adven- 
tures of many another "forty-niner," and for that reason, as well as for its 
own romantic interest and fascination, is regarded by the compiler as worth} 
of permanent record in full, in the history of the early pioneer days. 



The year 1848 proved to be of unusual importance in the history of Yuba 
County. The discovery of gold at Coloma in Eldorado County was followed 
in less than four months by the finding of the precious metal within the limits 
of Yuba County. During "this year Charles Covillaud, one of the founders of 
the county, married Miss Mary Murphy, sister of Mrs. Michael Nye and 
Mrs. William Foster, who had crossed the plains to the new Arcadia. Marys- 
ville, two years later, received its name from Mary Covillaud. The details of 
the town meeting at which Mrs. Covillaud was given this signal honor appeal- 
in another chapter treating specifically of the history of Marysville from its 
birth to the present day. It was during the year 1848, also, that Rouelle 
abandoned his place on the south side of Yuba River and settled again mi 
Feather River, near Charles Roether, and Nye occupied his old house. Pat- 
terson sold to Sicard the land he had purchased in 1846 from Smith. In the 
spring. Foster moved his family from Yerba Buena, and in partnership with 
Nye bought Smith's ranch. 

During the remaining portion of this year nothing of note occurred in 
this region until the discovery of gold on the American River, when all eyes 
were turned in that direction; but the heat of the mining fever was nut yet 
at its highest. The people were suspicious regarding the quality and amount 
of the gold. As the weeks passed, however, confidence was gained and the 
belief that there might possibly be precious minerals in other localities was 


strengthened. Prospectors gradually pushed out beyond the narrow limits 
of the first mining district, and thus commenced the opening up of the vast 
mining fields of California and the Pacific Coast. 

There seems to be some dispute regarding the first discovery of gold 
north of the American River and in the vicinity of Marysville. The credit 
is divided between Michael Nye and his party and an early settler named 
Jonas Spect. The discoveries by Nye and Spect were nearly contemporane- 
ous. Spect and two friends were on their return to the Eastern States, rather 
discouraged and disappointed at their success in California as gold hunters, 
when they came upon a party of Indians on their way to Sutter's Mill to dig 
gold. The Indians reported stories of fabulously rich diggings; and Spect 
and his party thereupon changed their minds about returning East. On 
reaching Slitter's Mill they found that several rich strikes had been made, but 
the miners there at work did not average $2.50 a day. Marshall and Sutter 
claimed the land and rented the mines to prospectors. Every one supposed 
that gold was confined to that particular section. 

Disgruntled, Spect then tried Bear River, near what is now known as John- 
son Rancho, of which the present city of Wheatland is the center. There 
he had scarcely any better success. He then arranged for an Indian guide, 
who encouraged prospecting on the Yuba River. On the 1st of June they 
struck the Yuba near Long Bar, then a small mining settlement occupied 
by the hardy adventurers of that early day. On June 2, Spect prospected 
up the stream, finding some gold, but not in paying quantities. The Indian 
was well acquainted with the locality, and he piloted Spect up to the location 
of Rose Bar, close to the present site of Smartsville, where they met a 
large number of Indians, all entirely nude and living mostly on clover. Here, 
again, he found gold, but not in remunerative quantities. In Timbuctoo 
ravine, now a suburb of Smartsville, though but a ghost of its former self, 
he washed some of the dirt and found three lumps of gold worth about $7. 
A week later Spect met Michael Nye and William Foster prospecting in 
the same vicinity. 

That summer Nye and his party found paying diggings on Dry Creek, 
near its junction with the Yuba River, and commenced working on an exten- 
sive scale. From these discoveries the search for gold spread to every creek 
and rivulet, and Yuba County's reputation as a gold field spread and grew. 

In 1849 the United States government, for the protection of the early 
settlers, established Camp Far West at a point four miles east of the present 
city of Wheatland, Yuba County's hop and fruit center. Camp Far West 
is now indicated to the tourist by a marker erected by the Native Sons of 
the Golden West, at the instance of Rainbow Parlor of that order in Wheat- 
land. Here two companies of soldiers were maintained for several years 
under Capt. H. S. Day, who afterward became Major Day, and whose son 
became Adjutant-General of the State of Nevada. Captain Day received his 
supplies from San Francisco by boats to Vernon Landing on Feather River, 
which often had to be unloaded under many disadvantages on account of the 
mud and muck on the river banks. AVhen not unloading boats or on duty, 
the soldiers could earn from $5 to $6 a day mining near the military camp. 

Fred H. Greely, present auditor and recorder of Yuba County, and a 
Past Grand President of the order of Native Sons of the Golden West, 
recently presented to Rainbow Parlor of the order at Wheatland a relic of 
Camp Far West, which is dearly treasured by the members of that body. It 
consists of Captain Day's official letter book, containing copies of the reports 
he made to the War Department while in charge of Camp Far AVest. 

Camp Far West was abandoned in May, 1852, and the troops, numbering 
about forty men of Company E, 1st Infantry, under the command of Lieu- 


tenant Davis, were ordered to set out for the upper Sacramento, with a 
design of establishing a post in the neighborhood of Cottonwood, for the 
purpose of protecting the settlers from hostile Indians. A public sale of the 
extra stores was held on the first day of May. Many of the soldiers were 
discharged, some of these going to the mines or working for settlers, others 
settling on lands, and the remainder going to their homes. There were left 
behind the log structures built for barracks and officers' quarters, and also 
a log fort. These buildings could be seen there for many years after, but 
no trace of them now remains. 

The year of 1849 opened with but little visible improvement in the 
future city of Marysville, and without many additions to its roll of inhab- 
itants. The whole current of travel was toward the mines on the upper parts 
of the rivers, and few considered it necessary to remain more than a day 
or two at the old ranch on the Yuba. On the 4th of January, Cordua sold 
to Michael C. Nye and William Foster, for $20,000, his remaining one-half 
interest in the business and possessions of the firm of Cordua & Company, 
Charles Covillaud retaining the other half. Nye and Foster also put into 
the partnership their previous possessions, in view of which they each were 
allotted a third interest in the joint business. Nye managed the ranch and 
stock business, while Covillaud had a store at Sicard Flat, and Foster one 
near Foster's Bar. The name of the main ranch was now changed to "Nye's 
Ranch." The firm found a ready market for all of their beef in the mines, or 
with travelers to and from the diggings. In April, 1849, the estimated 
amount of stock on the ranch was 5000 head of cattle, 600 horses, 500 hogs, 
and a small collection of poultry. Cordua, having sold his property, moved 
to the mines, opening a store at Cordua Bar. It was not long before he had 
spent all of the money paid him by Nye and Foster. 

In the spring, Rose, Reynolds and Kinloch purchased the whole tract 
owned by Nye and Sicard on Yuba River. George Kinloch's father was a 
Scotchman, who came to California about 1825 ; his mother was a native 
Californian. George received his education in the Sandwich Islands under 
the tuition of the Missionaries, there being no opportunities in California 
excepting the Mission schools of the Catholic Friars. He entered into 
partnership with Messrs. Rose and Reynolds shortly after they opened their 
store at Rose Bar in 1848. 

During the spring of 1849 a board of commissioners were elected at 
Sacramento to frame a code of laws for the district. The following were 
the members: Messrs. Brannan, Snyder, Slater, Hensley, King, Cheever, 
McCoover, McDougal, Barton Lee, Tetle, Southard, Fowler, and Dr. Car- 
penter. The committee speedily prepared their report and, calling the people 
together under the shade of an oak tree at the foot of I Street, Sacramento 
City, submitted to them the result of their labors. It provided for the 
election of one alcalde and a sheriff, with a jurisdiction extending from the 
Coast Range to the Sierra Nevada Mountains, and throughout the Sacra- 
mento Valley. The report having been adopted, H. A. Schoolcraft was 
elected alcalde, and A. M. Turner, sheriff. These constituted the judiciary 
of Northern California up to the latter part of 1849. 

About the 1st of April, the town of Vernon, in Sutter County, was 
started on the east bank of the Sacramento River at its confluence with the 
Feather River. The land, comprising two sections, had been purchased by 
Franklin Bates, E. O. Crosby, and B. Simons from Capt. John A. Sutter, 
the latter retaining a quarter interest in the town. Owing to the fact that 
it was considered to be the "head of navigation," its rise was very rapid. 
Three or four wholesale stores were established in tents, or in board struc- 
tures. Ox teams and pack trains were loaded here with supplies fur the 


mining localities. In a very short time there were opened several hotels 
and boarding houses, butcher shops, blacksmith shops, laundries, and even 
a law office and alcalde's court. Eight or ten saloons or gambling houses 
were started, and the town presented a busy appearance. Among the busi- 
ness men and firms were Captain Savage, Bradbury & Company, and Will- 
iams & Company. Gilbert A. Grant was alcalde and agent for the sale of 
lots. George W. Crane was the attorney-at-law. Jonas Spect had settled on 
the west bank of the Feather River and located the town of Fremont. 

As soon as it was found that steamers and the larger sailing vessels 
could successfully reach the landing at Marysville, however, Vernon's fate 
was sealed and soon the town was nearly deserted. It was at one time the 
county seat of Sutter County. Thinking that Vernon was to be the city of 
Northern California, and that the limited confines of the first map would, 
in the rush of settlers, be insufficient for all the locations, an addition called 
South Vernon was laid out ; but only one house was constructed thereon. 
On April 28 a weekly paper, printed upon paper of the size of foolscap, and 
called the Placer Times, issued its first number at Sutter's Fort. E. C. 
Kimble was its editor, typesetter, publisher and printer, and was the "pioneer 
newspaper man" of the valley. 

Reverting to Nye's Ranch, on September 27, 1849, Messrs. Nye and 
Foster sold to Charles Covillaud, for $30,000, all the title and interest in the 
land, improvements, etc., which had been conveyed to them by Cordua. 
Covillaud was now the sole possessor of the ranch, but his tenure was to be 
of but short duration. On October 1, 1849, Covillaud sold to J. M. Ramirez 
and J. Sampson, for $23,300, an undivided one-half of his property, $12,000 
to be paid down and $11,300 to be paid on July 1, 1850; and during the same 
month he disposed of one-fourth to Theodore Sicard, for $12,000, the firm 
name being Covillaud & Company. 

On the 25th of October, a company landed in Marysville which was 
destined to become an important factor in the more close settlement of Yuba 
County. This was a joint-stock company, composed of twenty-six active 
and ten home shareholders, organized in Gardiner, Maine, and called the 
Kennebec Company. In March, 1849, the company went to New Bedford, 
Mass., where they bought a vessel and loaded a cargo. The officers were :• 
C. N. Bodfish, president ; C. M. N. Cooper, captain ; Leander Cox and one 
other, directors. The departure was made on the 1st of April, the extra 
accommodations being secured by passengers not members of the organiza- 
tion. On the 17th of September, 1849, the ship arrived at San Francisco, 
and was taken up to the "New York of the Pacific," the prospective metrop- 
olis on the lower rivers. A house, which they had brought with them in 
sections, was erected at the town, and the vessel was sold. After landing 
and making necessary preparations, the company started for the northern 
mining regions, making the voyage in six rowboats. They landed at the 
site of Marysville, and remained on the night of October 25. The next day 
they resumed the trip, passing up the Yuba River two miles to Simpson's 
Crossing, where they pitched a tent and covered their provisions. The jour- 
ney was renewed, and after passing ten miles up the river they discovered 
and located Kennebec Bar, during the last days of October, 1849. 

In November, 1849, the only buildings at Nye's Ranch were two adobe 
structures at the foot of D Street, about two or three rods apart. One was 
used as a boarding house and the other as a lodging apartment, to accom- 
modate the local travel. No furniture was placed in the latter, the lodgers 
being required to furnish their own bedding. The brightening prospects of 
the location, and the certainty that it would be the head of navigation, 
caused the proprietors, in December, to have a survey made for a town. 


The work was performed by August Le Plonjean, who segregated the tract 
into ranges, blocks, and lots. The incipient city was called "Yubaville," 
the name it bore till the beginning of the next year. Some of the early 
residents stated prior to their death that it was a common rumor, when they 
arrived in 1850, that the streets had been laid out and the lines run by the 
use of a ship's quadrant. This, if true, accounts for the irregularities in 
direction and distance existing even yet. The survey was speedily followed 
by a lively real-estate market ; lots and blocks were disposed of at good 
round figures, and the attention of many who had heretofore thought that 
all the wealth of the State lay in the mines was called to this new money- 
making investment. There was one obstacle which prevented many careful 
speculators from purchasing lots in this new town, and that was the doubt 
as to the validity of the title. The tract had been secured from Captain 
Sutter by Cordua through a lease for nineteen years, and at the end of that 
period the land would revert to its real owner. During the next year this 
matter of title was settled, and the obstacle removed. Although the gen- 
erally accepted name at this time was Yubaville, there were those among 
the people who had other favorite titles, and who persisted in applying 
them to the new town. The old adobe house was the nucleus about which 
were erected, near the close of the year, a number of shanties. The general 
style of habitation was the tent made from canvas, cloth, or sacks. There 
appeared to be no permanent population, everybody being on the move, all 
full of life. A man named Osburn had a store on Front Street, near the old 
adobe, and furnished supplies to the travelers and transient settlers. 

During this year, there were a number of settlements made along Bear 
River. The Johnson Grant fell into the hands of Henry Robinson and 
Eugene Gillespie, who laid out a town at Johnson's Crossing, and gave it 
the name of Kearney, in compliment to General Kearney. It did not prove 
much of an honor, as the place never became settled. 

In November, a sawmill was built on Bear River, about five miles above 
Johnson's Crossing, by a man named John S. Moore, a Missourian, and was 
known as Moore's Mill. This energetic individual was a counterfeiter, and 
had in his possession a large quantity of spurious Missouri bank-bills. With 
these he paid for the building of his mill, and remunerated his employees. 
He established a broker's office and exchanged his bills for gold dust with 
the returning miners, who were glad of an opportunity to have their heavy 
wealth converted into paper money. So well executed were these bills, 
that thousands of dollars of them were taken by the Missouri banks before 
their true character was discovered. When their real nature was found out, 
many miners who arrived in Missouri on their way home, thinking them- 
selves to be rich, found that, notwithstanding the toils and dangers they had 
passed through, they were as poor as when they started. When Moore 
heard of the discovery he decamped, but was afterwards apprehended in 
South America, though he was never brought back to this country for trial. 

The year closed with little to foreshadow the events and startling 
developments to take place within a few months. The mining was being 
actively carried on in the mountains, and new discoveries and locations were 
constantly being made. 



The era of growth and progress had now arrived, and the city, which 
before this time had been seen only in dreams, was to become a reality. The 
possibility of uninterrupted navigation to its landings gave it superiority 
over the other towns on the lower parts of the river. The distance to the 
mines was so small that the cargoes of the steamers and sailing vessels 
could easily be transferred to the camps on the north and east. The mines 
were in active operation along the Yuba River and its tributaries, from ten 
miles above its mouth to the higher ranges of the Sierra Nevada Mountains. 
The growth of the town had just commenced, but it started full-fledged. 
Lots sold rapidly, for the first object of the merchant on arriving was to 
purchase or lease a suitable location for erecting his store. This wonderful 
increase in the number of business houses was simply the outgrowth of 
necessity. The mines were yielding millions of dollars, and miners must have 
some place to dispose of their gold dust and to purchase their food, clothes, 
and supplies. This was the only available point, and it became the business 
center. It is estimated that on the 1st of January there were about 300 
inhabitants in the town. 

A tabulated statement made at that time, showing- the population of 
California at the beginning of 1849 and comparing same with the population 
of the State on Januarv 1, 1850, showed the following: January 1, 1849, 
Calif ornians, 13,000; Americans, 8000; foreigners, 5000; total 26,000. Janu- 
ary 1, 1850, Californians, 13,000; Americans, 76,069, increase in one year, 
68,069 ; foreigners, 18,000, increase in one year, 13,000. 

Illustrative of the unsettled state of opinion regarding the location of 
the principal town of the region, the following may be mentioned. About 
the 10th of February, J. H. Jewett and Horace Beach arrived at Yuba City 
with a train of pack mules from Sacramento. The important question of 
settlement then presented itself to them. Being undecided, they remained 
in Yuba City about a week, when, fully convinced that the town across the 
river was to be the fortunate one, they crossed in a canoe, swimming their 
mules. The result showed their opinion and decision to be correct. During 
the first part of January, the second steamer on the river arrived. This 
was the Lawrence, commanded by E. C. M. Chadwick, and she was quickly 
followed by others. There "were no warehouses in which to store the abund- 
ant supplies of goods and merchandise that were being landed from the 
steamers and sailing vessels, and so they were deposited on the plaza, at the 
foot of E Street. The tent stores were filled to their utmost capacity. The 
only means of transportation to the mountain camps was by the pack trains. 
In the valleys the immense freight-wagons, often referred to as "prairie 
schooners," could be used. 

On Saturday, January 19, 1850, the following advertisement appeared 
in the Placer Times : 

"Notice : The undersigned take this method of informing the public 
that the new town of Marysville, at the mouth of Yuba River, formerly 
known as 'Nye's Ranch,' is now undergoing survey, and the lots will be 
offered for sale as soon as the map can be prepared. Persons desirous of 


visiting this place, will find a road passable at all seasons of the year from 
Sacramento City, by way of Norris Johnson's old ranch (now Gillespie's), 
thence to the town. The steamers Lawrence and Linda are also making 
regular trips twice a week. For further information, inquire of Messrs. 
Covillaud, Fajard & Company. 

"Signed: Charles Covillaud & Co., Proprietors." 

It was at this juncture that Stephen J. Field, a young man destined to 
become a justice of the United States Supreme Court, arrived on the scene 
and made known that he was a lawyer from New York. His services at 
once were enlisted in drawing up the deeds to the lots. To first quiet title 
to the whole, Field had Captain Sutter sent for. Sutter affixed his signature 
to a deed which conveyed to Covillaud, Ramirez, Sicard and Sampson all 
his right and title in the tract settled upon by Cordua, and described as 
follows : "Bounded southwardly by a small stream emptying into Feather 
River, called Yuba River ; westwardly by Feather River ; and northwardly 
by a line forming the northern boundary of the property of the party of the 
first part, which line is in latitude 39 degrees 33 minutes and 45 seconds, and 
which line commences at Feather River at the rancheria of Honcut, and 
extends to the lands of Theodore Cordua's ranch ; eastwardly by a straight 
line running from the lands of said Cordua's ranch, at right angles to the 
above-mentioned northwardly line, to the Yuba River." 

The tribunal formed by the selection of Stephen J. Field as alcalde, and 
T. M. Twitchel, sheriff, caused the turbulent element that had found its 
way to the new town to use greater discretion. Gambling, however, was an 
evil with which the law was incapable of dealing; it had become a mania, 
and policy required that the eyes of justice should be turned away from it. 
Hotels were established to accommodate the citizens and travelers. The 
rates charged were large; yet these were commensurate with the price at 
that time paid for provisions and labor. 

The free and easy morals at that time frequently tended to the com- 
mission of criminal acts, the most common being' the stealing of horses and 
cattle roaming on the wide, unfenced tracts. Following is an account of 
the proceedings to force the discontinuance of this custom, published in the 
Placer Times of Saturday, February 2, 1850 : 

"Criminal Court of Sacramento District 

"At a term of this court held for the District of Sacramento, at Marys- 
ville, upon the Yuba, this 28th day of January, 1850, present R. A. Wilson, 
Judge of the Criminal Court of said district. It having been made to appear 
to this court that there was a combination of cattle thieves, with extensive 
ramifications through this district ; and it further appearing to this court that 
certain evil disposed persons have industriously circulated the report that it 
is lawful to kill unmarked cattle upon the ranches, as well as upon the public- 
lands, and that thereby many misguided persons have been led to the com- 
mission of felony; and the Grand Jury of said district having upon their 
oaths found true bills for grand larceny against Samuel Hicks, Michael 
Watson, Nelson Gill, and James Nicholson for cattle-stealing: It is ordered 
by the court, that the clerk give public notice warning all persons that may 
have been misled by such misrepresentations, of the consequence of the 
farther commission of such crime — that the stealing of beef cattle, whether 
branded or unbranded, is an infamous offense, within the meaning of the 
constitution, and any person convicted of said offense is deprived of all the 
rights of citizenship in California, and liable to a sentence to two years 
confinement in the chain gang; and that in conducting the administration Ol 


justice, when necessary, the court is authorized to call upon the Command- 
ant of the United States troops stationed at Johnson's Ranch. 

"Signed : Stephen J. Field, Clerk of said Court 

and Alcalde of Marysville." 

In the Placer Times of Saturday, February 16, 1850, appeared a notice 
by Nicolaus Allgeier, dated January 17, 1850, appointing Charles Berghoff 
his agent. Then a notice appointing Joseph Grant agent to sell lots in 
Nicolaus, signed, "Nicolaus Allgeier, by Carl Berghoff, his agent." Then: 

"The subscriber, having a few lots undisposed of in the new town of 
Nicolaus, will offer them tq this community for a few days longer, when 
those remaining will be offered to the citizens of San Francisco. The terms 
are easy and the burden light. Strike while the iron is hot. 

"Signed : Joseph Grant, Corner of I and Front 

Streets, over Stevens & Co." 

In the middle of February, the appearance of Marysville was that of a 
huge camp. The United States Hotel was a canvas structure on the east side 
of D Street, between First and Second Streets, where a large garage is now 
located. In the latter part of this month and the early part of the following, 
this canvas structure was replaced by a boarding house. The City Hotel, 
another canvas edifice, was located on the northeast corner of First and D 
Streets, facing the Plaza. On E Street and south of First Street were 
four canvas houses, one of which had a board front. They were all occupied 
as wholesale and retail establishments. On the north side of First, between 
E and F Streets, there were about four more canvas houses. John C. Fall's 
establishment was on F Street. Residence tents were scattered around be- 
tween Second Street and the river, most of the people boarding in the two 
hotels. Old dry-goods or grocery boxes were sold for two or three dollars. 
Torn apart and placed on the ground in the tents, they formed excellent floors. 

It is estimated that the population at this time was as follows : Num- 
ber of permanent inhabitants, 500; floating population, including travelers, 
teamsters, packers, etc., 1000; total, 1500. 

On the 19th of February, Theodore Sicard sold to R. B. Buchanan and 
Gabriel N. Swezy, for $12,500, a large number of lots in Marysville, and 
also the undivided one-fourth of the land deeded by Captain Sutter, January 
18, 1850, to Covillaud, Ramirez, Sicard, and Sampson, and the same interest 
in the Cordua Grant. Two days afterwards, on February 21, Captain Sutter 
conveyed by deed to Covillaud, Ramirez, Sampson and Sicard the tract on 
the south side of the Yuba. 

As yet, religious services had not been held in the town. No mission- 
aries had visited this portion of the county. The American River was the 
line beyond which they had not dared to extend their operations. The 
foreigners in the north were mostly Americans, and the Indians were of a 
more savage and independent nature. They wanted no missionaries. In 
the spring, however, the Reverend Washburn inaugurated the religious 
movement by assembling a meeting on a flatboat near the Plaza. He went 
from Maine to New Bedford, and came to this coast on the Mayflower, one 
of the three vessels starting at about the same time from that port, the 
other two being the American and the Obed Mitchell. Soon after his arrival 
in Marysville, he opened a store, adjoining which was a saloon kept by his 
son. The old gentleman was very much opposed to the business carried on 
by his offspring. From this circumstance has been heralded the statement 
that the pioneer minister in Marysville was a saloon-keeper, a charge evi- 
dently without foundation. There was a person, however, who had served 
in the ministry in the Eastern States, and who, upon arriving here in the 
mixed state of morals, entered into business in the capacity of a monte- 


dealer. When called to account by his friends from the East, he replied that 
he had "struck a better thing" ; and, in truth, he was quite lucky at gaming. 

The scene in the little town was one of unusual activity ; every person 
was busy building tents, selling goods, unloading freight, or engaging in one 
of the hundred other occupations incident to pioneer life. No regard was 
paid to the Sabbath, as a day either of rest or of devotion. The following is 
illustrative of the lack of respect shown to the day : One Sunday a ferry- 
boat was being constructed near the river bank and the men were busily 
calking the seams. A steamer lay at the wharf near by, the deck hands 
industriously transferring the freight to the landing. It was a scene of 
bustle and noise ; yet in the midst of all this confusion, a chaplain connected 
with one of the mining companies, desiring to preach, selected the ferry-boat 
as his stand and pulpit. A few men quit their occupations, and with the idle 
persons gathered around the minister. The remainder continued their pur- 
suits. Amid all this noise and confusion, and with frequent interruptions 
from a drunken sailor, the minister delivered his discourse. 

By March, over 350 lots had been sold and most of them had been 
located upon. Lumber was selling at from $225. to $300 per thousand feet, 
a price too high for the ordinary purchaser. Among the principal business 
houses were : John C. Fall & Company ; Babb & Eaton ; Cook, Baker & 
Company ; A. T. Farish ; Ford & Goodwin ; Eaton & Green ; S. Sartwell ; 
Packard & Woodruff ; Lowe & Brothers ; Charles Lambert ; J. H. Adams ; 
Treadwell & Company; John H. Jewett; M. Cheeseman; William B. Thorn- 
burg; George H. Beach; and Harrington & Hazeltine. 

Several settlements were growing in the days when Yuba County and 
Marysville were passing through their infancy, but none attained large pro- 
portions. The pioneers recall the town of Eliza, which at one time made 
overtures for the county seat. In the early part of 1850, a movement was 
made to establish this town, which was located south of Marysville on the 
Feather River, and flourished only a short time. The Kennebec Com- 
pany had purchased of John A. Sutter the Memal Ranch occupied by Jack 
Smith, extending a mile along the river and three miles back, west of Rose's 
Ranch. In March, 1850, the company removed to Downieville, took up thir- 
teen river claims, dammed and turned the stream out of its channel, and 
mined until the 1st of November, when they disorganized. This dissolution 
was not caused by any trouble, but was thought to be an expedient measure. 
The property was sold at auction, the members being the purchasers. When 
it was found that the parties were to locate on land in the vicinity of Marys- 
ville, the owners of the town offered one-fourth of their lots, if the company 
would settle there and aid in building up the city. Before departing on 
the Downieville trip, Dr. McCullough was appointed their attorney to con- 
clude the bargain. Before consummating it the doctor, becoming alarmed, 
went to Eliza and purchased an interest there. The advantages claimed for 
this place were that boats could always reach it. The supposed obstructions 
in the channel below Marysville, and the grounding of several boats in that 
portion of the river, caused quite an alarm. However, the town of Eliza 
never realized the hopes and intentions of its locators. Judge Phil N\ . 
Keyser, who later became superior judge of Yuba and Sutter Counties, 
was chosen alcalde, and a few buildings were erected ; but in June the place 
collapsed and sank out of existence, the residents removing to other parts. 

The town of Linda, after which a Yuba County judicial township was 
named, was also short-lived. It was started ,';i the spring of 1850. After the 
arrival of the party in the little steamer Linda at Rose's Ranch, the members 
of the company persuaded Mr. Rose to lay out a town. Land was surveyed 
and a number of lots were sold. After the survey, the steamer Linda went 


up to the location with a large party of excursionists to inaugurate the new- 
town. The party enjoyed themselves greatly, partaking freely of the refresh- 
ments provided. Charles Lupton built a house there ; and a few shanties 
and a small store were also erected. These, with the two old cabins of 
Smith and Nye, comprised the settlement. Rose kept a ferry at that point, 
and at a later date a bridge was built. In about two years the town was 
abandoned. Its site now lies about thirty feet below the surface of the tail- 
ings, where once grew the finest grain raised in Yuba County. 

In the month of April, 1850, the proprietors of Marysville yielded to 
the popular passion for city-making, and laid out the town of Featherton, 
at the mouth of the Honcut. The following advertisement in the issue of 
May 3, 1850, of the Sacramento Placer Times, explains their intentions : 

"The undersigned proprietors of Marysville would inform the public 
that they have located and laid out a city, to be called Featherton, at the 
loot of the Willow Rapids and the head of low-water navigation on Feather 
River, and being at the junction of the Honcut with Feather River, and 
between fifteen and twenty miles above Marysville, the shares of which they 
now offer to sell. From the advantageous situation of said city ; its eleva- 
tion above high water ; located in a dense and lovely grove of evergreen 
oak ; the head of navigation on Feather River, except in times of unusual 
freshets ; lying along the great trail to the Feather River and Upper Trinity 
mines, and within ten miles of the newly discovered mines on the Honcut, 
the undersigned feel free to recommend the new city for beauty of scenery 
and location, business advantages and permanent security of capital invested, 
equal to any up-river city in California. 

"Any person desirous of procuring shares in said city, can do so by 
applying to E. Gillespie, Sacramento City, in brick building, corner Second 
and J Streets ; to Barton Lee, of same place, third door on Second Street 
from J; or to the proprietors, at their old office in Marysville, where the 
terms and conditions may be known. It is the desire of the undersigned that 
all who feel inclined to become interested in the said city would go upon 
the ground and see the same for themselves, and the undersigned would 
gladly offer any aid to persons wishing to visit Featherton, if they will call 
at their ranch building in Marysville. The drawing will take place on the 
15th day of May next, at Featherton, when the unsold shares will be pur- 
chased. A steamer will leave Marysville on the morning of the said 15th 
day of May for Featherton, passage, etc., free. The map of said city, and 
one of the proprietors, may be seen on Thursday and Friday, the second 
and third of May next, at said Gillespie's office, or at the Sutter House. 
Signed, C. Covillaud & Company." 

The new town met with such faint encouragement that the project was 
shortly abandoned by the promoters. 

More enduring were such places as McCouftney's Crossing, McDonald's 
Mill, Parks Bar and Rose Bar — mining camps, only scant relics of which, . 
however, remain at the present time. 

In the middle of March, Charles Vero was born. His mother, whose 
maiden name was Mary Luther, came across the plains, arriving here in 
September, 1847, and was married in June or July, to Joseph Vero. It is 
claimed that this was the first white child born in the county; and there 
is no doubt but that he was the first white child born of parents married 
within the present limits of the county. 

The first legislature named the first Monday in April for the election 
of county officers ; and as the day approached, political matters became lively. 
The canvass developed a horde of candidates, and a lively contest ensued. 
The election resulted in the selection of the following: County judge, Henry 


P. Haun ; county attorney, Samuel B. Mulford ; county clerk, Edward D. 
Wheeler; sheriff, Robert B. Buchanan; county recorder, Alfred Lawton; 
county surveyor, J. B. dishing; county treasurer, L. W. Taylor; county 
assessor, S. C. Tompkins ; coroner, S. T. Brewster. It is stated that about 
S00 votes were cast at the election, 700 of these being cast in Marysville. 

The district court of the eighth judicial district, presided over by Judge 
William R. Turner, held its first session in Marysville on the 3rd of June. 
H. P. Watkins was appointed district attorney by the court. The next day 
the first grand jury was drawn. 

In August the "Squatter" movement, which was progressing in the lower 
cities, gained a foothold in Marysville. A Squatters' meeting took place in 
the courthouse, and the subject of land titles and occupation was discussed. 
The attendance adopted a series of resolutions, deprecating any unlawful 
acts, and among other things resolving that it was wrong to settle upon city 
property, as it conflicted seriously with the rights of third persons who pur- 
chased for a valuable consideration. 

The town had now become of such a size, and the surrounding county 
so far developed, that the success of a newspaper seemed assured. Accord- 
ingly, Col. Robert H. Taylor, on the 6th of August, issued the first number 
of the Marysville Herald, the first newspaper north of Sacramento. The 
possession of a journal for the dissemination of news gave new dignity to 
the town and county. It served to herald their condition and resources 
through different parts of the territory and the Eastern States. 

The news of the death of President Zachary Taylor at Washington, 
July 9, 1850, reached Marysville in September, and funeral obsequies were 
appropriately observed, S. M. Miles (who afterward became the first mayor) 
acting as grand marshal. 

In the first part of September, 1850, there came on three days of the 
hardest rain that had yet fallen. It raised the rivers and drove the miners 
out. Supposing that another wet season had set in, the men in the mountains 
laid in a heavy stock of supplies for the winter at enormous prices. The 
weather became pleasant again, however, and there was no further rain of 
any account until the following March. As a consequence, during the winter 
these extra quantities of food and supplies were sent back to Marysville, 
and disposed of at great sacrifice, the merchants being undersold one-half. 

The State election was held in October, and Judge Stephen J. Field was 
elected to represent Yuba County in the Assembly, receiving a large majority 
of the votes cast. It was at this election that Jesse O. Goodwin was chosen 
district attorney. 

The epidemic of cholera broke out in California at about this time, and 
swept over many parts of the State. Marysville was singularly free from 
this scourge, as only one case was reported within its limits. Yuba City 
had also only one person afflicted. 

During the summer of this year, the water in the Feather River became 
so low that it was impossbile for steamers to ascend to Marysville. This 
interruption nearly suspended business transactions, and threatened to seri- 
ously affect the progress of the town ; but in November the Governor Dana 
appeared, and as she steamed up the river the enthusiasm of the people was 
almost boundless. It was an occasion to be celebrated with festivities. 

A feeling had long been gaining ground relative to the probability oi 
Marysville becoming the principal of the "up-river" towns. As the popula- 
tion became larger, the citizens decided to avail themselves of the benefits 
and privileges gained by incorporating. Accordingly, on December 3, a 
mass-meeting was held in the United States Hotel on D Street, of which 
Gabriel N. Swezy was chosen chairman. A discussion followed as to the 


practicability of petitioning the. legislature to pass the necessary act to incor- 
porate the town. This meeting adjourned to meet on the 5th, after appoint- 
ing a committee to prepare a set of resolutions. The next meeting, held on 
the appointed evening, received the report of the committee and instructed 
them to pursue their labors further, and make a draft for a special act for 
the city charter. The next meeting was held on the 14th, but was so slimly 
attended that action was delayed until the 17th, when a large gathering 
assembled. The draft of the city charter was adopted and forwarded to the 
legislative representative. Hon. Stephen J. Field, who finally secured the 
passage of the act in the following February. 

In 1850 Ramirez settled the Quintay Ranch, just east of Marysville, 
and put a man named Quintay upon the tract to take care of it. 

The first crop of corn to be grown in Yuba County was planted as early 
as 1850 by John Morriet, who, in the previous year, had bought from the 
grant-owners two miles of land along the river, and engaged in cattle-rais- 
ing, using the Indians as assistants. In the fall of 1851 he sold to M. C. 
Nye and removed from the county. Nye settled on the place and soon after 
sold to Charles Covillaud and J. G. Cornell. The place was known for a 
long time as the Morriet tract. For years it was occupied by Cornell. In 
1852 Nye and Cornell raised a crop of barley, the first in the history of 
the county, so far as is known. They purchased seed in San Francisco at 
seven cents per pound and paid $100 for a plow. They paid a man named 
EaMalfa, of Marysville, twelve and one-half cents a bushel for threshing it 
with a small machine which he owned, and also paid seven and one-half cents 
for cleaning. The grain sold for from four to five cents per pound. Hay- 
cutting along the river was a great industry at that time, many parties engag- 
ing in it who made no permanent settlement. 

R. F. Piatt, H. F. Sadorus, and George Matsler settled on the south 
Honcut in 1850 on Section 24, Township 17 north, Range 4 east, and engaged 
in stock-raising. Piatt built a house in that year. James Bryden, whose 
descendants still own most of this land, soon afterward settled along the 
Honcut. Early in 1850 Bryden and Piatt sowed about ten acres of land in 
barley. A fine crop was the result, but most of it was seized by the Indians. 

In 1851 Richard Pegrim and -Dr. E. T. Wilkins settled on the river. Dr. 
Wilkins had a fine library, which was scattered all over the surrounding- 
country by the flood of 1851. This was the first "circulating library" in the 
county of Yuba. Dr. Wilkins, who practiced many years in Marysville, 
and owned a drug store there, later became superintendent of the State 
Hospital at Napa. Richard Pegrim had a narrow escape during the flood 
of 1851. He was carried down the stream while on horseback, but succeeded 
in clinging to the branches of a tree as he passed. He remained in the tree 
several hours, until assistance Came. 

The early comers were all greatly troubled with scurvy and other dis- 
orders, many dying from the effects of the disease, which was caused by a 
lack of vegetables and acid foods. To supply this want, in 1850 and 1851 
vast quantities of lime juice were imported in barrels; and in every saloon 
the traveler and miner could be found imbibing the healthful drink. 

Yuba County had now fairly entered upon its career of advancement. 
As set off by the first legislature, February 18, 1850, the territory was des- 
cribed as follows: "Beginning at the mouth of Honcut Creek, and running 
up the middle of the same to its source ; thence following the dividing ridge 
between Feather and Yuba Rivers to the summit of the Sierra Nevadas ; 
thence east to the boundary of the State ; thence south following said bound- 
ary to the northeast corner of El Dorado County ; thence in a westerly direc- 
tion, following the northern boundary of said county, to the junction of the 


north and middle forks of the American River ; thence in a northwestern 
direction, following the boundary of Sutter County to the mouth of Bear 
Creek ; thence running up the middle of Feather River to the mouth of Hon- 
cut Creek, which was the place of beginning." The seat of justice was 
located at Marysville. 

On August 24, 1850, the first division of the county into townships was 
made by the court of sessions. Fifteen large subdivisions were established. 
Marysville Township No. 1, Long Bar No. 2, Rose No. 3, Foster No. 4, and 
Townships 11 and 12 were within the present limits of Yuba County; the 
first four were north of the Yuba River, the last two south of that stream. 

On February 5, 1851, the legislature passed a bill incorporating the City 
of Marysville, dividing it into four wards and fixing the first Monday of the 
following March as the day for the election of the city officers — a mayor 
and eight alderman. The election resulted in the choice of the following: 
S. M. Miles, mayor ; and L. W. Ransom, S. C. Stambaugh, F. Schaeffer, 
B. Tallman, J. G. Smith, D. W. C. Rice, S. C. Tompkins, and Charles Covil- 
laud, aldermen. On the 10th the board met and organized. R. H. Taylor 
was made clerk; Lewis Cunningham, treasurer; R. S. Olds, assessor; F. J. 
McCann, city attorney; Albert Miller, city marshal. 

The boundaries of the City of Marysville, as laid down in the original 
charter, were as follows': "Commencing at high-water mark on the southern 
bank of Yuba River, at a point one mile east of the public plaza, and run- 
ning thence north two miles ; thence west to Feather River ; thence south, 
following Feather River to high-water mark on the southern bank of Yuba 
River ; thence east along the southern bank of Yuba River to the place of 
beginning." The common council was authorized to establish a recorder's 
court, but this power was taken away by the act passed April 10, 1852, 
when the recorder's court was abolished as well as the office of recorder, 
city attorney and city assessor. 

The original Yuba County had embraced the territory now included in 
Sierra and Nevada Counties ; but as the legal and county business increased, 
it was found that the distances from the county seat were too great to accom- 
modate the inhabitants. On April 25, 1851, an act entitled, "An Act dividing 
the State into counties and establishing the seats of justice therein," was 
passed, which made the new county of Nevada, taking away a portion of 
the territory of Yuba County. 

The winter of 1850-1851 was extremely dull. Money was scarce, and 
business was greatly depressed. 

With the coming of spring, business again assumed its former propor- 
tions, and building commenced with renewed activity. In July, 1851, Cap- 
tain Sutter had 200 acres under cultivation on Hock Farm. He was pursuing 
the business of farming systematically and vigorously. In 1865 he left the 
Coast; and thereafter he resided in Pennsylvania until his death. 

On Monday, August 4, 1851, prospectors began work on the bar of the 
Yuba River between the upper and lower landings of Marysville. A panful 
of earth from the surface yielded seventy-five cents ; and a notice of claim 
was immediately put up by the following gentlemen : T. Lowe, C. Lowe. 
F. Lowe, S. R. Tribble, M. C. Nelson, J. J. Mechling, W. R. Taylor, J. J. 
McLeary, L. B. Farish, L. S. Priddy, W. Meyers, T. Hispanger, and J. J. 
Wellinton. Thinking that the operations on a mining location so near the 
city would seriously affect the interests of the citizens, the following order 
was issued by Mayor Miles : 

"Proclamation, Mayor's office, August 11, 1851: It having been repre- 
sented to me that sundry persons have laid out and staked off claims on the 
bar in front of the landing for mining purposes; Now, therefore, I, S. M. 


Miles, Mayor of the City of Marysville, do hereby caution all persons against 
trespassing on or injuring the public grounds within the limits of the City 
of Marysville, in any manner whatever. S. M. Miles, Mayor." 

On August 9, 1851, the court of sessions divided the county into eleven 
townships, the first six of which were within the present boundaries of Yuba 
County, and the remaining five in what is now Sierra County. 

Besides the regular business houses in Marysville in 1851, a profitable 
trade was carried on by a large number of outdoor coffee ^stands. These 
were located on the sidewalks along First Street, from the Plaza to C Street, 
many of the proprietors paying as high as $150 per month for their locations. 
Another illustration of the high rents paid during that early period, and 
of the profits realized, is the following: In November, 1851, a gentleman was 
paying $250 per month for an office five feet in width and twelve feet in 
depth, and still made money notwithstanding. The commercial importance 
of Marysville was now recognized by the outside world, for in 1851 Dr. J. B. 
Pigne-Dupuytren was located there as vice-consul of France. 

On Sunday afternoon, March 1, 1852, Eliza Sutter, the daughter of the 
Captain, was married to George Engler of Marysville. The ceremony took 
place at Hock Farm, and was performed by Judge Cushing of Marysville. 
Visitors were present from nearly all parts of the State, and enjoyed fully 
the celebrated hospitalities of Hock Farm. 

In January, 1852, a movement was inaugurated to repeal the city charter. 
The petition was drawn up and placed before the citizens for signatures ; 
and a remonstrance w r as also prepared. On Thursday, February 12, Hon. 
John A. Paxton presented the first petition to the Assembly. The opposing 
petition was offered by Hon. J. H. Gardner. Great exertions were put forth 
on each side, but the act was finally passed on April 10. It was entitled, 
"An Act supplementary to An Act incorporating the City of Marysville." 
On March 7, 1876, an act to reincorporate the City of Marysville was ap- 
proved. The boundaries as laid down in this charter were as follows : 
"Commencing on the south bank of Yuba River, opposite D Street in said 
city; thence down the south bank ef said river to the center of Feather 
River ; thence up the center of Feather River to a point opposite Sixteenth 
Street in said city ; thence easterly along the north line of said Sixteenth 
Street to E Street in said city; thence northerly along the west line of E 
Street to the northwest corner of suburban Lot 5, Range D ; thence easterly 
to the outer side of the levee as now located by said city ; thence along the 
outer side of said levee until it intersects the Browns Valley road or grade ; 
thence along the extreme southeasterly side of said Browns Valley road or 
grade to a point where said Browns Valley grade or road intersects Swezy 
Street; thence due south to the south bank of Yuba River; thence along the 
south bank of Yuba River to the place of beginning." 

In 1852, a census of the inhabitants in the county showed the population 
to be 22*005. The eighth United States census, in 1860, credits the county 
with a population of 13,668. The ninth census, in 1870, fixed the population 
at 10,851, the county ranking twelfth in the State, while the estimated popu- 
lation in 1877 was 11,000. It has varied little since. 

After 1852 the Township of Marysville, which was bounded on the north 
by Honcut Creek, was settled up rapidly and became well developed agri- 
culturally. At present it is for the most part located within a reclamation 
district known as District No. 10, rich in orchards, vineyards and grain fields. 
The first schoolhouse was built on the Nelson place near the Honcut. The 
school was attended by all the children in this part of the township. The 
first bridge across the Honcut was built in 1855 by Jesse Mayhew. The 
Honcut Hotel was built near the south end of the bridge. The Eight-mile 


House, the Prairie House and a few other places were opened for the accom- 
modation of travelers. 

Marysville's first private hospital was known as Gray's City Hospital, 
and was conducted by Dr. J. B. Gray, who advertised that he had leased for 
hospital purposes the "large new house of Dr. Warfield on the corner of 
Third and A Streets." 

S. M. Miles, Marysville's first mayor, had a notary-public office at the 
mayor's office. Among the practicing attorneys at that time were Jesse O. 
Goodwin, S. B. Mulford, E. D. AVheeler, Charles H. Bryan, R. S. Messick, 
and McCarty & Swezy. 

Between 1850 and 1860 Yuba County had its full share of newspapers, 
as follows : Marysville Herald, 1850 to 1858 ; Marysville Daily News, short- 
lived; Daily National Democrat, 1858 to 1860; and the California Express, 
1850 to 1863. These are more fully described in the chapter on The City 
of Marysville. 

Cunningham & Brumagim were among Marysville's first bankers, occu- 
pying a fireproof building on D Street, three doors south of the United States 
Hotel, which was then at the southeast corner of Third and D Streets. 

Ira A. Eaton, L. H. Babb and William Hawley are among the early-day 
merchants of Marysville whose memories lived long after them. Eaton, 
in 1852 at the head of the mercantile firm of Eaton, Babb, & Hawley, became 
a prominent grower and stock-raiser of Yuba County ; Babb became prom- 
inently connected with the Marysville Water Company; and Hawley con- 
tinued in the grocery and hardware business until his death. Others at that 
time prominent in the mercantile life of Marysville were : John C. Fall & 
Company; Cook, Baker & Company; A. T. Farish ; Ford & Goodwin; Eaton 
& Green ; S. Sartwell ; Packard & Woodruff ; Lowe & Brothers ; Charles Lam- 
bert; J. H. Adams; Treadwell & Company; John H. Jewett ; M. Cheeseman ; 
William B. Thornburg; George H. Beach; Harrington & Hazeltine; Bryant 
& Company ; Shaffer & Addison ; and Hochstadter & Brother. 

The early-day merchants often were compelled to play hosts to their 
patrons, as witness the following from a directory published in 1856 with 
historical sketches : 

"During the summer and fall of 1850, the Marysville merchants, by 
their energy, liberality, and fair dealing, secured the trade which has made 
the city what it now is. They omitted no exertions. Their customers were, 
in a great measure, their guests while in town, eating and lodging in their 
stores. The sick were cared for; the wants of all were judiciously antici- 
pated; and Marysville grew beyond precedent, because it was, as was said, 
'lively as a cricket,' and because its business men were glad to see every 
new visitor. Steamboats plied regularly to and from Sacramento, bringing 
heavy freights, and giving our levee a brisk and busy appearance. The 
stores were nearly all on the Plaza, within a stone's throw of the landing, 
and the goods were generally carried to the doors by Indians. A brick 
building was built during the summer by G. N. Swezy, Esq.. on the south 
side of Second Street, between D and High Streets. 

"Rapid as was the progress, much capital was diverted from Marysville 
by the mania for new towns, which raged extensively at that time. In 
our immediate neighborhood, elegant cities without number, among which 
were Plumas, Eliza, Veazie City, Hamilton, Linda, Featherton and Yateston, 
were laid out upon paper, with public squares, halls, theaters, colleges, gar- 
dens, parks, etc. They were divided generally into forty to fifty shares, 
which were readily disposed of at $1000 per share, half cash, and the balance 
at most any time. Nearlv every man who had means bought a share in some 
town which he could not have found with the aid of all the civil engineers 


in the State. Without a single exception, the towns above mentioned be- 
came exploded humbugs." 

The favorite material for the construction of permanent buildings and 
dwellings in the early fifties was brick ; as early as 1852 several kilns were in 
active operation. This led for a time to Marysville being known as "the city 
of bricks." Brick is still the favorite material where permanency is sought. 

The literary and musical talent of these early days was shown in con- 
tributions to newspapers and periodicals, and the frequent private musical 
entertainments. In July, 1851, a song entitled "The Love-Knot," composed 
by Stephen C. Massett, with words by Hon. Mrs. Norton, was published 
in New York. Massett, after disposing of his interest in the Herald, and 
before departing on his Eastern trip, in December, 1851, gave an excellent 
entertainment, bringing out the local talent in recitation and music, both 
vocal and instrumental. About the middle of February, 1852, a work was 
issued upon whose title page appeared the following: "Entewa, the Moun- 
tain Bird, a Romance Founded on Facts, by J. R. Poynter, M. D., Marys- 
ville, California, 1852." This was claimed to be the first California novel. 
The scene was laid in this State and opened in the summer of 1849. The 
newspapers frequently contained able contributions in prose and poetry 
from local writers. 

The bank failures in San Francisco, in 1855, affected business in Marys- 
ville quite seriously, but it quickly recovered. In November, 1852, the county 
surveyor, B. D. Scott, in his report to the State surveyor general, stated that 
the total yield of gold in Yuba County, during the preceding year, was 
$16,000,000. The total amount of gold shipped to San Francisco in 1857 by 
Lowe Brothers & Company, Reynolds Brothers, and Mark Brumagim & 
Company was $10,175,000; and from January 1 to June 30, 1858, it was 
$4,350,000, making the total shipment in a year and a half, $14,525,000. 

The wonderful prosperity of Yuba County was seriously affected in 
1858, when the Fraser River excitement occurred and took out about 20,000 
people from California. In 1860 and 1861 about the same number crossed 
the Sierras to the Washoe diggings in Nevada State. These excitements 
tended to depopulate the county and retard its progress. Buildings which 
before were renting for $600 would not sell for that amount after the exodus; 
but soon matters became more tranquil and equalized, and the county began 
to grow and prosper again. 

In 1858, the State Fair was held for five days in Marysville, commenc- 
ing on August 23. 




Previous to the year 1849, the navigation of the rivers above Sacramento 
City was confined to the voyages of canoes, whaleboats and small sailboats. 
These were used by the settlers to facilitate their journeys from one settle- 
ment to another, and to transport the supplies from the depots nearer the 
metropolis. Illustrative of the difficulties attending early navigation and 
transportation, the following may be mentioned. In 1848, by the aid of an 
Indian, a man living in this vicinity felled a sycamore tree and with axes 
fashioned it into the form of a canoe. In this frail and clumsy vessel he 
made the voyage to San Francisco, taking with him a barrel of corned beef, 
a present from Michael Nye to his brother-in-law, William Foster. Cordua 
started a trading post at his ranch and brought goods from San Francisco 
up the Sacramento and Feather Rivers in a boat. 

The winter of 1848-1849 was dry, and during the first part of the season 
the water in the Feather River was extremely low. Vernon, in Sutter 
County at the junction of the Sacramento and Feather Rivers, was then sup- 
posed to be the head of navigation, and it was at this point that most of the 
supplies for the northern mines were unloaded from the sailing vessels. It 
is said that after the location of the town, in April, 1849, several ships from 
Eastern ports discharged their cargoes at the landing-. In the spring of this 
year whaleboats went up Bear River as far as Johnson's Crossing, loaded 
with miners. They passed over the overflowed lands, and not up the stream, 
as the current there was too rapid. As yet the steamers had not visited the 
incipient city on the Yuba, the carrying trade being confined to sailing ves- 
sels. About the first of July, 1849, the river was so low that they grounded 
on Russian Crossing, a shoal about fifteen miles below Vernon. In the 
summer of 1849, Nicolaus Allegeier had a launch which he employed in trans- 
porting goods from San Francisco to supply his store at Nicolaus. It regis- 
tered about fifteen tons and was propelled by oars and the wind ; an old 
sailor, Jacob Walldorff, commanded, and had a crew of half a dozen Indians. 
During the last portion of 1849, a large number of whaleboats plied between 
Sacramento and Marysville, carrying goods and provisions. In the fall of 
this year and the spring of the next, large steamers came around the Horn 
and went up Feather River as far as Nicolaus. In 1849, a government vessel, 
with supplies from Camp Far AVest, came to Nicolaus, and the cargo was 
hauled in wagons to the fort. 

The winter of 1849-1850 was exceedingly wet, the whole country being 
flooded. The Feather River was high and the river steamers made their 
advent just in time to ascend the channel as far as Cordua's Ranch, or Yuba- 
ville, as it was called shortly after, and before, the adoption of the name 
Marysville. This change of the terminal point of navigation from Vernon 
caused its fall, the rise of the upper town proving the destruction of the 
lower. In the latter part of 1849, the Linda Company, in a vessel called the 
Linda, arrived after a passage around the Horn, and took the ship to Sacra- 
mento. They brought with them the machinery for a small stern-wheel 
steamer. This was transferred to a scow at that place, and the crude and 


diminutive steamer was named the. Linda. As soon as it was constructed, a 
cargo of freight was loaded for a man named Ferguson, who kept a store at 
Barton's Bar. In the last part of 1849, about December, the little steamer 
came up the river and went as far as the location of Rose's Ranch. When 
the Indians along the river saw this strange object ascending the stream, 
propelled by an unseen power, and heard it puff, they thought an evil spirit 
was pursuing them and fled to the woods. After seeing it land at the bank, 
and on perceiving that the whites were not at all afraid, they came out and 
expressed themselves much pleased with the new and strange kind of boat. 

During January, 1850, a small side-wheel steamer, the Lawrence, under 
command of Capt. E. C. M. Chadwick, made her appearance at Marysville. 
She had been built in the East, and was shipped around the Horn in sections. 
There seems to be some difference in opinion as to which steamer, the Linda 
or the Lawrence, deserves the credit of being the pioneer; but there appears 
no reasonable doubt that the Linda was the first to ascend the Feather and 
Yuba Rivers. The Lawrence continued to make regular trips between 
Marysville and Sacramento, proving exceedingly profitable to her owners, 
and very convenient to the traveling public. The fare to Sacramento was 
$25 ; and freight, including the blankets of the passengers, was eight cents 
a pound. For $1.50 a berth could be secured, but the occupant was obliged 
to furnish his own bedding. The success of this boat, and the immense 
amount of travel, soon brought other steamers onto the route. The third 
boat to appear was the Governor Dana, in- April, 1850. She was a stern- 
wheeler, of about eighty tons register. In April, 1850, the fare from Marys- 
ville to San Francisco was $35. 

About the middle of 1851, it was found that the snags imbedded in the 
bottom of the river were likely to prove serious impediments to its naviga- 
tion, and might stop it altogether, a result that would prove extremely disas- 
trous to Marysville. The business men, as well as other prominent citizens, 
met, and agreed to pay by subscription for the removal of the obstructions. 
The contract was let, and the labor commenced. The work was completed 
before the rainy season set in, but the subscribers to the fund were not all 
. prompt in fulfilling their promises. It was only by great exertions that the 
amounts subscribed could be collected. 

On August 16, 1851, the steamer Fawn was blown up on the river, sev- 
eral miles below Marysville. 

In 1854, despite the fact that river transportation between San Francisco 
and Marysville was sought by many vessels, the California Steam Navigation 
Company and the Citizens' Steam Navigation Company were formed to 
compete for the business. Of the latter concern, John H. Jewett and Peter 
Decker, who formed the well-known banking firm of Marysville, were presi- 
dent and trustee, respectively. 

In 1874 a new line of steamers was started by D. E. Knight, W. T. Ellis, 
and J. R. Rideout. The steamer C. M. Small was purchased and placed on 
the route to San Francisco. In 1875 the company built the D. E. Knight at 
Marysville. These two steamers carried freight up the Feather River until 
the early nineties, when the filling of the channel with mining detritus, 
pouring in from the mountains at each freshet, caused navigation to cease. 

A movement is on foot at the present time to induce the United States 
government and the State of California to interest themselves in the reestab- 
lishment of navigation on the Feather River. The success of the C. M. 
Small and of the D. E. Knight is being used as proof of what can be done if 
navigation is restored on the stream. The C. M. Small was built in this 
State, and was of 120 tons register. She was a stern-wheel, low-water boat. 


The Knight was of 160 tons register, and also a stern-wheel, low-water boat. 
Both were freight-boats, carrying grain and produce to San Francisco and 
returning loaded with merchandise. Four barges were operated in connec- 
tion with these boats. They were the Hope, Marysville, Sutter, and Para- 
dise. During the period just prior to the withdrawal of the boats on account 
of the condition of the channels of the Yuba and Feather Rivers, all mer- 
chandise destined for Marysville was landed either at Yuba City 'or on the 
opposite bank of the Feather River, where a small freight-shed was main- 
tained. From this point the freight was hauled into Marysville by teams. 
During the winter and seasons of high water, however, the boats were able 
to reach the foot of D Street and land at the levee, a great accommodation 
and saving to the merchants of Marysville. 



The passengers and goods having been landed, the next question which 
arose in the early days was the best manner of conveying them to the moun- 
tain camps. In the absence of more modern methods, the mules were 
brought into requisition, and upon the backs of these animals vast quantities 
of merchandise were placed, securely bound and tightly fastened to the pack- 
ing saddle. The more wealthy class of travelers were able to afford the 
luxury of a mule-back ride in preference to the tiresome and unpleasant 
jaunt on foot. 


The lack of roads in the mountains and hills made packing by mules an 
imperative necessity. This method of transporting was early resorted to. 
In the latter part of 1849 and the early part of 1850, W. H. Parks, who later 
represented Yuba County in the State Senate and who became a prominent 
and influential resident of Marysville, ran a pack train from Marysville to 
Foster's Bar. In February of the latter year he sold out to J. B. Whitcomb 
and Charles Daniels. During the summer of 1850, John Seaward, who a few 
years ago died at his home in Linda Township, ran a pack train from Downie- 
ville to Foster's Bar. He connected with an ox team from Marysville. In 
1850 there were five or six trains, some including as many as eighty or ninety 
mules. In November, 1852, a train of over 100 pack mules left Marysville 
for the extreme northern mines. For years these trains were passing to and 
from Marysville. 

As soon as wagons could be imported or manufactured, they were placed 
on the roads in the valleys and on the lower hills. With from two to four 
wagons attached to each other (they were often referred to as "prairie 
schooners"), vast quantities of freight were conveyed to the various stores 
and camps. Oxen were brought into requisition and the wild horses were 
trained for use in the lengthy teams required. The whole number of mules 
owned in Marysville, and which were packed in this city for the adjacent 
towns, was above 4000 at one time, and the wagons employed in transporting 
merchandise numbered over 400. 



Stage lines were inaugurated at an early date, the principal run being 
from Sacramento. During the summer of 1850 it was with difficulty that 
passengers sufficient to fill one stage daily on this route could be found. A 
year from that time five stages and one omnibus capable of carrying twenty 
persons were daily crowded with passengers. In December the stage made 
the run from Marysville to Sacramento in four hours and twenty-five minutes. 
An automobile now covers the same route in less than two hours. Another 
line was running daily between Marysville and Parks Bar, the fare being 
$4. Later the stage routes \vere extended to Downieville and to La Porte. 
Another line served the Smartsville, Grass Valley and Nevada sections. 
Auto stages now have taken their place, touching at many mountain points 
out of Marysville. 

The California Stage Company 

The California Stage Company, which dated its inception from 1853, and 
which had its Marysville headquarters where the ruins of the Marysville 
Woolen Mills now stand, had a capitalization of $1,000,000. The company, 
comprised of pioneer stage men, ran stages from Sacramento to Portland. 
Ore., receiving patronage from a number of way stations. They also had 
lines from Marysville to the various mining districts. The advent of rail- 
roads proved the means of breaking up this organization. 

An Old Landmark 

An interesting relic of the days of the stagecoach and the six-in-hand is 
the old stable still standing in a remarkable state of preservation on the side 
of the road at the Empire Ranch near Smartsville. Across the road from 
the old "change station" still stands the road-house where the passengers 
were served meals and refreshments in Argonaut days. Living here are the 
children — a son and two daughters — of Thomas Mooney, who for many years 
was "mine host" at the Empire Ranch station. It is claimed that this is the 
only remaining stage station used by the California Stage Company, which 
before the advent of the railroad handled all passenger traffic from one end 
of California to the other, and into the mining sections of the Sierra Nevadas. 

The timbers, placed in the barn in 1852, the year Thomas Mooney settled 
at Empire Ranch, are seemingly as substantial as ever. These timbers were 
hewn from the tree, and two only were necessary to reach the entire length 
of the gable, about 100 feet. No nails were used in the placing of these 
timbers, and they are still held together by the wooden pegs. The mangers 
where the stage horses rested up for the next day's relay are still intact. 


One day in the spring of 1923 there was placed on the side of a building 
on Second Street, in Sacramento, a bronze marker carrying this legend : 
"Site of Terminal of Pony Express, 1860-1861. Marked by Daughters of the 
American Revolution, Sacramento and San Francisco Bay Chapters, 1923." 

Early days of the Civil War were lived again in spirit when this marker 
of the Western terminal of the famous old pony express was unveiled. The 
significance of the pony express, and its contribution to civilization, were 
recounted by speakers who recalled the days when the riders galloped at 
breakneck speed through the streets of Sacramento on their way to Hang- 
town, now Placerville, and thence East. It was recalled how Marysville, 
and way-places between Sacramento and Marysville, were eventually added 
to the route covered by these riders. 

Early in May, 1860, the overland pony express was inaugurated. This 
was a matter of absorbing interest to everybody on the Pacific Coast, and 


particularly to the tradespeople of California. Be it remembered that the 
pony express preceded the telegraph as well as the railroad. It opened up 
communication with the Atlantic seaboard in the wonderfully short time, as 
was then thought, of ten days. Prior to that, the speediest way of transmit- 
ting intelligence from one side of the continent to the other was by steamship, 
by way of Panama, and that consumed often four and never less than three 
weeks. The mail steamers at first arrived only monthly, but later perhaps 
oftener ; and the time between steamers, when great events were transpiring 
in other parts of the world, seemed distressingly prolonged. 

The advent of the pony express, therefore, was hailed with great delight 
by the newspaper men of the Coast, as well as by the merchants and others 
having close business relations with the East. Shortening the time of com- 
munication across the continent to less than one-half was regarded as some- 
thing extraordinary, as it really was, considering the manner in which the 
feat was accomplished. 

For the purposes of this express a line of nearly 200 stations was estab- 
lished on the shortest practicable route between St. Joseph, on the Missouri 
River, and Sacramento. These stations were well supplied with the fleetest 
horses that could be procured. There were three or four at each station, and 
many hundreds in all. 

Besides the keepers of the stations, the requisite number of daring- boys 
of light weight were employed for riders. Of these there were more than 
half a hundred, and among them, young William Cody, afterwards better 
known as Buffalo Bill. He was then but fourteen years of age, but a man 
in courage. George Smethurst, farmer-miner, who resides at this time near 
Browns Valley, in Yuba County, was also one of these lads. 

Each rider, for his run, would make a hundred miles, a little more or less, 
without stopping a moment for rest, changing horses perhaps a dozen times 
on his stretch, jumping from one foaming steed, with his light letter pouch, 
to the back of a fresh one already saddled and awaiting him — and away he 
would speed like the wind. The ride of John Gilpin was not to be compared 
with the ride of those brave boys. Some of them were killed by the Indians, 
but that did not deter others from taking their places. They were ordered 
to make time, and they always made it. 

The Arrival of the First Rider 

Those who were here to witness it will never forget the arrival of the 
first of these express messengers in Sacramento. It was an occasion of great 
rejoicing; and everybody, big and little, old and young, turned out to see the 
fun. All business for the time was suspended ; even the courts adjourned, in 
celebration of the event. 

A large number of the citizens of all classes, grave and gay, mounted on 
fast horses, rode out some miles on the line to meet the incoming wonder. 
The waiting was not long. The little rider upon his blooded charger, under 
whip and spur, came down upon them like a meteor, but made not the slight- 
est halt to greet his many visitors. 

Then began a race of all that waiting throng, over the stretch back to the 
city, the like of which has never been seen. It may have been rivaled in 
speed and confusion by some of the cavalry disasters during the war that 
presently followed; but the peaceful people of Sacramento, I am sure, 
never beheld anything of the kind before or afterwards. The whole caval- 
cade, shouting and cheering, some waving banners and bareheaded, riding 
at the top of their speed, dashing down J Street, might have been taken, had 
it occurred on the plains, for a band of wild Comanches ; but the little mail- 
carrier paid no attention to them and kept in the lead. 


If there was one in the whole throng more conspicuous than the rest, 
and who might have been taken for the chief of the tribe, it was Charles 
Crocker, who was afterwards so prominently associated with the great Cen- 
tral Pacific Railroad enterprise. 

Regulations and Service 

It ought to be noted here that all letters to be sent by the pony express 
were required to be written on the thinnest of paper. Even newspapers to 
be sent by that express were printed on tissue paper and sent as letters. 
But light as they were, the charge upon each was $5 ; and at that high rate 
of postage the enterprise continued to be well patronized until its usefulness 
was finally cut off by the completion of the overland telegraph. 

The pony express was the conception of Alexander Majors, one of the 
most energetic of all the far-seeing men of that period. Whether, during 
the two years or less of its existence, its revenues met the heavy outlay of 
the enterprise is not now known; but that they did, is to be inferred from the 
fact that before the service ceased, the government, assuming control over it, 
reduced the rate of postage from $5 to $1 on each half-ounce of mail matter 
carried by the pony express. 

The pony express required to do its work nearly 500 horses, about 190 
stations, 200 station-keepers, and more than 100 riders. 

William Cody, in one continuous trip, rode 384 miles, stopping only for 
meals and to change horses. 

The pony express was a semi-weekly service. Fifteen pounds was the 
limit of the weight of the waterproof mail-bag and its contents. The postage 
or charge was $5 on a letter of half an ounce. The limit was 200 letters. 

The shortest time ever made by the pony express was seven days and 
seventeen hours. This was in March, 1861, when it carried President Lin- 
coln's message. At first, telegraphic messages were received at St. Joseph 
up to 5 p. m. of the day of starting and sent to Sacramento and San Francisco 
on the express, arriving at Placerville, then a temporary terminus. 

The pony express was suspended on October 27, 1861, on the completion 
of the transcontinental telegraph line. 


The first local telegraph line was completed on September 11, 1853. It 
extended from the business quarter of San Francisco to the Golden Gate and 
was used for signaling vessels. The first long line connected Marysville, 
Sacramento, Stockton, and San Jose. This was completed on October 24, 
1853. Another line was built about the same time from San Francsico to 
Placerville, by way of Sacramento. 


California Pacific Railroad 

The first close connection by rail and boat between Marysville and San 
Francisco was over the California Pacific Railroad, more generally known as 
the Benicia and Marysville road. By rail, the passenger proceeded from 
Marysville to Suisun, to South Vallejo by way of Cordelia and Bridgeport, 
taking at Vallejo the boat New World to San Francisco. The fare to San 
Francisco was $5.50 one way; to Sacramento, $2.50. The Marysville office 
of this company was at Tenth and E Streets, where the office building stood 
for many years after the road was discontinued, becoming headquarters later 
for the branch Marysville-Oroville road. 

It was in March, 1853, that the survey of the Benicia and Marysville 
railroad was completed. An election was called by the city council for 


February 28, 1854, on the question of a subscription of $800,000 for the Marys- 
ville and Benicia .National Railroad Company. The vote was 953 in the 
affirmative and but thirty-six against. On the 4th of March the amount was 
subscribed. Benicia promised $250,000. This project was allowed to drop 
until 1857, when another survey was made. In August, 1858, a contract was 
entered into with D. C. Haskin to construct the roadbed, lay the track, and 
place the road in running order, with all the necessary buildings, etc. ' The 
price fixed was $3,500,000. In February, 1869, a few months before the 
completion of the Central Pacific, this road was finished to Sacramento. 
When the former commenced operations, a lively opposition sprang up. 
Great efforts were made to build up Vallejo, and make it the central dis- 
tributing and receiving city of the State. During the year 1871 the company, 
having completed its branch road to Marysville, annexed the Napa Valley 
and other roads. They also acquired the vessels of the California Steam 
Navigation Company, and had almost a monopoly of the inland trade. It 
was at about that time a company was organized by the wealthy owners of 
the California Pacific road to construct a railroad from the northern part of 
the Sacramento Valley to Ogden, to compete with the Central Pacific. These 
plans were foiled by the owners of the overland road buying the majority of 
shares in the California Pacific, and thereby gaining control. 

The location of the track proved faulty from Knights Landing to Marys- 
ville through the tules. It was always contended that if the line had been 
run from Knights Landing east to the bank of the Feather River, the road 
would have been more successful. In the winter of 1871-1872, the flood 
destroyed the bridges, tracks, and trestles across the tules. This particular 
branch of the road is now owned by the Southern Pacific Company, serving 
Marysville and Oroville, and is known as the Knights Landing route. It 
connects Davis, Woodland, Knights Landing, Marysville and Oroville. 

California Northern Railroad 
This company was incorporated on June 29, 1860, and permanently 
organized on January 15, 1861, with a capital stock of $1,000,000. Ground 
was broken on January 22, 1861. The road was completed between Marys- 
ville and Oroville in 1864, and the opening celebration was held on February 
15. Butte County loaned its credit to this company for the construction of 
the road to the amount of $209,000 of county bonds, at 10 per cent, secured 
by first-mortgage bonds on the road. The common council of Marysville, 
on October 7, 1861, passed an ordinance granting the right of way for railroad 
purposes to the California Northern Railroad. This was vetoed by the 
mayor, Hon. C. B. Fowler. On February 2, 1863, another similar ordinance 
was passed, which was approved. 

California Central Railroad 

This road was commenced from Folsom to Marysville in 1858. In 1861 
grading had been finished for two-thirds of the distance, and the track was 
laid as far as Lincoln in Placer County. The contractors were C. L. Wilson 
& Company. The first officers were : John C. Fall, president ; William 
Hawley, vice-president; John A. Paxton, treasurer; J. D. Judah, chief engin- 
eer ; Ira A. Eaton, secretary ; John C. Fall, William Hawley, Ira A. Eaton, 
John H. Kinkade, H. P. Catlin, John A. Paxton, and S. T. AVatts, directors. 
The name was changed to the California and Oregon Railroad. 

The common council of Marysville, on October 7, 1868, passed an ordi- 
nance granting to the California and Oregon Railroad Company the right ol 
way and certain privileges in relation to erection of buildings, tracks, etc. 
This is the road that now serves Marysville as part of the Southern Pacific 
Company's system. A portion of it is classed as Central Pacific property. 


Western Pacific Railroad 

Where now stand the freight sheds of the Western Pacific Railroad 
Company in Marysville, the first freight and passenger boats to ply the Yuba 
River had a landing overlooking the City Plaza, then bounded by the river, 
First Street, E Street, and High Street. About 1902, the Western Pacific 
people began the work of securing rights of way for their tracks through 
Yuba and Sutter Counties. On September 14, 1904, the city council granted 
the first Western Pacific franchise (No. 68) to operate over the streets and 
levees of the city. Subsequently franchises covering certain details not 
included in the original were granted. (See numbers 69, 83, 84, 100, 125, 
136, and 137.) 

Through the original franchise, the Western Pacific took over about one- 
half of the city's costly levee system, agreeing thenceforth to defray all 
expense involved in the change of the height and the broadening of the 
embankment, and guaranteeing to keep the levee on which its tracks stand 

Entering the city from the north, the franchise covers the levee from 
Sixteenth Street, opposite the City Cemetery, westerly along the north levee 
to the County Hospital, and down the K Street levee to the company's 
passenger depot at Fifth and K Streets, thence bearing southerly and easterly 
to the Front Street levee to a point opposite B Street. Spur-track privileges 
have been granted the company to reach local canneries and warehouses. 
With the Western Pacific, Southern Pacific and Sacramento Northern Rail- 
roads exchanging switching privileges in Marysville, the city is ever in a 
position to provide up-to-date warehouse accommodations to those seeking 
to enter the local field. 

Earlier Attempts 
The attention of enterprising men was early called to the feasibility and 
benefits of a railroad through this section of the valley. In November, 1851, 
Charles J. Whiting, State surveyor general, arrived in Marysville, having 
been over the road between Sacramento and this city with a view to ascertain 
its adaptability to a railroad. The subject was agitated and subscriptions 
were taken in Sacramento. Two other schemes were talked of, a railroad 
from Marysville to Benicia, and another to Vernon. At a meeting held in 
Sacramento on June 26, 1852, the subject of a railroad from that city to 
Marysville was discussed, and a company called the Sacramento Valley 
Railroad Company was formed with a capital of $1,000,000, shares $50 each. 
The directors were : John C. Fall, W. T. Barbour, Governor Bigler, J. P. 
Overton, J. B. Haggin, William McNulty, W. S. O'Connor, Tod Robinson, 
W. B. Schellinger, and General Whiting. The people of Marysville did not 
take kindly to this road, but favored the construction of one to Benicia. The 
subject of a transcontinental road was generally discussed in 1853, Marys- 
ville pressing the claim of Noble's Pass for the route through the Sierras. 

Sacramento Valley Railroad 
In 1854 this company was projected to run a road to Marysville from 
Sacramento by way of the foothills. The work was commecned in February, 
1855, although little grading was done until April. In June the first vessel 
loaded with iron and materials arrived from Boston. On the 4th of July, the 
frame to the floor of one of the cars was put together, being the first work 
done on a railroad car in this State. The first rail was placed in position on 
the 9th of August, and two days afterwards the first car ever propelled on a 
railroad track in this State was run for a short distance on this road. This 
was only a handcar, but on the 14th a platform car was placed on the 
track, and the locomotive "Sacramento," made in the East, arrived in Sacra- 


mento City. On November 13, the first passenger car was put on the road 
On February 3, 1856, the road was completed from Sacramento to Folsom! 
The cost of this division of twenty-two miles was about $1,000,000. The 
formal opening of the road took place on the 22nd of February. The officers 
in 1856 were : C. K. Garrison, president ; W. P. Sherman, vice-president ; H. 
R. Payson, secretary ; J. P. Robinson, superintendent ; H. Havens, cashier ; 
C. K. Garrison, E. Jones, W. P. Sherman, J. P. Robinson, Levi' Parsons! 
Charles L. Wilson, H. E. Robinson, Theodore F. Mays, John C. Fall, J. r! 
Rollinson, E. Burr, C. R. Goodwin, and Edward Flint, directors. 

It was the scheme of the company, after this division of the road had 
been finished, to Folsom, to : extend the road to Oroville, crossing the Yuba 
River about ten miles above Marysville. This was to be done because the 
citizens of Marysville favored the Benicia project, and would not subscribe 
to the fund for the construction of this road. 

Present Railway Facilities 

No city of Northern California is at this time better provided with 
railroad facilities, both for freight and for passenger traffic, than is Marys- 
ville. Besides the Southern Pacific and AVestern Pacific Railroads, the city 
has the splendid service of the Sacramento Northern, an electric road that 
provides a train for passengers about every two hours, north and south, 
Sacramento and Chico being the terminals. The Western Pacific Railroad 
Company in 1921 purchased the Northern Electric Railroad, now known as 
the Sacramento Northern, connecting up Sacramento and Chico and Oroville, 
and maintaining a branch to Colusa. It is expected that the electric road 
will be extended by its new owners to Red Bluff and Redding, and way- 
points. The Northern Electric was built as far as Marysville, starting in 
Sacramento, in 1904. Shortly thereafter, the company purchased the street- 
car line between Marysville and Yuba City, and made it part of its system. 

Remembers First Train 

A. C. Irwin, pioneer resident of this city, agent for the railroad company 
in Marysville when a young man, and later member of the State Railroad 
Commission, remembers the first trains to enter Marysville. He recalls that 
there was but one engine on the run, and it was worked overtime. The train 
southbound would leave early in the morning for Roseville, as a passenger 
train, and return in the early afternoon as a freight train. It would then 
make an afternoon trip to Roseville as a freight train, and return as a passen- 
ger train. That was in 1869. "The northerly terminus then was Marys- 
ville," says Mr. Irwin, "and the freight was carried to all points north and 
east in great freight wagons. It was some sight to witness these 'prairie 
schooners.' " 



Old Landmark at Timbuctoo 

A wonderfully preserved relic of the days when Yuba County was at the 
zenith of its commercial importance, because of the output of its gold mines, 
is a building yet standing in Timbuctoo, suburb of the once famed Smarts- 
ville mining camp, nestling in the mountains eighteen miles east of Marys- 
ville. For many years, in Argonaut days, this structure was the local head- 
quarters for Wells, Fargo & Company's Express and the Adams Express 
Company. It is estimated that several million dollars' worth of gold dust 
passed through this building. Built of brick made near its site, the building, 
up to a few years ago, retained the huge iron doors peculiar to pioneer days, 
which did double service as protection from fire and from robbers. Within 
150 yards from this building the early-day miner, working with crude appli- 
ances, took from the soil all the way from $250 to $400 a day. "I'm buying 
blue chips tonight, boys ; she is coming my way," was the way the sturdy 
miner had of expressing satisfaction with his day's work. 

The sign remaining upon the store, and still decipherable, reads : "Stew- 
art Bros., owners, have for sale dry goods, groceries and provisions, boots 
and shoes. Wells, Fargo & Co.; Lowe Bros. & Co.; exchange for sale; 
hardware, etc." Though painted last in 1859, by a man now residing in New 
Orleans, the lettering of the sign still stands out plainly. 

The store building is the only remnant left of a once bustling Timbuctoo. 
The Landmarks Committee of the Native Sons and Native Daughters of 
Marysville, and of the Federated Women's Clubs of Northern California, 
are planning to restore the building to its original shape, and to place a 
marker upon it, in order that it may be preserved, and that its history may 
be handed down to future generations. 

The Timbuctoo Hotel stood on the opposite side of the street from the 
express office. Nothing is left of that structure, it having gone the way of 
all Timbuctoo, which same is the story of many an old California mining 
camp that nourished in the days gone by. 

Early-day Terms, Customs, and Methods 
To the Argonauts who delved for gold in Yuba County became known 
every feature of the work peculiar to their for the most part newly adopted 
vocation. Among these were the location of leads, coyote or hill diggings — 
evidences of which still exist near Marysville and Browns Valley — surface 
diggings, wet surface diggings, fluming, drift gold, prospecting, panning, 
the cradle, sluices, riffles, tailings, and quicksilver methods. The life and 
the methods associated with mining in Yuba County were similar to those 
in other portions of the State. 

The miner constituted a class of the genus homo peculiar to itself — 
active, restless, energetic, fearless, practical to the last degree. To his mind, 
everything had a value in proportion to its use. Governed by strange 
whims, he would name his claim, or nickname his companion, after any 
peculiarity of person, incident or fancied resemblance. Many were the ludi- 


crous names applied to mining camps, the reason for the giving of which is a 
riddle to us now, though no doubt there was a good one to the mind of the 
christener. With the naming of each, there is no doubt something of interest 
connected, but it is often impossible to learn just what, as the miners who 
later worked there knew nothing about it. They cared little what or how a 
place was named, so long as they could strike "pay dirt." And yet, the 
reason for the name is often self-evident or easily inferred. Frequently a 
new man would come along and ask the miners where he could go to work. 
Not caring to be bothered with him, they would point out some spot, occa- 
sionally where they thought there was nothing whatever. If the man made a 
strike there, they would call it "Greenhorn Bar," or "Fool's Luck," or 
something of that kind. If a man became "dead broke," but finally made one 
last effort and "struck it rich," he would call his location "Last Chance," or 
"Murphy's Luck." "Cut-eye Foster's Bar" was so named because Foster, the 
locator, had a cut over his eye. The precise reasons for naming the follow- 
ing are beyond our knowledge, and we simply give the names, leaving the 
fertile imagination of the reader to supply the rest : Whiskey Gulch, Lousy 
Level, Liar's Flat, Shirt-tail Bend, Moonshine Creek, Old Hat Hollow, Stud 
Horse Canyon, Grub Ravine, Pinch 'em Tight, Jackass Ravine ; and there are 
many others of equally suggestive import. A man's full name was seldom 
known, except by a personal friend, as it was customary to call him by his 
given name, or to apply a nickname on account either of some personal 
peculiarity or of the place from which he came, such as Bob Kentuck, Big 
Jones, Red Mike, Whiskey Bill, Sandy Jim, Judge, Three-finger Jack, Curly 
Sam, Poker Bob, Limpy Jim, Big-foot Charlie, Texas Jack, Missouri Bill. 

The habit of carrying revolvers and bowie knives was universal in the 
early days, and not until 1852 and 1853 was this practice discontinued. In 
addition to the never failing revolver, most of the emigrants brought from 
the States rifles and shotguns, which were found inconvenient and useless in 
the mines, and were placed in the stores to be disposed of or thrown away. 
The condition of society was such that every man had to rely upon himself 
for protection. The revolver and knife being conveniently carried, these were 
always ready to protect life and property, or avenge real or fancied insult. 

The Chinese found abundant employment in the mines in early days. 
Soon after their first appearance, a prejudice against them began to gain 
ground among the miners, although with few exceptions they were allowed 
to work peaceably on their claims. After claims were deserted by white 
miners, economical Chinese located them again, and by diligent toil managed 
to make them pay handsomely. 

At first, large numbers of Indians were employed by firms and mining 
companies, and many of the more independent Digger Indians worked for 
themselves. Knowing nothing of the value of the gold, at first they were 
contented if they had enough to eat, and some beads and sugar thrown in 
for luxuries. Later, however, they began to learn that this yellow sand was 
worth something, and refused to dig for the whites, preferring to keep the 
result of their labors with which to buy blankets, dresses, beads, etc., for 
which they would no longer pay the fancy prices at first charged. They had 
in 1848 and 1849 given a cup of gold for a cup of beads, and a pound of gold 
for a pound of sugar. Theodore Sicard was a favorite of a chief, and thus 
managed to accumulate a large amount of "spangle gold." One of the old 
residents said that Sicard showed him four or five claret bottles full of this 
gold, and judged that he must have had at least $70,000, all of which he had 
obtained from the Indians. David Parks got rich in 1848 trading with the 
Indians at Parks Bar. William Foster worked Indians at Foster's Bar early 


in 1849. All along- the river, in 1848, the whites had Indians to help them. 
Claude Chana used them near Rose Bar, close to the present site of Smarts- 
ville. He said that the largest day's work he ever saw was done in Septem- 
ber, 1848, at Rose Bar. Four Indians who were working for two white men 
washed out $1400, an average of $350 each. The white men did nothing but 
superintend the work and take the gold. 

Development of Hydraulic Mining and Dredge Mining 
Through all the early days the miners leaned upon the primitive methods 
we have outlined ; but in later years they developed the hydraulic mining 
process. Following the decadence of placer and hydraulic mining, for which 
Yuba County became famous, there came, in turn, the improved system of 
dredge mining, which method at the present day has placed Yuba County at 
the head of the gold-producing sections of the world. First operated in New 
Zealand nearly half a century ago, the continuous chain-bucket dredge 
attracted the notice of American miners ; and the first of the type built in 
California was constructed on the Yuba River in 1897, by the Risdon Iron 
Works Company of San Francisco. It was a mechanical success, but the 
conditions were such that it could not be operated profitably. Several other 
similar machines were afterwards constructed and operated for a time, but 
all proved a failure from a financial standpoint until W. P. Hammon, after 
whom the town of Hammonton was named, entered the field in 1902, after 
several years' experience at Oroville, in Butte County. The great basin of 
the Yuba River was at that time what miners call a "blind deposit," the entire 
basin being covered to an average depth of twenty-two feet with tailings 
from the hydraulic mines above. These tailings had to be moved, and 
economically. The value and character of the original gravel deposit had to 
be ascertained, as also the extent of the deposit that might be mined. The 
ground was known to be very deep, from sixty to ninety feet below the water- 
line, fifty per cent deeper than any other ground being dredged at that time. 
It is said that Hammon expended over $60,000 in preliminary work ; and 
before undertaking to construct the dredge, he had a most thorough knowl- 
edge of the situation. Then followed the construction of dredging machines 
of improved pattern and adequate for the work required. The first two gold- 
boats operated completely solved the difficulties encountered and made the 
enterprise a thorough success. 

The company with which Hammon is connected, and of which he is the 
moving spirit, began operations in the Yuba district in August, 1904. It 
was incorporated in March, 1905, as the Yuba Consolidated Goldfields, with 
a capital of $12,500,000, and is now actively engaged in dredge mining on the 
river beds, on a large tract on the Yuba River, nine miles east of Marysville. 
The recently constructed boats are 120 feet in length and 50 feet in width. 
They are run by electricity received from the Colgate plant on the Yuba 
River near Dobbins, and each machine requires about 375 horse-power. They 
each handle from 2500 to 3500 cubic yards of material per day. The immense 
dredgers now being added to the fleets at Hammonton and Marigold are 
being built of steel at a cost, each, of half a million dollars. This will give 
to the reader some indication of the amount of gold being taken from the bed 
of the stream. In the beginning, sixteen years ago, these gold-boats were 
constructed of wood at a cost of $100,000 each. Many of the wooden boats 
long ago went into the discard along with their machinery. The hills about 
Hammonton are covered with scrap from the abandoned wooden boats. 

While thus conducting its dredge-mining operations, the company has 
also engaged, in conjunction with the Federal government, in building train- 
ing walls of rock several miles in length, for the purpose of confining the 


Yuba River (which normally has a tendency to "fan out") in a denned chan- 
nel, in order to hold in place the great deposit of tailings now there and 
prevent its moving on down, to the damage of the farms in the valley below. 
These walls, which are built in most substantial manner and maiiv times 
stronger than originally contemplated by the government officers, and which 
would have cost the United States at least half a million dollars if done by it, 
were constructed free of charge by the dredging company, and have proven 
of incalculable benefit as a measure of protection to property-owners in both 
Yuba and Sutter Counties. 

Many men and members of their families are given employment both on 
the boats and in the repair shops maintained at Hammonton, where the 
company has built a commodious hotel, homes for the workmen, and a school. 
Marysville reaps much trade from the residents of Hammonton, all of whom 
are required by the company to be thrifty and steady-going, in order to hold 
secure their employment. 

"While AY. P. Hammon gives the Oroville district, where he first achieved 
success in dredge mining, all the credit due it, he pronounces the Yuba fields 
the greatest in the world. The amount of ground suitable and profitable for 
dredging in the Yuba district is so great that it will require the work of the 
dredgers for at least another decade to exhaust it, and all the while it will 
add much to the gold supply of the world. 

As conducted on the Yuba, no damage is being done, or can be done, 
to the valley. The land used for dredge mining is. as a rule, comparatively 
worthless for agriculture, being in the bed of the river, and the former owners 
have received for it from the mining company prices many times in excess 
of its former assessed value. The success of this industry means much to 
the county. It adds largely to the taxable wealth ; it employs a great number 
of men ; it brings to the section many visitors of prominence and possessed 
of capital to invest ; and it is doing more than any other industry to attract 
attention from abroad to our varied resources, mineral and agricultural, and 
to invite homeseekers and home-builders to locate here. 

Recent reports made by the United States' government place Yuba 
Count)- at the head of the gold-producing territories in the nation, and in the 
world. This leading place as a mining center is due to the great quantity of 
the precious metal being take from Yuba River by gold-dredging boats oper- 
ated at Hammonton by the Yuba Consolidated Goldfields Company, and at 
Marigold operated by the Marysville Dredging Company. On the opposite 
bank of the Yuba River the Guggenheim interests also have large boats 
working, bringing up from the depths of the river gold that was washed 
down the stream in the days of the hydraulic process. From the hydraulick- 
ers, who used large and powerful monitors to wash the mountain-sides into 
their sluice-boxes, as much gold escaped as was "cleaned up," if not more. 
This is the metal now accountable for Yuba County's enviable position in 
the mining world. It is now estimated that the life of the dredger fields at 
Hammonton and Marigold is ten years, although recent plans entered into 
between the government and the dredger companies indicate that the period 
of profitable operation may be still longer prolonged. 


At the time this volume was in the hands of the publishers, the Yuba 
Development Company, a $24,000,000 corporation, had in course of construc- 
tion an immense dam at Bullards Bar on the Yuba River, in this county, the 
chief purpose of which is to permit the resumption of hydraulic mining in 
Yuba. Sierra, and Nevada Counties, and incidentally to engage in power and 
irrigation development. In addition, the Yuba Development Company has 


amalgamated with a powerful group of interests and individuals controlling 
thousands of acres of land adjoining both sides of the Yuba River, east of 
Smartsville, for the purpose of developing hydroelectric power and irrigation 
projects, involving an outlay of several millions of dollars. Organizations 
and individuals back of the enterprise include the C. F. Ayer Estate, through 
the Excelsior Water & Mining Company ; the Yuba Development Company ; 
the Metals Exploration Company, with headquarters in New York City; 
Harry Payne Whitney, Eastern capitalist; and Bulkley Wells, multimillion- 
aire mine owner and promoter. The construction of the two great impound- 
ing dams proposed — the one, already mentioned as being under way at Bill- 
iards Bar, and the other at the Narrows on the main Yuba River channel at 
Smartsville — is a work teeming with possibilities. It was expected that the 
work on the Bullards Bar dam would be completed by the fall of 1923 ; and it 
was planned to start the construction of the second dam at Smartsville at 
about the time when this first barrier should be completed. 

The Bullards Bar dam, if the plans carry, will be 175 feet in height, and 
so constructed that it may be added to. The Smartsville dam will also be 
175 feet in height, according to the engineers' plans. Together, these barriers 
will cost in excess of $3,000,000, and will be capable of impounding millions 
of cubic feet of tailings and debris which will be washed down stream through 
the operation of the hydraulic mines ; and at the same time they will make it 
possible for the operators to comply fully with the anti-debris law as it 
pertains to the choking of the waterways in the valley. 

The impounding dams will make possible the opening of hydraulic mines 
at various points above the barriers, particularly in the Bloomfield district 
of Nevada County, where W. B. Bourne and George W. Starr, mining 
operators of Grass Valley, control extensive gravel beds, and also near 
Smartsville, where the Ayer Estate owns outright large deposits of auriferous 
gravel. Owners of gravel deposits not financially interested in the dams will 
be given an opportunity to use the dam for impounding purposes by payment 
of a rate to be agreed upon. At least this was the announcement made 
recently by the projectors of the big scheme. 

Water and Power Interests 

Under the terms of the agreement entered into between the Yuba Devel- 
opment Company and the Smartsville contingent, the Excelsior Water & 
Power Company would have exclusive right to handle the water interests 
of the project below the Yuba River Narrows. In addition to the debris to 
be impounded, it is estimated that sufficient water will be conserved behind 
the two dams to irrigate approximately 25,000 acres of agricultural lands 
south of the Yuba River and extending from the foothills in the Smartsville 
district almost to AVheatland. The land to be benefited is owned largely by 
the Ayer Estate and the James K. O'Brien Estate. 

The plan of the Excelsior Water and Power Company is, to develop the 
main distributing system for the handling of the storage water and in this 
manner to dispose of it to an irrigation district to be formed in the future, 
after the project is under way. Much of the land to be placed under irriga- 
tion is of comparativeh' low value at present except for grazing purposes, 
but can be made to produce abundantly with water. 

It is said the Pacific Gas & Electric Company already has agreed to take 
the power generated at the Bullards Bar plant. The power plants that are 
to form part of the new development project will be located near the sites of 
the dams. It is thought that the Pacific Gas & Electric Company is also 
enamored of the power to be developed at the Smartsville dam ; and it is 


believed that this company is heavily interested with the Yuba Development 
Company in the immense project. 

Possibilities of Danger 

During the month of February, 1923, following the announcement of the 
plan of the Yuba Development Company and its associates to build the 
barriers in Yuba River, Charles K. McClatchy, editor of the Sacramento Bee, 
in his paper questioned the advisability of permitting the resumption of 
hydraulic mining behind these dams. McClatchy warned the valley counties, 
particularly Sutter, Yuba and Sacramento Counties, that they might be 
courting the troubles which they endured at an earlier period, and which 
they finally blocked in the courts of the State and nation, causing hydraulic 
mining to be placed under ban because of the filling of the valley reaches of 
the Yuba and Feather Rivers with detritus from the mines operated under 
the hydraulic process. The Sawyer decision, estopping the operation of 
mines by the hydraulic process, was recalled by McClatchy. 

Letter of Major Grant 

Under date of February 13, 1923, Major U. S. Grant, 3rd, of the corps of 
engineers of the California Debris Commission, with headquarters in San 
Francisco, sent the following letter to McClatchy, which is self-explanatory: 

"To the Editor of The Bee. 

"Sir: 1. Your letter of January 20, 1823, addressed to Col. Herbert 
Deakyne, president of the California Debris Commission, has been referred to 
me as secretary and executive officer of the commission. I am not advised of 
the character of announcements as to a general resumption of hydraulic 
mining on the Yuba River, except what has been stated from time to time in 
The Bee, of which I am a regular and quite careful reader. I am, therefore, 
somewhat at a loss as to just how to answer your inquiry. 

"2. The Yuba Development Company is adding considerably to the 
height of its present dam at Bullards Bar, bringing it up to an elevation of 175 
feet under authority granted by the California Debris Commission in June, 
1922. The plans for this new dam have been very carefully gone over by the 
commission and are believed to be fully within the limits of safety. Certainly 
the concrete arch dam which is being built in this case is the very safest type 
for such work, and the kind of dam which we would like to see built in every 
case. The construction of this dam is proceeding under the continual inspec- 
tion of the California Debris Commission. It is expected that it will have a 
total storage capacity behind it of about 40,000,000 cubic yards of debris. 

"As the Yuba Development Company appears to be willing to sell some 
of this storage space at a reasonable rate, it will be of considerable benefit 
to those mining on a small scale and will give them positive debris storage at 
a lower price than the)' can obtain by individual barriers of even a much less 
safe type. Until the space behind the dam is entirely filled up, we will be 
sure of the escape of no debris from the region above it, except such light 
slickens as are inevitably carried over the top of any dam by high water. 

"3. It is understood that the Yuba Development Company contemplates 
the utilization of part of the reservoir behind the dam for the development of 
hydro-electric power. This feature comes under the jurisdiction of the Fed- 
eral Power Commission, which, 1 understand, has also scrutinized and 
approved the design of the dam. The space will not only provide for the 
storage of any retarded movement of mining debris, but will also catch natural 
erosion and old tailings which would otherwise continue to work their way 
down stream. This dam will then be of general benefit, as well as of direct 


benefit to the rivers, by the retention of all debris above it, and by the storage 
of much flood water for release during the low-water season. 

"4. A dam in the Narrows near Smartsville was a part of the original 
project of the California Debris Commission, but was never built, the con- 
struction of barriers having begun downstream and never having been carried 
up this far. The project now comprises only the Daguerre Point dam 
(already built), the north and south training walls above and below the latter 
(not yet completed), and certain rectification of the channel. This work has 
proven so effective that the California Debris Commission is now making 
every effort to complete the south training wall below Daguerre Point to 
close Inskip Slough, Dunning Channel and the other old channels where large 
quantities of debris are stored and might be set in motion by unexpected high 
water. In view of present conditions, it does not appear to me likely that the 
California Debris Commission would for many years consider the construc- 
tion of any other dams upstream from Daguerre Point. [Daguerre Point is 
about ten miles above Marysville, and an equal distance below the Narrows, 
near Smartsville. — Editor.] 

"Some years ago, the Harmon Engineering Company drew up a project 
for fairly extensive mining in the Yuba River, including a diversion dam some- 
where near Smartsville ; but, as far as known by this office, this plan was 
definitely given up. While I have heard from time to time some talk of this 
project or a similar one being taken up again by various mining interests, no 
application has been made to the commission for a license to mine under 
any such project. However, I think the commission would be inclined to act 
favorably on any such proposition, if it contained, as an essential part, the 
construction of a safe and permanent barrier providing for and assuring the 
storage of debris behind it. Such a barrier would tend to stop the movement 
of all debris above it for a number of years, and would relieve the deposits 
held back by the Daguerre Point barrier from the gradual annual accretions 
now reaching them. 

"5. In the last paragraph of your letter, you do specifically inquire 
as to whether the duties of the California Debris Commission extend to 
the protection of agricultural lands and other interests besides navigation. 
For your information in this regard, I inclose a copy of the Act of Congress 
approved March 1, 1893, on which the jurisdiction of the commission is 
based. It is evident from the terms of the law itself that Congress claimed 
jurisdiction to control hydraulic mining solely on the ground of the resulting 
injury and damage to navigable waters; but any measures which stop the 
movement of debris and tend to regulate the flow of water in time of freshets 
necessarily are of general benefit, and incidentally afford some protection to 
otherwise exposed agricultural lands. 

"This letter has been somewhat delayed in order to give it the serious 
consideration which the subject-matter deserves. 

"For the California Debris Commission, 
"Yours truly, 

"U. S. Grant. 3rd, 
"Major, Corps of Engineers, 

"Member and Secretary. 

"San Francisco, February 13, 1923." 

Reply of the Editor of The Bee 

To Major Grant's letter editor McClatchy made reply, reviewing the 
hydraulic mining situation and pointing out that the State and Federal 
courts retain jurisdiction and authority to issue injunctions against injurious 
hydraulic mining. McClatchy's reply of March 1, 1923, was as follows: 


"The act of 'Congress of 1893 provides for the appointment of a Cali- 
fornia Debris Commission, composed of Federal engineers, to devise plans 
for restoration and protection of navigation and to permit hydraulic mining 
to be carried on, 'provided the same can be accomplished without injury 
to navigability' of the rivers or to 'lands adjacent thereto.' It authorizes 
issuance of permits under such safeguards as will 'protect the public inter- 
ests and prevent such injury,' and further provides that 'no more debris shall 
be washed than can be impounded within the restraining works erected.' 
Hydraulic mining on the watersheds of the Sacramento and San Joaquin 
Rivers, without such permit, is by the same act prohibited and declared 
unlawful, and any injury to navigation, directly or indirectly, from such 
mining is made a misdemeanor punishable by fine or imprisonment, or 
by both. There are various other provisions of the act which need not 
be mentioned here. 

The Federal act, however, although it has been adjudged constitutional, 
gives the commission no judicial powers, and in no way interferes with the 
authority of the courts, State or Federal, to protect either public or private 
■ property from injury caused by hydraulic mining, even when done under a 
permit from the commission. This was decided by the supreme court of 
California in the case of the County of Sutter vs. Nichols, owner of the Polar 
Star hydraulic mine, who had built a debris dam under the direction of the 
debris commission, and was operating with its permission and in accord 
with its requirements. The injunction issued by Judge Davis of the superior 
court of Sutter County was sustained on appeal, without dissent, five justices 
of the supreme court uniting in the decision. The lower court had found the 
dam insufficient to prevent debris from being carried down and causing in- 
jury to public property, and that the dam was not of a permanent character. 
The supreme court held the defendant could not be relieved from liability 
for damage because of the commission's permit ; that the Federal act was 
not intended to license either the filling of the river channel with debris or 
the doing of injury to private property by discharging debris into the rivers. 
It was held also that it was not the intent of the Federal statute to exonerate 
the miner from liability for injuries, or in any respect to limit or restrict the 
powers of the State courts to protect private property from threatened in- 
jury and to redress inflicted injury thereto from the operation of hydraulic 
mines, though carried on under a permit and in strict compliance with the 
plans and directions of the debris commission, and that the Federal act 
does not have that effect. 

"No doubt seems to be entertained in the Sacramento Valley that the 
debris commission has done much useful work in construction of barriers 
and training walls in and along the Yuba River, to restrain debris turned 
into the stream or its tributaries by hydraulic mining prior to the creation 
of that body. And in granting permits for construction of debris barriers 
across the Yuba at Bullards Bar it is presumed to have acted within the 
spirit of that statute and in accord with its requirements. But the people 
of the Sacramento Valley always have opposed use of the river channels 
for storage of debris from hydraulic mining in order that this private and 
transient industry may be continued, however useful such barriers may be 
to prevent or lessen further injury because of past operations. It is evident, 
however, from the decision of the State supreme court in the Polar Star 
case, outlined in the foregoing, that any county, community, district or land- 
owner may at any time obtain relief or protection in the courts from either 
actual or threatened injury, despite permits issued by the debris commission 
in accord with its authority and the instructions of Congress. 


"The statement recently published by The Bee, that the debris dam at 
Bullards Bar on the Yuba is being raised to a height of 175 feet by a 
private corporation, with approval of the commission, to create a storage 
reservoir with a capacity for 40,000,000 cubic yards of debris, is now officially 
confirmed. And Major Grant says : 'Until the space behind the dam is 
entirely filled up, we will be sure of the escape of no debris from the region 
above it, except such light slickens as are inevitably carried over the top of 
any dam by high water.' It was largely such light material, however, that 
caused ruin .and devastation to the bottom lands of the Yuba in the earlier 
history of hydraulic mining. The yellowish pipe-clay and fine sands were 
washed down by hydraulic mines from the mountain region into the valley 
of the river by millions of cubic yards, converting fertile farms, orchards 
and vineyards into a desert waste, as described in the decision of United 
States Circuit Judge Sawyer in the famous suit of Woodruff vs. the North 
Bloomfield Gravel Mining Company. The channel of the stream below the 
foothills, down almost to its junction with the Feather, at Marysville and 
Yuba City, was completely destroyed by the slickens, sands and fine gravel, 
and the deposits of debris raised the banks and bottom lands several feet 
above the level of the neighboring lands. 

"As to the 'slickens' proper — the yellowish pipe-clay commonly washed 
down in enormous quantities from the precipitous banks of hydraulic mines — 
it has been the contention of the miners in numerous anti-debris suits that 
its ultimate destination was nowhere short of the ocean, because of its 
extreme lightness and portability. And very much expert and official testi- 
mony has been given in the courts to show that many millions of cubic yards 
of it have reached at least Suisun, San Pablo and San Francisco Bays, 
if not the Pacific Ocean. 

"The rising generations of Californians, and the newer residents of the 
State, have but little realization of the magnitude of past hydraulic mining 
and its present capacities for injury. According to the official reports of 
former State Engineer Hall, the hydraulic miners upon the streams draining 
into the Sacramento Basin were using in 1879 a yearly supply of 15,000,000 
miner's twenty-four-hour inches of water, and annually were washing into the 
canyons over 53,000,000 cubic yards of material. The annual water supply 
here technically expressed in miner's inches is equivalent to about 60,000,- 
000,000 gallons. The Yuba River alone received each year, he estimated, 
22,326,500 cubic yards of debris from hydraulic mines. These figures (based 
on incomplete data) are probably much below the mark, but suffice for the 
purposes of illustration. A naked statement in figures of the extent of 
hydraulic operations conveys little significance. But if the reader will bear 
in mind the fact that a million cubic yards of debris will cover a square mile 
to the depth of a foot, he can realize the magnitude of the annual flow of 
over 22,000,000 cubic yards, into the Yuba. It would fill the Erie Canal to 
the brim in eighteen months. And this flow, it should be understood, repre- 
sents solid material, water not included. 

"But one must visit the hydraulic mining regions and see the monitors 
in operation, fully to realize the destructive nature of the industry. The 
area of excavations is measured in acres and square miles. Mountains liter- 
ally have been washed into this valley. The work of the monitors has made 
vast ampitheaters, shut in by perpendicular precipices, hundreds of feet high, 
where originally were mountains covered with forest growth. Up to 1878 
the Excelsior Company at Smartsville, Yuba County, alone had washed 
8,000,000 cubic yards (14,000,000 tons) of material into the Yuba; and 
ten times that quantity remained to be removed from its claims. In forty 
days, using 3000 inches of water and blasting extensively, the Miocene 


Mine poured into the Feather River above Oroville no less than 300,000 
cubic yards of debris. 

"An incomplete statement of the damage caused by hydraulic mining 
debris is contained in a report made by State Engineer Hall in 1880. Upon 
the Yuba, Feather and Bear Rivers, Auburn Ravine, and Dry Creek, he found 
43,546 acres of valuable land had been covered by debris, and the deprecia- 
tion and loss thus occasioned to the owners amounted to $2,597,635. But 
this estimate did not include damages along the Sacramento and American 
Rivers, nor the vast area of lands protected by levees but greatly reduced 
in value through the increased danger of overflow and liability to ruin by 
debris. One of Hall's reports shows that prior to 1885 the channel of the 
Yuba at Smartsville was filled by the hydraulic mining debris to a depth of 
150 feet. In 1882 Colonel Mendell, of the United States corps of engineers, 
reported to the AYar Department that the level of the beds of the Yuba and 
Bear Rivers had risen 'to an elevation of several feet above the banks," the 
streams being held in place by levees. 'These instances,' he said, 'may be 
taken to illustrate the ultimate condition of the Sacramento and Feather 
Rivers under a continuance of the influence to which they are subjected. The 
abandonment of existing channels is a consequence to be apprehended.' 

"The danger to navigation, however, was not confined to the rivers of 
the valley. It affected the bays as well. AVitness these extracts from the 
report, made July 1, 1882: 

" 'The surveys [San Pablo Bay] of 1863 and 1878 are distinguished by 
a deposit of 76,025,000 cubic yards made in the interval. The depth of the 
deposit averaged over the area of comparison, 24J4 miles, would be 3.1 
feet. . . . The mean reduction in width of channel ... is 2820 feet, which 
is 22 per cent of the mean width in 1855. A comparison of maps of three 
and one-half miles on the Sacramento, near its mouth, and one mile at 
the mouth of the San Joaquin, shows a deposit of 2,000,000 cubic yards 
in the Sacramento, and 500,000 in the San Joaquin, between 1867 and 
1878. ... A comparison of charts of Carquinez Straits between different 
dates indicates the formation of large deposits in recent years.' 

"According to an official report of the State engineer, made in 1879, 
16,000,000 cubic yards of material were carried annually by the waters of the 
Sacramento River, in suspension, past the capital city. This does not include, 
he is careful to say, the sands rolled along the bottom by the force of the 
current — a very considerable quantity. And it is only fair to add that 
he attributes about 5,000,000 cubic yards of the aggregate to the results 
of natural wash. 

"The extent of the auriferous deposits of 'gravel' in the Sierras is not 
definitely known, but is practically unlimited. It is estimated that 100,000,- 
000 cubic yards of material already have been washed into the Yuba alone, 
and that "there remain at least 700.000,000 cubic yards more, upon the 
drainage basin of that stream, workable by present hydraulic methods. 

"State Engineer Hall reported that 70 per cent of the discharge of debris 
into the Yuba could be stopped behind dams, leaving 7,000,000 cubic yards 
a year — a very formidable quantity — to descend that one tributary into the 
Sacramento Valley. 

"By far the larger portion of the cost of levees constructed in the Sacra- 
mento Valley is chargeable properly to hydraulic mining. There is abun- 
dant evidence, to begin with, that Marysville and Yuba City, and the Coun- 
ties of Yuba and Sutter, needed no levees before hydraulic mining debris 
had filled up the Yuba and Feather Rivers. Portions only of the business 
streets of Marysville were wet by the great floods of 1*52-1853 and the still 
greater floods of 1861-1862, and there was still no thought of building levees. 


The city had no encircling- levee until 1868. But twenty years later her 
levee account footed up $500,000, nearly one third of the total assessed 
valuation of the city. Vastly different were conditions in early days, when 
the rivers were clear and deep, and a deep-draught vessel, which made the 
voyage around the Horn, ascended the Feather River and discharged her 
cargo at or near Marysville or Yuba City." 

Later Details of the Project 

Subsequently to this correspondence, there were filed with the Division 
of Water Rights, State Department of Public Works, in Sacramento, more 
detailed plans of the Yuba Development Company for the vast project. 
According to these plans, the company is to develop 262,130 horse-power 
of electricity when all its units have been constructed, which, it was thought, 
will require several years. There will be nine storage reservoirs and six 
hydroelectric power plants. The power will be developed by taking advan- 
tage of the 6000 feet of fall in the Yuba between Haypress Valley on the 
south fork of the North Yuba, where the elevation is 6870 feet, and the dam 
at the Narrows, near Smartsville, where the elevation is 275 feet. The reser- 
voirs will have a storage capacity of 500,000 acre-feet. To distribute and use 
these waters will require, it was estimated, the construction of some twelve 
miles of diversion tunnels. 

The hydroelectric power plants are described as follows : 

"Sierra City Power House No. 1, located at an elevation of 4400 feet, 
to be fed from Haypress Valley, Jackson Meadows and Milton reservoirs. 
The power will have a developed horse-power of 27,640. 

"Downieville Power House No. 2, at an elevation, of 3000 feet, to 
be fed from Sierra City reservoir. This power house "will develop 39,140 

"Toll-bridge Ramshorn Power House No. 3, at an elevation of 2500 feet, 
to be fed from Toll-bridge and Shady Flat reservoirs. The development here 
will amount to 15,600 horse-power. 

"Garden Valley Power House No. 4, at an elevation of 1900 feet, to be 
fed from Indian Valley reservoir. The hdyroelectric development will be 
46,350 horse-power. 

"Colgate Power House No. 5 (to be constructed by the Pacific Gas and 
Electric Company for its own use), at an elevation of 600 feet. The develop- 
ment here will amount to 110,500 horse-power. This power house will be in 
addition to the present Colgate power house of the Pacific Gas and Electric 
Company, which is located at an elevation of about 1300 feet. Both Colgate 
power houses will be supplied from Bullards Bar reservoir. 

"Smartsville Power House No. 6, to be at an elevation of 275 feet, 
will be supplied from the Narrows reservoir. Its capacity will be 22,900 

The horse-power development of the power plants increases as the river 
descends, largely due to the increasing volume of water. Sierra City power 
house will have only 301 second-feet of water, while the big Colgate power 
house will have 1100 second-feet and Smartsville will have 1300 second-feet. 

The working out of the units is such that practically no fall of the river 
will be allowed to go to waste. Soon after the water is discharged from the 
race of one power house it will be again stored and diverted for another 
power house. The water for Garden Valley power house will be taken from 
Indian Valley reservoir through a 29,548-foot tunnel to the head of the pen- 
stock to the power house. The water for the big Colgate power house will be 
taken from Bullards Bar reservoir through a tunnel 31,800 feet long to the 
penstock of this power house. 


The proposed development of the Yuba River project is declared to he 
one of the most complete ever contemplated in the country. It provides not 
only for a series of storage and regulatory dams but also for utilization of 
practically all fall of the river. 

About the middle of the year 1923, the Yuba Development Company, 
through legal process, changed the name and title of the concern to tlie 
Yuba River Power Company. On December 23, 1923, the company an- 
nounced the completion of the immense dam at Bullards Bar. A month later 
all the old landmarks at Bullards Bar went up in smoke, as the result of a 
bonfire used as the most economical means of ridding the site of the old hotel, 
blacksmith shop, store and other buildings so dear to the heart of the old 
host, George Mix, and sacred in the memory of the pioneer teamsters and 



The condition of the valley in the matter of floods, prior to its occupa- 
tion by the white race, is impossible to ascertain with any degree of certainty. 
The Indians, however, have a tradition of a great flood sometime in the 
early part of the century, probably in 1805, which inundated the whole 
valley and in which a great many lives were lost and many native villages 
destroyed. This flood marked an era in their calendar from which they 
dated events. Again, we hear of a flood in the winter of 1825-1826, through 
Indian Peter. He used to say that the trapping party he was with was com- 
pelled to camp in the Buttes on account of high water, and that these hills 
were full of grizzlies, elk, antelope, and smaller game that had taken refuge 
there. The early settlers speak of floods in the winter of 1846-1847, which 
did but little damage simply because there was not much to be injured. The 
season of 1849-1850 was also a wet one, and the streets of Marysville were 
for a time muddy and almost impassable. The miners along the river were 
compelled to work in the creeks and ravines in the hills until the waters 
subsided. There was still but little property to be injured, except mining 
dams, etc., and the loss was small in consequence. 

The Floods of 1852-1853 

In the winter of 1852-1853, the city of Marysville was visited with four 
floods and the surrounding country was more or less under water the whole 
season. The rains commenced earh' in November, 1852, and towards the 
latter part of the month the water was as high as it had reached the season 
before. Again, a week or two later, water rose six and a half inches higher 
than at first. The water then subsided ; but the last week in December was 
one of continual rain, and on the 31st water began to come into the city. 
The rivers were both very high; and the water in Yuba River was hacked 
up by that in the Feather, and thus found its way into the streets. The 
next day the water was twenty and one-half inches higher than during the 
last flood, and was from six to'ten inches deep on the floors of the buildings 
about the Plaza. There had been a grand ball projected at the Merchants' 


Hotel for New-year's eve, but when the hour arrived the hotel was sur- 
rounded by water. Several young men, loath to lose their anticipated pleas- 
ure, proceeded to the hotel in boats, and with a number of ladies residing- there 
danced until morning. All the low and bottom lands were completely sub- 
merged by this flood, and as it was the first experience of the kind the new 
ranchers had undergone up to this time, they lost very heavily in stock, 
crops, etc. Communication of the city with the outside world, and between 
the farmers, had to be maintained by boats. People were compelled to come 
to the city in boats in order to obtain supplies, and trading to the mines was 
effectually blockaded for some time. The continuous rains and almost im- 
passable muddy roads had been such a drawback upon freighting that a 
great stringency of supplies was caused in the mines. At the earliest possible 
moment, a number of energetic and enterprising men started out trains with 
supplies, hoping to reach the destitute regions before the markets were sup- 
plied, and thus reap a bountiful harvest of gold to reward them for their 
labor. Those who reached the mines first were amply rewarded for their 
exertions, and were able to secure any price their conscience would permit 
them to ask, such as a dollar per pound for flour, and twenty-five cents per 
pound for hay. 

The fourth and last flood of the season commenced to assert itself on 
Saturday. March 25, 1853, and on Tuesday the water reached a point eight 
inches higher than in January. Both the residents in the city and the farm- 
ers had gained valuable and costly experience by the previous freshets ; and 
though the water was higher, and a week passed from the time it commenced 
to rise until it finally subsided, yet there was not nearly so much damage 
done as would have been the case had it been the first flood. The farmers 
protected their property and removed stock, etc., to higher localities ; and 
the merchants, at the first warning, moved their goods up on the shelves, or 
into the second stories, so that when the water came, there was less for it 
to destroy. About $100,000 worth of damage was done, however, in various 
ways. The water covered First Street, portions of A, B, C, and D Streets, 
Maiden Lane and the Plaza. Boats of various sizes, many of nondescript 
character,, bearing external evidences of hasty and primitive construction, 
flitted along the watery streets. The imprisoned citizens leaned out from 
the second-story windows and merrily hailed the passing boatmen. A ferry 
line was established between the Merchants' Hotel and dry land, over which 
the people who boarded there passed to reach their places of employment. 
The country on all sides of Marysville was under water. Yuba City was 
completely flooded ; the only dry spot in town was the Indian rancheria on 
the bank of the river. Sutter's Garden at Hock Farm was overflowed, and 
water stood on the lower floor of his house. The steamer Governor Dana, 
coming up the stream on Tuesday, could proceed no farther than Hock 
Farm on account of the violence of the current, and was compelled to return 
to Sacramento. Considerable damage was done to the crops that had been 
put in by the farmers, but beyond this the loss was small. B}- Saturday the 
waters had subsided sufficiently to permit the pack trains to leave the city. 

Other Early Floods 
Although every few years the water rose pretty high and covered the 
lowlands, there were no further disastrous floods until December, 1861. 
Long and incessant rains ushered in the rainy season, and on Saturday, 
December 7, the water commenced to rise rapidly in the river. All day 
Sunday the rain poured down, and that night the city was nearly under 
water. Early Monday morning several buildings, undermined by the water, 
fell crumbling to the ground, creating great consternation. The floors of 
the Merchants' Hotel fell through to the basement, carrying with them the 


sleeping occupants, several of whom were severely injured by the fall, though 
no one was killed. Many people were rescued from this and from other peril- 
ous situations b}' some of the heroic firemen, who worked among the crumb- 
ling ruins at the extreme peril of their own lives. A great many frame 
houses floated from their positions, and some were carried down the stream. 
In one of these there was a woman, whose children had been rescued by a 
boat. When the boat returned for the mother, the house had been carried 
down the river. Only two cases of death are recorded, however, both by 
drowning. The steamer Defiance made its way through the streets, giving 
assistance to those who were rescuing the unfortunate. 

A thick deposit of sand was left on the bottom lands by this flood, vary- 
ing in depth from one to six feet, and doing an immense amount of damage. 
This was the first appearance in any quantity of the disastrous "alluvial soil" 
that later worked ruin and devastation to much of the valley and forced 
litigation in subsequent years between the hydraulic-mining section and the 
valley counties. Farm produce such as pumpkins, squash, potatoes, hay, 
and corn, was destroyed in great quantities, as was also stock of all kinds. 
It was reported that over 100 Chinamen were drowned at Long Bar, Ous- 
ley's Bar and Sand Flat. 

Again, a month later, on January 11, 1862, the waters rose, reaching six 
inches higher than before ; but now the warning of the previous flood had 
caused the merchants and farmers to move everything perishable beyond 
the reach of danger. The loss of stock this winter and the next summer 
was very great, and in Sutter County it was estimated at three-fourths the 
entire number. The loss was great in Marysville also, where but few cattle 
escaped except those able to reach the Buttes ; and the cold weather nipped 
the grass, causing large numbers of the cattle to die of starvation. 

The next visitation occurred on December 19, 1866. Quite a severe storm 
raged for several days, and all the low land and some of the streets of Marys- 
ville were flooded. A great deal of the levee, which was small and of com- 
paratively recent construction, was washed away ' in various places. 

The Flood of 1875 
It was, however, reserved for the year 1875 to chronicle the greatest 
and most destructive flood that the annals of the city of Marysville bear. 
The city had surrounded itself with a vast levee seven miles long, to con- 
struct which a vast sum of money had been expended. To this fact is due 
the unusual amount of damage experienced in that year ; for relying upon 
their huge and expensive guardian, the people did not take those precaution- 
ary measures formerly adopted, and when the flood came, it swept every- 
thing before it. Even goods that were placed upon platforms supposed to 
be above the reach of the water, suffered, for the water respected nothing 
in the shape of traditional "high-water mark," but moved up higher, leaving 
a mark that tradition was not again called upon for some time to verify. 
For a week, heavy and incessant rain and snow storms prevailed, accom- 
panied in some instances by thunder and lightning, an unusual phenomenon 
in the valley. Tuesday morning, January 19, the waters rose so as to threaten 
a flood, and an alarm was sounded on 'the fire bell. The citizens all turned 
out to contest the advance of the invader. The Browns Valley grade was 
the first point threatened, but by diligent labor two feet of dirt were thrown 
up in time to make it secure. The next weak spot to be developed was the 
levee near the cemetery, where the water, already three feet deep, began to 
pour over the banks for a long distance. Heroic efforts were made i 
this with sand-bags; but these were of no avail, and at dark the work was 
abandoned. Then there was a wild rush of people to get to places ot safety. 


Large houses, churches, the courthouse, and other buildings were thronged 
with people whose residences were too insecure to be trusted. At eight 
o'clock in the evening, a break was made near the hospital, and a torrent 
of water came sweeping down the Slough, and spread itself over the first 
ward. Many women and children who had delayed their departure had to be 
carried away in boats, or on the backs of the men who came to save them. 
Barns, sheds, and a few frame dwellings began floating about in an erratic 
manner, some of them containing people. Boats were few, and these had 
plenty to do in transporting people and goods to places of safety. Rafts 
were called into requisition. The water steadily advanced until Wednesday 
noon, when it stood from three to five feet deep in the streets, and in some 
places in the first ward ten feet deep. In most of the houses the water 
was from two to five feet in depth, in some much deeper. About twenty 
houses alone, in the whole city, escaped this visitation, thanks to high base- 
ments. A strong current ran down the F Street slough, now filled in; and 
the site of homes and schools, to the Yuba River, together with the whole 
valley, including the city, was one vast sheet of water on a level with the 
rivers. When Wednesday came, it was a serious question where a break- 
fast was coming from. The waters, in their angry roar, had said to the 
people: "Stand not on the order of your going, but go at once"; and go 
they did, making no provision for the morrow. But food was provided in 
various ways ; so that, although some may have feasted a little less sumptu- 
ously than usual, no one suffered long from hunger. Those who had been 
so hastily driven from their homes had nothing to wear, however, but the 
wet clothing in which they had escaped, and nothing on which to sleep or 
with which to protect themselves from the cold. 

Thursday night, however, saw relief. The steamer Flora, from Sacra- 
mento, brought Christopher Green, the mayor of that city, and a relief com- 
mittee with a load of provisions, clothing, etc. The citizens now organized 
a relief committee for the purpose of a judicious disposition of the supplies 
of money, clothing, and other things that now began to pour in from neigh- 
boring cities, who deeply sympathized with their stricken sister city. Sub- 
committees were named to canvas the city and give orders upon the relief 
fund for needed supplies. In this manner all were rapidly and amply pro- 
vided for. The amount of contributions, so generously made, was about 
$30,000 in money, 400 mattresses, and 1000 blankets, besides clothing, provi- 
sions, and various other supplies. 

Only one life was lost in the city, that of the little son of Mrs. John 
Laughley, six years of age. The family had been taken from their home on 
a raft, and the boy was accidentally knocked into the water and drowned. 
His body was recovered in the morning. 

The damage done to property in Marysville was enormous. Among the 
buildings that suffered largely were the Episcopal Church, M. E. Church, 
courthouse, city hall, woolen mills, Marysville Mills, Buckeye Mills, brew- 
ery, Marysville Foundry, Swain & Hudson's factory, soap factory, Empire 
Foundry, gas works, two lumber yards, a rag-carpet factory, broom factory, 
and the stores and residences generally. It was a long time before the 
deposit of sand was removed from its lodging places on the floors and in all 
the nooks and corners. The railroads were badly damaged, and in the coun- 
try there was great destruction of stock and other farm property. The 
farmers of the valley, and the citizens of Marysville especially, will long 
remember the great flood of 1875, which marks an era from which they are 
still accustomed to date events. 

The spring of 1879 had also its full share of high water, a great deal 
of damage being done to the ranches on the lowlands ; and great expense 


and trouble were incurred in keeping the many levees in condition to resist 
the encroachments of the water. The city happily escaped anything more 
serious than wet streets and flooded cellars. 

On account of the scouring of the river channels, and the part the gov- 
ernment. State and Federal, is taking in opening up the mouths of the 
Feather and Sacramento Rivers, the thought of the people at the present time 
is that disaster by flood is no longer a menace to be feared. 

The Levees 

The several floods that occurred in the winters of 1861 and 1862 thor- 
oughly convinced the citizens of Marysville that they would in the future 
be compelled to rely upon levees to protect the city from inundation, and 
preserve their property from destruction. A subscription was accordingly 
raised among the citizens for that purpose. This amounted to $4000, to 
which the City Council added $1000. With this sum a levee from three to 
eight feet high was constructed, extending from the foot of D Street along 
the river to F Street, which was at that time supposed sufficient for the 
city's protection. The high water of the season of 1866-1867, however, dem- 
onstrated the fact, that this brief extent of embankment was entirely inade- 
quate to effect the desired end. An act was therefore passed by the legis- 
lature early in 1868, authorizing the city to procure money for the construc- 
tion of a complete line of levee surrounding it on all sides. 

The line was at once surveyed, contracts were let, and the whole was 
completed prior to the 1st of December. The line of this embankment 
commenced at the foot of E Street, and followed the present line to the cor- 
ner of K and Ninth Streets. From this point it ran west to M Street, north 
to Eleventh Street, west to N Street on the bank of Feather River, north to 
Sixteenth Street, northeast to the northeast corner of the Catholic Cemetery, 
including this, north to the southwest corner of the City Cemetery, 
east to Covillaud Street, south to the Browns Valley grade, down this grade 
to Yuba Street, down Yuba Street to Fourth Street, on Fourth Street to 
Yuba Alley, now Walnut Street, down that alley to First Street, on First 
Street to B Street, south to Front Street, and along the river bank to the 
place of beginning. The total length was about the same as the present 
line, nearly seven miles, and the cost was $18,279.97. 

The following year it was found necessary to raise and improve the 
levee, and also to extend it so as to include the City Cemetery, which had 
been left out in the wet by the work ot the previous year. For this purpose 
$6000 was appropriated by the city council, and the work commenced. The 
new line was 800 feet longer than the old one, and the change of line made 
the construction of one mile of new levee necessary. The old line was 
raised from two and one-half to three feet, as far as the southwest corner 
of the City Cemetery. From this point the new levee ran to the northwest 
corner of the cemetery, on the cemetery line to the city limits at the north 
end of A Street, east to Covillaud Street, and south to the old levee. This 
work cost $8833.06, being an excess over the appropriation, for which the 
council provided. 

In 1870 the levee was extended from the north end of Covillaud Street 
due east to the Browns Valley grade, the new line being over 4000 feet long 
and costing $1947.74. In addition to this, the Browns Valley grade was 
repaired at an expense of $1353.25. 

Surrounded thus by an embankment raised above high-water mark, 
the citizens rested in tranquil security. High-water mark, however, is an 
indefinite line, and not always to be relied upon, as was discovered by the 


people on January 19, 1875, when the water came pouring over the levee 
north of the city, and brought upon them the most disastrous flood known 
in their history. It was then resolved to construct the levee anew. In 1876 
an act was passed by the. legislature authorizing the city to borrow money 
for this purpose, and bids for contracts were called for. There were several 
high bids entered, one of them at $115,000 not including the cost of the right 
of way. The contract was finally let for $68,000 for the work ; and the 
other expenses amounted to $30,000, making a total expense of $98,000. 
The old levee, so far as used, was raised three feet above high-water mark, 
the Browns Valley grade was raised three feet, and the following new line 
was constructed : Commencing at the corner of K and Ninth Streets, it 
abandoned the old bank and ran up K Street to Sixteenth Street, east to E 
Street, north to Eighteenth Street, and northeast to the city limits at the 
north end of Yuba Street, where it connected with the old levee. The 
embankment and drain across the Slough, between the city and the ceme- 
teries, cost $21,000 and was regarded as a fine and expensive piece of work. 
Levee District and Levee Commissioners 

The legislature in 1876 passed an act creating a levee district, and placed 
it under control of three commissioners, who were elected in March of the 
same year. Prior to this, the work had been done under the supervision 
of a committee from the city council. This act gave to the levee commission 
powers more extensive and arbitrary than anyone else in the State possessed. 

In pursuance of the act creating the levee commission of three, those 
first elected as levee commissioners were : J. F. Flathman, John H. Bow- 
man and William Landis. At the first meeting, held April 3, 1876, for the 
purpose of organizing this commission, Landis refused to qualify. In his 
stead Sanford Blodgett was chosen. The first move of moment was, to 
recommend to the city council the raising of $5000 for levee purposes. In 
August the board of supervisors were asked for $5000 more to aid in con- 
structing the portion of the levee now known as the Browns Valley grade, 
on the east side of the city. This embankment was tied up to the citizens' 
levee. Samuel Garber, who later became police judge, was chosen foreman 
for conducting the work. 

In the latter part of August, 1877, John H. Bowman resigned from the 
commission, and the remaining members chose Justus Greely to fill the 
vacancy. In December of 1878 Sanford Blodgett resigned the position, and 
Charles E. Sexey was chosen in his place. Charles Cadwalder, an engineer 
of Red Bluff, laid the lines for the Browns Valley grade, and recommended 
this route over one known as the "Teegarden route." Parks & Binney 
secured the contract. 

Between 1880 and 1884, C. E. Sexey, D. E. Knight, and I. Sheppard 
served as levee commissioners. From 1884 the following filled the posi- 
tion : 1884 to 1888. W. T. Ellis, D. E. Knight, and A. C. Bingham ; 1888 
to 1892, John C. White, D. E. Knight, and W. T. Ellis. The next change 
came in 1900, when W. T. Ellis, Jr., was chosen to act with his father and 
John C. White. In 1912, W. T. Ellis, Jr., and his co-workers retired, giving 
way to John W. Steward, Samuel Ewell, and Chester L. Bowen. On April 
21, 1913, W. T. Ellis, Sr., whose faith in his adopted city had never swerved, 
passed to his reward. In his memory the levee commissioners set apart a 
page of their minute book, which has been appropriately inscribed. John 
W. Steward, who was chosen president of the commission in 1912, died on 
October 25, 1917. To his memory a page in the minute book was also 
inscribed. C. F. Aaron succeeded Steward, filling the unexpired term. 
\\ alter Bryant was made a member of the commission at the election of 
1916, and at present is serving with W. T. Ellis, Jr., and Samuel Ewell. 


In 1910, the Western Pacific Railroad Company, on its entry into this 
territory, took full}' one-half of the levee system off the city's hands, secur- 
ing the embankment as a right of way, and extending the work from the 
cemeteries on the north side of the city across to K Street and to the foot of 
B Street. The saving to the city is enormous ; and besides, the tracks on 
top of the levee make for safety in a case of emergency, which now seems 
to be a thing of the past. The company bound itself to exercise due dili- 
gence in keeping that part of the levee system in as good condition and repair 
as may be required from time to time by the commission, for the wel- 
fare and protection of the city. It agreed to keep the embankment at all 
times at a height at least three feet above the point of maximum high water. 
If the present point of maximum high water is ever exceeded, the railroad 
company shall be allowed one year thereafter to raise the levee or embank- 
ment. The franchise given the railroad will expire on March 3, 1953. 

The city clerk is ex-officio clerk of the Board of Levee Commissioners. 
It is his duty to keep a full and complete record of all proceedings of the 
board. Under the original city charter no person could act as a levee com- 
missioner until he took the constitutional oath of office and provided a bond 
in the sum of $10,000, with at least two sureties, conditioned for the faithful 
performance of his duties. No commissioner is to receive pa}- for his 
services as a member of the board. 

Reclamation Districts 

Reclamation work in Yuba County, coupled with irrigation, has meant 
much in adding to its wealth. The most important of the several reclama- 
tion districts is District No. 10, north of Marysville. Here, where grain 
was for years the chief product raised for the market on vast tracts, there 
now abound vineyard after vineyard and orchard after orchard, and new 
homes are springing up as shelter for the new settlers. On the eastern side 
of the district, rice has been grown very successfully, encouraged by water 
from the Cordna Irrigation District. 

Reclamation District No. 784 has as brilliant a record. Here rice is 
grown abundantly, and fruit is rapidly coming into its own. 



Near Lynchings 

If the walls of the Marysville City Jail and of the Yuba County Court- 
house could speak, they could rehearse many sensational events of a criminal 
nature. Crime started early to disturb the peace of the new settlement. 

One of the first crimes, a murder, is told of in a directory of Marysville 
compiled in 1856 by George Sturtevant and O. Amy. During the summer 
of 1850, one Greenwood, a quarter-breed, killed one Holden, a gambler. 
Much excitement prevailed, and Sheriff Twitchell with difficulty prevented 
the mob from taking Greenwood from his custody. 

A few weeks later, one Keiger committed a cold-blooded murder in 
the street, in the daytime. The populace was again aroused. Passion 
prompted summary vengeance ; but reason interposed, and the result was 
that a large volunteer guard watched the place used for a jail, then an adobe 
house at the foot of D Street, until Keiger could be examined before a 
magistrate, when he was committed and sent to a neighboring county jail 
to await his trial before a duly constituted court. 


It is not generally known that the late N. D. Rideout, head of the Ride- 
out string of banks in Northern California, figured as a victim of highway 
robbers in the early fifties, at a time when he was seeking his fortune in 
the mountain district of Yuba County. On a Tuesday afternoon, about 
4:30 o'clock, in October, 1852, as the Camptonville stage was proceeding to 
Marysville, it was stopped when near Dry Creek by- six mounted highway- 
men. They were after the treasure it carried, which amounted to $100,000. 
Near the point of attack the road forked, and Rideout, gold-dust dealer and 
banker of Camptonville, was on one road and the stage on the other. Ride- 
out was stopped by the robbers, who all presented their arms and com- 
manded him to dismount. He hesitated, when one of them threatened to 
shoot him. On the threat being made he dismounted, and went toward the 
stage on the other road across the ravine. The robbers called him back 
and demanded his money. Being satisfied that he had none, his treasure 
being on the stage, they took his horse and allowed him to cross over to 
the stage. The robbers then commanded the driver of the stage, John Gear, 
to stop, and threatened to kill the first man who should oppose them in 
their designs. Messenger Dodson, messenger for Eangton's Express, imme- 
diately drew on the robbers and commenced firing. His first shot took 
effect on the spokesman of the robbers and unhorsed him. Rideout had 
by this time got to the stage. An indiscriminate fight now commenced be- 
tween the robbers and passengers. As many as forty shots were fired on 
both sides. The robbers, finding themselves so stoutly opposed, retreated, 
leaving the passengers victors of the field of battle. The driver, John Gear, 
was shot through the right arm, above the elbow. Mrs. Tighlman, wife 
of a Marysville barber, was shot in the head, the ball entering over the 
right eye and penetrating the brain. Two other passengers were wounded. 
When the stage was stopped and the firing had commenced, one white man 


and four Chinamen left and ran back on the road which had been passed 
over. The newspaper reports of the occurrence said : "These persons have 
not been seen since." 

Tom Bell 
Tom Bell and his gang of robbers were suspected of the holdup. Bell, 
a noted highwayman of that day, was killed near Auburn in Placer County 
in 1856. In stature nearly six feet, he was well proportioned, combining in 
his frame strength with action. He was of a sanguine temperament, quick 
in his motions, being never at rest. He had sandy hair and a full crop of it, 
and a light goatee to match his hair in color. His nose, which was origin- 
ally well formed and large, was mashed in the bridge, almost level with his 
face. This defect rendered his countenance, which was otherwise pre- 
possessing, somewhat repulsive, and even hideous when viewed in connec- 
tion with his lawless practices. His eyes were a very light blue, of that 
class which approximates so nearly to a grey, and in their restless wander- 
ings were constantly sparkling with intelligence.. 

Bell was a native of Alabama. He had received a medical education, 
and, it is said, practiced that profession when he first came to California, 
in 1850. He first took to mining, and being unlucky at that, his next step 
was gambling. When that ceased to pay, he took to the road, and was 
engaged as a robber for about two years, in which time he acquired a fame 
for boldness and success in this section second only to Joaquin Murietta's. 

At the outset, it is said, he generally traveled alone, and, for his better 
security, wore a coat of armor under his clothes. He never shed the blood 
of his victim unless it became absolutely necessary to enforce a compli- 
ance with his demands. It was known that he had associated with him 
several persons scarcely less noted than himself, one of whom, an escaped 
convict named Bill Gristy, alias Bill White, when the band was broken in 
upon by a detachment of the Sacramento and Marysville police, was the 
only one who escaped. Gristy was cruel, cunning and blood-thirsty. This 
scoundrel was in Bell's band for three months. The band was supposed to 
number from six to eight, and they ranged the country along the foothills 
from the Yuba to Granite City. Their depredations were mainly confined 
to the several roads crossing in the neighborhood between Granite and Gold 
Hill, in Placer County. The country was rough, broken and covered with 
an impenetrable chaparral, in the recesses of which "an army with banners" 
might securely hide. Their outrages in this favorite field followed each 
other in such rapid succession that scarcely a day passed during the sum- 
mer of 1856 without furnishing a newspaper story from the calendar of 
their exploits, but in no instance did they shed blood. The plan of the 
chief was to frighten the traveler to terms, and avoid the cruelty of murder. 
On one occasion, Bell and Gristy, with one other, made an attack upon 
a man who was traveling from Downieville to Marysville with a large sum 
of money in his possession. The traveler resisted, fired upon his assailants, 
and finally fled from them toward a deep canyon in which, if he could reach 
it, he knew he was safe from pursuit on horseback. Just as he was about 
to reach his goal, Gristy fired with a navy revolver and shot him in the 
thigh, knocking him down. The robbers relieved him of his money; but 
instead of dispatching him, or leaving him to die from the hemorrhage of 
his wound, "Doctor" Bell kindly and expertly took up the severed artery, 
bound up the wound, and just at that moment hearing a wagon pass, turned 
to one of his subordinates and ordered him to attend to the teamster. The 
wagon was stopped, the driver relieved of his cash, the wounded man placed 
upon a mattress, hastily made in the bottom of the wagon, and the parties 
dismissed, with the injunction to "drive slow and pick their road." The 


wounded man requested Bell to tie his (the traveler's) horse behind the 
wagon. Bell refused, but assured him that he should have his horse, as he 
seemed attached to him, and that he would turn him loose in the woods, 
after stripping off his bridle and saddle, which promise he faithfully kept. 

Jim Webster 

In 1855 and 1856, Jim Webster was the terror of Timbuctoo and vicin- 
ity. He was a highwayman, and robbed and murdered a number of people. 
A reward was offered for his capture or death, but no one was daring 
enough to attempt the deed. In 1855, he killed three men in a ravine near 
Timbuctoo, with three shots from his revolver. After committing numerous 
depredations and criminal acts, he was killed by one of his own men. 
"Jack Williams' Ghost" 

George Shanks was a noted highwayman, usually called "Jack Will- 
iams' Ghost." He was a waiter in a hotel at Camptonville, and left there 
when he was sixteen years of age. He was afterward shot by Stephen 
Vanard, between San Juan and Nevada. 

Tommie Brown and Brother 

In October, 1876, Tommie Brown and his brother, who had been terror- 
izing all the northern part of the State, robbed the stage near the toll-house, 
one mile west of the Oregon House, the brother going to the head of the 
horses and Tom leveling his gun on the driver. E. Scammond, a banker 
from Downieville, was on the stage with $18,000 in dust, and leveled his 
gun on Brown, who also changed his aim to Scammond. Both fired at the 
same time. Scammond fell in the stage with several buckshot wounds, and 
after a little difficulty in securing the horses, which were frightened by the 
firing, the passengers, mail and express were robbed, and the stage was 
allowed to proceed. The $18,000 was not secured, as the dust was hidden 
in the gun case, valise and trunk, which Scammond recovered. A party 
pursued the Browns, and coming upon their camp, fired upon them and 
mortally wounded the brother. Tom gave himself up and was sentenced 
to San Ouentin for a term of ten years. When brought back as a witness in 
another case, he managed to escape from the Marysville city jail, April 26, 
1877. Rearrested in Oregon after robbing the Shasta stage, he pleaded guilty 
when arraigned, and had seven years added to his prison term. Photographs 
of Tommie Brown and his brother are in the archives of the sheriff's office in 

"Black Bart" 

In later years "Black Bart," another noted stage robber, figured in 
outrages up and down the State. After he was captured and exposed, he 
told the officers he frequently visited Marysville without being recognized. 
He was known during his career as "Black Bart, the Po 8," because of the 
rhymes he left at the scene of his crimes. 

Killing of "Mountain Scott" 

Shortly after noon on June 2, 1868, Hank L. McCoy and Jim Ueaman, 
members of the Marysville force, went to the lower section of the city to 
arrest Charles Williams, alias "Mountain Scott," who was wanted for the 
murder of a man named Ritter at Michigan Bar, and who was suspected of 
the killing of a Marysville policeman, "Butch" Dobler, a short time before. 
On turning the corner of B and First Streets, the officers espied "Mountain 
Scott" seated in front of an Italian store. AVhen the fugitive observed the 
officers coming, he immediately started to run across the levee, the officers 
in pursuit. When he reached the top of the embankment, he turned and 


fired a shot at his pursuers, which went wide of the mark. When Leaman 
returned the fire, the man ran down the levee to the corner of First Street 
and California Alley, now Chestnut Street. McCoy then opened fire, and 
his aim proved good at two attempts. "Mountain Scott" dropped, and 
died almost instantly. He had taken two shots at McCoy, however, before 
lie fell, and officer Leaman had resumed shooting. It was later ascertained 
that the deceased was a noted criminal, wanted for several offenses; that 
he was a native of Jamaica, aged thirty years ; and that his correct 
name was Charles Williams. 

Murder of Dr. Gray 

On the evening of July 4, 1868, while firecrackers and pistols still were 
popping in celebration of the nation's natal day, a shot was fired which 
went unnoticed amid the uproar, and because unnoticed gave the killer of 
Dr. J. B. Gray, prominent Marysville physician, time to make a get-away, 
which, however, proved short-lived. 

While Dr. Gray was standing near the door of the Magnolia saloon, 
afterward known as Foster's Bar, talking with a friend, Rufus Swett, 
former resident of La Porte, Plumas County, and of St. Louis, Sierra 
County, approached and engaged Dr. Gray in conversation in a low tone. 
Friends of Dr. Gray who were standing near testified at the coroner's 
inquest that the first words they heard from Dr. Gray were, "Get away 
from me; I don't want to have anything to do with you." To which 
Swett replied: "I am a big enough man for you." The next instant a shot 
rang out, and "then Dr. Gray moved toward the curb, saying, "He has shot 
me through and through !" Swett ran up D Street to Third, over Third 
to E, across E diagonally to the corner of E and Third, thence to Commer- 
cial Alley, down to the Yuba River levee, and up the river to the bridge, 
which then crossed the river at E Street and was known as the "Hawley 
Bridge." Twenty or thirty citizens, aroused by cries of "Stop the mur- 
derer !" and "Go to the bridge !" followed after Swett. The one to reach 
him first turned back when Swett leveled his pistol at him. Search for 
Swett that night proved futile, though citizens and police kept strict vigil. 

The next morning, at 10 o'clock, William Elliott reported seeing Swett 
at the corner of Fifteenth and Yuba Streets, and also reported that a mare 
belonging to J. Joy was stolen soon after Swett was seen there. Thinking 
that this was a plan to throw them off the scent, the officers paid but little 
attention to the story. 

That night city Marshal Nightingill, police officer Dan Derrickson, 
Deputy Sheriff Hewitt, and a man named John Stincer, armed with shot- 
guns, proceeded to the home of William Totman, a friend of Swett, on 
Yuba Street, and lay in wait, having worked out a theory that Swett would 
call there. Soon Swett appeared and was ordered by Derrickson to throw 
up his hands, which he reluctantly did, at the same time assuring Derrick- 
son that his pistol was empty. Derrickson called the other officers and 
soon had Swett marching toward the city, arms upraised. As the party 
passed the Totman house, Swett asked permission to go in and get a drink, 
but this was refused him. 

As a train of cars standing on the track at A and Sixth Streets was 
passed, Swett suddenly dodged behind the last car and took to his heels. 
Although Derrickson tripped and fell, he recovered soon enough to fire, 
the charge taking effect in Swett's left forearm. It was then an easy 
matter to land Swett at the city jail. Here a crowd of citizens assembled 
and demanded that Swett be hung, but the mob was soon subdued with 
assurances that the law would mete out justice in the case. 


Swett told the officers that he did not fire the first shot, and did not 
dream of violence on Dr. Gray's part. He said the difficulty arose out of 
Dr. Gray's betraying Mrs. Swett. 

The coroner's jury was made up of Fred N. Pauly, D. H. Harney, 
E'. W. "Whitney, Emmett Brown, Fred C. Chase, W. C. Swain, L. T. Crane, 
and J. T. Dickey. Their verdict held Swett accountable for the slaying. 
Dr. R. H. McDaniel, father of the present superior judge, Dr. E. T. Wil- 
kins and Dr. L. Lasvigne were witnesses at the inquest. A. Suss, mer- 
chant, Thomas McDermott, then familiarly known as "Mac, the Baker," 
and A. Lloyd testified as eye-witnesses to the shooting of Dr. Gray. The 
funeral of Dr. Gray was largely attended, as he was very popular in the 
community and had many friends throughout the State. 

Investigation into Swett's past showed that he left La Porte after 
arousing suspicion that he had committed burglary. He also had gained 
an unenviable reputation at Conner Creek and St. Louis. 

On October 14, the grand jury of Yuba County returned an indict- 
ment accusing Swett of the murder of Dr. Gray. The true bill was signed by 
1. H. Roberts as foreman of the jury. R. R. Merrill, as district attorney, and 
Barney Eilerman, as county clerk, took the usual part in the proceedings. 
S. M. Bliss was the county judge before whom the indictment was presented. 

Swett employed J. G. Eastman, Marysville attorney with a State-wide 
reputation, to defend him. Eastman challenged the indictment upon the 
grounds that the grand jurors were not drawn and empaneled in accordance 
with the law, and that all the jurors empaneled had formed an opinion that 
Swett was guilty of the crime. This demurrer availed the defendant nothing. 

One week after the grand jury indictment was returned against Swett — 
October 22, to be specific — the prisoner took leave of the county jail by night. 
He was locked in an iron cell as usual on the previous evening. In the 
morning the jailer found the cell door open, a hole cut through the east wall 
of the jail, and steps made from the staves of a bucket forming an ingenious 
stairway up the outside wall overlooking the yard. When the news of the 
escape was broadcasted, the citizens of Marysville, especially the friends of 
Dr. Gray, were far from complimentary of Sheriff A. P. Spear, who had 
ignored warnings that he should keep a night watch at the jail during the 
incarceration of Swett, and take other precautions. It was openly charged 
that the sheriff connived at the escape. A reward of $300 was offered for the 
capture of Swett. 

On December 30, at the request of the district attorney, District Judge 
I. S. Belcher issued a bench warrant for the rearrest of Swett, who was 
reported as having been seen in South America ; but he was never retaken. 

Decker-Jewett Bank Robbery 

The latter half of the year 1873 provided enough excitement for the 
officials of the city of Marysville and the officers of Yuba County to offset a 
season of quiet that for some time had prevailed. It was in that period that 
the futile attempt to rob the Decker-Jewett Bank, then located at First and 
High Streets, was made. 

About 3 o'clock in the afternoon of July 11, 1873, John H. Jewett was 
standing behind the counter of the bank acting as cashier, and the late A. C. 
Bingham was engaged in a curtained counting room of the bank near by, out 
of public view. Supposing that Jewett was alone, a man slipped up and 
leveled a six-shooter at his head, saying, "Don't you move !" Jewett, quickly 
comprehending the situation, crouched down and moved behind 'a desk, 
exclaiming at the same time, addressing Bingham, "The gun!" 

There were four double-barreled shotguns in different places in the bank. 
Jewett seized the nearest, not far from where he had taken refuge. The 


robber passed inside the railing and grappled with Jewett, just as he was 
grasping the gun, and struck him on the head with his revolver. Bingham, 
rising from his seat, fired a shot at the robber with a pistol. The stubborn 
resistance from the bank officials, coupled with the fact that he was receiving 
no assistance from his accomplices, determined the robber to retreat. But 
before he made his exit, Bingham, from over the curtains of his desk, fired 
both barrels of a shotgun loaded with buckshot point blank at the retreating 
robber. Jewett also fired once with his shotgun. The man staggered through 
the door and fell on the sidewalk. Jewett followed, and was about to shoot 
again, when the man begged to be spared, saying, "Don't, I am dying." 

John A. Toney, the partner of the dying man, unhitched the wounded 
robber's horse, standing in front of the bank, and mounting the animal, rode 
rapidly toward E Street, and on to Yuba City. The wounded robber proved 
to be James Collins, alias Frank Whipple, and best known in the section as 
"Big Frank." He was as fine a specimen of man as can be imagined, those 
who knew him say. When he was carried to the police station, doctors 
found that twenty buckshot had entered at the small of his back, two were 
found near the crown of his head, and one in his neck. He died that night in 
the jail, after suffering great agony. 

Before dying, Collins implicated P. W. Winkley, who had served the city 
both as city marshal and chief of the fire department, as the master brain 
in the plan to rob the bank. He had during his death agony, earlier in the 
day, asked A. C. Bingham, who called on him, if Winkley had said anything 
to him about the plan to rob the bank. Bingham assured him that Winkley 
had not done so. Bingham's suspicions were at once aroused; and it after- 
ward transpired that the plot was framed in Winkley's saloon in Yuba City, 
two clays before, between "Big Frank," John A. Toney and Winkley. Wink- 
ley was to take a station at the corner of First and D Streets and give the 
necessary signals. He was to take off his hat and replace it when he thought 
the time ripe to act. It was then recalled by citizens that Winkley was seen 
hastening from the vicinity of the bank when the shooting began, something 
quite unlike anything he was ever before known to do at a time of peril and 
public excitement, as he was a brave fellow, according to his police record. 
Winkley was arrested, and was convicted of complicity in the attempted 
robbery. He served a term in the penitentiary. 

Officers Hank L. McCoy, father of Charles J. McCoy, the present sheriff 
of Yuba County, and Mike Hogan took up the pursuit of Toney, the trail 
leading through Sutter County and into Colusa County. In the territory now 
known as Glenn County, a constable apprehended Toney. Handcuffing him, 
he placed him on the robber's own animal, a racer, and, mounting one of his 
own, rode alongside. The start was made for Marysville. Reaching a water- 
ing-trough at a small town, the constable decided that the horses needed 
water ; but no sooner had he dismounted for the purpose of watering the 
horses than Toney gave his horse the spurs and was off at lightning speed. 
He made a clever get-away, and found security for a time in the Lava Beds 
in the northern part of the State. Hank McCoy did not quit the chase, how- 
ever. Suspecting the direction Toney had taken, he followed on horseback, 
and was rewarded by coming upon his man. There was a gun battle in which 
Toney received a broken arm. He then gave up, and was returned to Marys- 
ville by McCoy. He paid the same penalty as Winkley. 

Killing of Dennis Dufficy 

Marysville was thrown into a state of excitement on the evening of 

Saturday, August 1, 1874, about 5:30 o'clock, when it became known that 

Dennis Dufficy, of the firm of Rohr & Dufficy, furniture dealers on D Street 

between Fourth and Fifth, had been stabbed, perhaps fatally, by his brother- 


in-law, John B. Rohr. Soon the store and the street held a crowd of excited 
persons, seeking the details of the affray. 

It developed that the only persons present at the cutting were DufRcy, 
his father-in-law and partner, and his brother-in-law. The elder Rohr and 
Dufficy had a disagreement over business matters, during which, it was 
alleged, Dufficy used improper language toward his father-in-law and slapped 
him in the face, whereupon John B. Rohr, who was employed in the store, 
resented the treatment of his father, saying he would not see him abused and 
struck. At this juncture, Dufficy turned upon young Rohr and knocked him 
down. Rohr, on recovering himself, drew his pocket-knife, which had a long, 
sharp blade, and warned Dufficy to let him alone. Paying no heed to the 
warning and drawn knife, Dufficy approached Rohr and endeavored to strike 
him with a high chair, or stool. It was then Rohr used the knife, inflicting a 
wound on the left side of the abdomen, severing the intestine. Dufficy ran 
to the street, followed by Ruhr, who carried his knife in his hand. 

On meeting Oscar Stone and David Kertchem, Dufficy informed them 
that he was mortally wounded, and asked that a doctor be called. Ex-Sheriff 
Matt Woods, who happened along, took Rohr into custody and delivered 
him to polic officers McCoy and Murphy at the station. Dufficy was taken 
to the drug store of Scott & Flint, where he was examined by Dr. S. J. S. 
Rogers, and given first aid. According to the physician Dufncy's condition 
was made highly alarming because of the fact that he insisted that he was 
going to die from the wound, which, in the opinion of the doctor, was not 
necessarily fatal. Dufficy died two days later, on August 3. 

At the October term of the grand jury, A. B. Crook, foreman, an indict- 
ment was returned by that body charging Rohr with the murder of Dufficy. 
E. A. Davis, who later became the judge of the joint superior court of Yuba 
and Sutter Counties, introduced the testimony, as district attorney. On 
May 7, 1875, Rohr secured his dismissal upon the grounds of self-defense. 

To those acquainted with the present-day language of a grand-jury indict- 
ment and a court complaint, the reading of the "true bill," returned against 
Rohr will prove of interest. The indictment, in part, used this language : 

"The said John B. Rohr, on the first day of August, 1874, with force and 
arms in and upon the body of Dennis Dufficy, then and there being, feloni- 
ously and wilfully did assault and, with a certain knife, which the said 
John B. Rohr in his right hand had and held, the said Dennis Dufficy in and 
upon the belly of the said Dennis Dufficy, then and there did feloniously and 
wilfully strike and thrust, giving to said Dennis Dufficy then and there and 
with the knife aforesaid, in and upon the belly aforesaid, one mortal wound, 
of which said mortal wound the said Dennis Dufficy, from the first day of 
August, 1874, until the third day of August, 1874, did languish and languish- 
in gly did live, on which third day of August the said Dennis Dufficy did die 
of said mortal wound." 

The warrant of arrest in this case issued from the mayor's court and was 
signed by William Hawley, the then mayor of Marysville. 

Race-track Murder 
About four o'clock on the morning of November 30, 1878, John McDaniel, 
lessee of the Marysville race-track, now known as Knight's Recreation Park, 
and upon which the links of the Marysville Golf Club are located, was aroused 
by his wife, who heard noises as if someone was jimmying a door on the 
premises. McDaniel started to investigate, and within a foot or two of his 
bedroom door encountered a Chinese, who proved to be Ah Ben. It is thought 
that McDaniel, who was a brave man, seized the visitor, having been robbed 
a few nights before. Mrs. McDaniel heard a tussle, and presently heard her 


husband cry out, "Oh, my God, help ! help !" When she reached him, McDan- 
iel and the Chinaman were still struggling. Although fatally wounded, 
McDaniel was doing his best to secure his murderer. Mrs. McDaniel pulled 
the Chinese away, and as she did so her husband staggered into the open, 
fell, and soon expired from a wound he had received in the breast from an 
inch-and-a-quarter chisel carried by Ah Ben. In the hand of the deceased 
was found a poniard blade, which, it is supposed, he wrenched from his mur- 
derer's hand and used in self-defense. The Chinese showed a stab in the left 
arm, and bruises on his face, proving that the struggle with his victim had 
been a desperate one. 

Ah Ben turned upon Mrs. McDaniel, and she was forced to back away 
from his grasp. About this time, Ah Joe, Chinese cook in the employ of the 
McDaniel family, rushed out of the dining-room to her assistance. The mur- 
derer, at sight of Ah Joe, started to run ; but the cook, at the risk of winning 
the condemnation of his race, followed and caught Ah Ben. He knocked the 
murderer down, hog-tied him, and then brought him back to the house, where 
he was kept until delivered to the custody of Police Officers John Colford and 
Mike Hogan. Constable Ezra Brow, who lived in the neighborhood, had 
been sent for, and he helped in the landing of Ah Ben in the city prison. 

That evening an autopsy was held by Coroner George Fronk, assisted by 
Drs. C. C. Harrington, C. E. Stone, and S. J. S. Rogers, all now deceased. 
The death-wound was found in the region of the stomach, the chisel having 
penetrated between the ribs and pierced the liver in its course. Besides his 
widow, McDaniel left six children, five of whom are still living. They are 
Mrs. Henry Blue, wife of Councilman Blue, Mrs. Harry S. Day, and Harry 
McDaniel, all of Marysville, and Mrs. Charles Day, of Berkeley, and George 
McDaniel, of Stockton. Another daughter, Mrs. George Crossley, died about 
two years ago. 

Soon after dark on the evening of the same day, a mob organized on the 
corner of D and Third Streets. During the day the populace had become 
aroused because of the cruel murder of McDaniel, who was a popular and 
esteemed citizen. Some said the community would be disgraced if Ah Ben 
were allowed to live through the day. At dusk the bell-ringer, a darkey who 
was employed in those days to spread sudden news and announce auction 
sales, got busy, and through his efforts a crowd of 300 or 400 assembled. A 
box had been placed at the intersection of Third and D, from which S. L. 
Howard, an attorney, made a speech calculated to incite the mob and induce 
it to proceed to the county jail, break down the iron doors, seize Ah Ben, and 
hang him. While the mob was at the height of its fury, Hon. John H. 
Jewett, Marysville banker, stepped to the box and made an effort to convince 
the turbulent crowd that they were acting unwisely and imprudently, and 
should disperse as good citizens. But the crowd manifested true mob spirit 
by stifling free speech. Jewett was interrupted by such a noise as to render 
his remarks inaudible. A. C. Bingham, former councilman, and later mayor, 
endeavored also to address the crowd, with but little better success. Bing- 
ham resented the cat-calls of the crowd, and for a time it looked as if he 
would mix things with the offenders. Knowing Bingham to be fearless, the 
mob gave closer attention toward the close of his address, which was along 
the same line as Jewett's. 

Howard was again called to the box. He made a speech at this time that 
rendered him liable to arrest. Finally, the meeting resolved to go to the jail 
and secure the murderer. A long rope had been obtained, and this was 
placed in the hands of Howard. Then there was a call, and a question as to 
who should be the leader. To the shouts "Who shall lead?" came the reply 
of all the mob, "Howard ! Howard !" But Howard appeared a better talker 


than leader of a forlorn hope, and held back. A few men seized him, how- 
ever, placed him in an express wagon, and ordered the driver to proceed to 
the county jail at Sixth and D Streets. 

"When the crowd arrived in front of the courthouse, they halted; and on 
looking for Howard, they found he was missing. At this critical moment 
Mayor X. D. Rideout, early-day banker, took a position on the courthouse 
steps and briefly addressed the crowd, advising law and order. He told the 
mob that the jail was strongly guarded, the sheriff firm, and that forcible 
entry would surely mean the needless loss of valuable lives, which he would 
regret to see. Mayor Rideout was followed by Sheriff Hank L. McCoy, who 
appeared on the steps with his chief deputy, Ike N. Aldrich, who later became 
justice of the peace of Marysville Township. McCoy assured the mob that 
if Ah Ben were taken from the jail it would not be without bloodshed. At 
this the mob returned down street, and generally dispersed. They decided 
that the sheriff meant every word he uttered. Up to a late hour that night, 
however, there was a disgruntled crowd of twenty or thirty assembled near 
the end of the D Street bridge, loath to give up ; but they, too, dispersed about 
midnight. Ah Ben was tried before Judge Phil W. Keyser and a jury; he was 
convicted, and sentenced to be hanged in the courthouse yard, as was then 
the custom. On Friday, March 14, 1879, the murder of McDaniel was expi- 
ated on the gallows before a throng that crowded the courtyard. Many a 
lad played truant from school, in hope of getting a glimpse of the execution, 
which many did from the treetops and housetops in the neighborhood of the 
courthouse. The hanging was well planned and successfully executed. In an 
interview with a newspaper man before his execution, Ah Ben, an ignorant 
individual, declared he would kill McDaniel again under like circumstances. 
Drs. R. H. McDaniel, David Powell, C. C. Harrington, A. B. Caldwell, and 
B. Phillips comprised the coterie of physicians who pronounced Ah Ben dead. 

Murder in Schimpville 

One of the most cruel murders in the criminal annals of Marysville was 
that committed at an early morning hour on October 23, 1882, at the Jacob 
Schimp dairy in the eastern portion of the city. Between Matthias Blumer 
and Fred Schindler, milkers in the employ of Jacob Schimp, a hatred had 
grown up, occasioned by jealousy over a woman. Blumer picked a quarrel 
with Schindler and, when the latter defended himself, beat him to death with 
a hammer. He hid the body first in a manger, and then buried it under the 
floor of the barn. That night he loaded the body into a wagon and threw it 
into Simmerly Slough, east of the City Cemetery. A Chinese fisherman 
pulled the body to the surface, and the arrest of Blumer followed. He claimed 
he acted in self-defense when Schindler, a younger man, attacked him with 
a pitchfork. Blumer was convicted and sent to San Quentin, but escaped and 
was free a long time before he was discovered in an Eastern State and returned 
to the penitentiary. 

Assassination of George Ball 

At 12:30 o'clock on the morning of July 16, 1890, the Marysville fire 
department responded to an alarm sounded on account, of a fire at the rear 
of the Belding Soda Works, corner of Second and Elm Streets. The fire 
seemed to have started under the floor of a room adjoining a stable where 
the delivery horse was kept. The blaze had spread to hay on the floor of the 
barn ; but as it had not gained much headway, the firemen had little trouble 
in quelling it. They left the place without suspecting anything unusual. 

Officers and friends of George Ball, popular manager of the soda factory, 
wondered at his non-appearance at the fire; and when Lisa, the daughter of 
John Stevenson, residing next door to the soda works, told her parents and 


the police that she heard cries emanating from the building- shortly before 
the fire was discovered, close investigation was made of the premises by 
Deputy Sheriff John Colford, Police Officer "Fawn" Clark, and Mr. Steven- 
son. In a short time the mutilated body of Ball was found under the partially 
burned straw on the barn floor. Save for a finger ring well known to his 
friends, the remains were unrecognizable. By the side of the body was a cast- 
iron pipe two feet in length, with which Ball had been battered unmercifully 
about the head. The body had been buried in the straw and the fire started 
in the hope of concealing the murder. Ball's gold watch and chain were 
missing, and it was found that the murderers had opened a safe in the office, 
without reward. No money was ever placed in the safe. 

Suspicion first pointed to Chinese residing in the vicinity, but this theory 
was not pursued for long. On April 30, 1891, the mystery began to clear, 
with the arrest at Sacramento, by Chief of Police Drew, of William J. Ousley, 
a mulatto, and Henry Smith, a negro. Smith proved an alibi and was released. 
Ousley, a victim of lung trouble, died in the Yuba County jail on August 9 
of the same year. Before he passed away he made a confession to Deputy 
Sheriff Tom E. Bevan, admitting his complicity, and implicating a colored 
man named George Maddux and one George Collins, who a short time before 
was killed in Stockton. Maddux was apprehended in a southern county and 
was returned to Marysville, tried, convicted and sent to prison for life. 
Ousley told the officers that Collins planned the job, and that he acted as 
lookout to tell the other two of the entry of Ball into the building. They 
knew that his last act before retiring was to water his horse. They took a 
position in the barn and felled Ball when he entered. A dish-washer called 
''Shorty Knight," who worked with Ousley in a Marysville restaurant just 
prior to the murder, was the person who gave to Chief of Police Drew, of 
Sacramento, the first clew to the murderers. 

A Christmas Day Crime 

Strangely in keeping with a belief that for a long time was held in 
Marysville, to the effect that a murder is committed in the city every twenty 
years on Christmas Day, Edward Raymond, a painter, shot and killed Thomas 
Brice, orchard worker, at the intersection of the F Street levee and Second 
Street, on December 25, 1891. The men had a dispute over a dollar loan 
made while both were drinking and gambling. Witnesses said Raymond was 
trying to induce Brice to accompany him to Yuba City, when Raymond sud- 
denly drew a revolver and fired. Brice died in a short time. Raymond was 
arrested by Police Officer F. B. Crane and Joseph Heyl. He was held to 
answer to the Superior Court on a murder charge, but escaped from the Yuba 
County jail by scaling the wall with a rope. The officers contended that 
Raymond received help from the outside. He was never retaken, although 
reports came in frequently that he was in hiding in his native State, Texas. 

Robbery of Oregon Express 
Marysville has never experienced a more exciting day than Saturday, 
March 30, 1895. Shortly after midnight of that day, the Oregon Express 
train was held up and robbed by two handsome bandits, who turned out to 
be Jack Brady, alias McGuire, and J. W. Browning, erstwhile farm hands 
who for several months had been employed on ranches in Linda Township, 
and had attended dances throughout the countryside, and caused many a 
female heart to go pit-a-pat. The train made a short stop at Wheatland en 
route north, and at that point the two robbers boarded the blind baggage. 
When the train was within four miles of Marysville, Fireman Nethercutt was 
surprised at having a revolver thrust in his face by one of the robbers. The 
other man gave orders to Engineer Bowser to stop the train, which was done. 


The engine force was then compelled to accompany the robbers to the express 
car, which was broken into. 

Unsatisfactory returns from their search in the express car determined 
the robbers to visit the day coaches. After forming a sack from a leg of an 
old pair of overalls, the robbers forced the fireman to enter the first day coach 
with them, and the engineer to follow behind them. At the point of revolvers, 
the passengers were compelled to place all their coin and valuables in the 
sack, among their victims being several men from Yuba and Sutter Counties. 

The robbers next visited the smoker. At this juncture Brakeman Sim- 
mons recalled that Sheriff John J. Bogard of Tehama County was sleeping 
in a Pullman of the train. He remembered also that Bogard, than whom 
there was no more fearless officer in California, had adjured him some time 
before that if ever a train hold-up was attempted, and he was on the train, 
Simmons was to apprise him. Simmons accordingly got word to Sheriff 
Bogard through the Pullman porter. Partially dressing himself, Bogard made 
his way to the smoker. He entered one end as the robbers entered the other. 
Crouching behind a car seat, Bogard took deliberate aim and shot the taller 
of the robbers through the heart, killing him instantly. In less time than it 
takes to write it, a shot rang out from the doorway the sheriff had just 
entered. The bullet entered Bogard's back in the region of the kidneys, and 
in a short time he was dead from loss of blood. As the source of the shot 
which killed the sheriff was never definitely determined, many believe to this 
day that there was a third robber in the gang, and that when he heard the 
shot which killed one of his pals he took revenge. 

Brady, the surviving robber, immediately left the car after the death 
of his partner, Browning, not even waiting to take a purse containing $51 
which had been dropped alongside Browning's body. Brady, it was afterward 
learned, made his way to Marysville on a bicycle, two of which were in 
hiding under a wagon bridge near the scene of the robbery. Clerks 
in Marysville hotels recalled that_ two young men, purporting to be 
farm hands and answering the descriptions of the train robbers, had fre- 
quently taken lodgings with them, and from this clue the officers worked. 
The hotel clerks, on viewing the body of the dead robber, had their suspicions 
confirmed, and officers took up the trail of Brady, who proved more than 
elusive. It was not until the following July that he was apprehended in the 
jungles near Sacramento. He was convicted and sent to the penitentiary for 
life. One juror saved him from hanging. 

The train robbery was the signal for extra editions of the Marysville 
papers, and this city received nation-wide notice through press reports of the 
crime. For two days throngs visited the Marysville morgue to view the 
remains of the brave sheriff and the handsome young robber. The pistol with 
which Sheriff Bogard killed Browning was one that the people of Tehama 
County presented him in recognition of his faithful service in office. 
Murder of Julius Pier 

On the night of May 1, 1895, Julius Pier, aged Hebrew second-hand 
dealer on C Street, between Second and Third, was murdered at the rear of 
his store, where he slept. He was found next morning gagged and hog-tied, 
and showing signs of having made a fight, against odds, for his life. Police 
Officer Hugh McCoy, who worked on the case with City Marshal J. A. 
Maben, discovered in a toilet bowl at the rear of the premises a portion of 
the shirt which was used to throttle Pier to death. This clew led to the 
apprehension of Stuart A. Green, alias George Duroy, a young electrician, 
who a few days before had installed an electric bell in the police station for 
the city. He was wearing the shirt at that time, and McCoy remembered it 


on account of the flashy pattern. Shortly after his arrest, Green confessed 
and implicated a barber, at the same time admitting that his was the master 
mind, and that he had planned to rob Pier for his money. When Pier resisted, 
the pair murdered him, slowly strangling him to death. Green was well con- 
nected in the East. His father came to Marysville and employed counsel 
who saved him from the gallows, the jury voting for life imprisonment. 
Marshall J. Miller, his barber accomplice, who conducted a shop on Second 
Street, near C, went into court and pleaded guilty. There was nothing for 
the court to do but pronounce the death penalty. He was executed at San 
Ouentin prison on September 28, 1896, after the supreme court had affirmed 
the judgment of the lower court. 

Tragic Results of I. W. W. Agitation in the Hop-fields 

On Sunday evening, August 3, 1913, the people of Marysville were star- 
tled by news from Wheatland, twelve miles south, that Edward T. Manweli, 
district attorney of Yuba County, had lost his life, that Sheriff George H. 
Voss had been mortally wounded and that a deputy sheriff named Thomas 
Riordan had been killed, as the result of an I. W. W. agitation in the camp 
of the hop-pickers on the Durst Brothers' place, which adjoined Wheatland. 
Citizens, aided by the police, at once formed relief parties, and these parties 
hastened, armed, to the scene. Coroner J. K. Kelly and his deputies, with 
City Marshal C. J. McCoy, now sheriff, were among the first to arrive at 
Wheatland, where they found the residents terrorized by the awful events of 
the afternoon. 

Investigation proved that the trouble in the hop-fields had been brewing 
for several days. Agents of the I. W. W. had worked, in their usual way, 
to cause the men and women employed by Durst Brothers to become dissat- 
isfied with their wage and with camp conditions as regarded sanitation and 
other matters. On the clay prior to the murder of the district attorney and 
the attack upon the sheriff, a committee headed by the leaders of the I. W. W. 
contingent had waited upon R. H. Durst of Durst Brothers with a written 
demand for an increase in the pickers' rates, for movable toilets in the field, 
for separate toilets for the women, for "high-pole" men, for lemonade made 
from lemons instead of acid, for the delivery of drinking water in the field 
twice a day, and for a committee from the pickers to inspect the hops and 
pass on them. Early in the morning of the fatal day, a second visit was paid 
Durst by the committee. Durst accepted some of the terms and vetoed others, 
chiefly the demand for increased pay, saying he would continue to pay the 
wages generally paid in California by growers of hops. 

Durst visited Wheatland, and without swearing to a complaint, demanded 
that Constable Lee Anderson arrest the leader of the strikers. Complying 
with Durst's request, Anderson' went to the field and attempted to arrest the 
man pointed out by Durst. The reception given Anderson was a rough one, 
Anderson having confessed that he did not have a warrant of arrest. Return- 
ing to Wheatland, he had a complaint drawn. Armed with a warrant, he 
now made another attempt to arrest the leader. This time he received a 
reception even warmer than the first. In the scrimmage, in which women 
pickers as well as men participated, Anderson was wounded in the arm, 
and was fortunate to escape with his life. 

Again repairing to Wheatland, Anderson notified Sheriff G. H. Voss over 
the phone of the conditions, and advised immediate action. The sheriff 
assembled several deputies in Marysville, among them the man Riordan, 
whom he knew to be fearless, and proceeded to Wheatland. Arriving there, 
he was met by District Attorney Manweli, who had spent the day in Wheat- 


land on legal business. Manwell volunteered to accompany the posse to the 
scene of the trouble. 

On their arrival at the hop-fields, the officers found that an indignation 
meeting was in progress, with one man perched on a box in the center of a 
dance platform, making a speech of an incendiary character. Making his 
way through the crowd, Manwell sought the cause for the gathering. As he 
did so the strikers surged around him, and about the sheriff and his deputies. 
In the excitement, a portion of the platform broke down, as did the box the 
speaker was standing upon. ' This seemed to intensify the bad blood among 
the rioters. As Manwell stood with his arm upraised, and with cigar in 
hand, appealing to the strikers to "keep the peace," he was shot down, 
and died almost instantly. 

The rioters then turned their attention to the other "Scissorsville offi- 
cers," this being the term by which the leader had referred to the sheriff and 
others in his speech before their arrival. Sheriff Voss was next attacked. A 
large Porto Rican among the strikers secured the sheriff's club, and was 
beating him over the head with it when Deputy Sheriff Henry Daken, a resi- 
dent of Wheatland, unloaded one barrel of his shotgun into the back of Voss' 
assailant, killing him instantly. Just who shot the man Riordan was never 
learned with certainty. 

After killing the Porto Rican, Deputy Sheriff Daken was compelled to 
shoot another man, a Mexican, in the hand. His gun was then empty, and 
he was forced to flee the mob. He arrived at the store building pursued by 
about twenty of the rioters. Taking a position behind the counter, after the 
doors were locked, he exchanged his clothing for other garments provided 
him, and shaved off his moustache. Thus disguised, he was able peaceably 
to retreat from the building toward evening, after the mob had threatened to 
burn the place. Daken was later the principal witness at the trial of the 
murderers of District Attorney Manwell. But for the work of Daken, the 
horde probably would have murdered every one of the sheriff's deputies. 

The unfortunate district attorney was a member of the Wheatland 
branch of Odd Fellows. Members of the lodge, as soon as they learned of 
the murder, formed a committee to go to the scene of the crime and recover 
the body. At risk of being treated roughly, the committee well performed 
their disagreeable task. They met some faint opposition, but finally, on 
proving that their mission was a peaceable and a sacred one, were able to 
remove the remains to their hall, to rest there till the arrival of the coroner. 
Several suspects were arrested by City Marshal C. J. McCoy and taken 
to the County Jail in Marysville. On the following morning, Adjt.-Gen. 
E. A. Forbes, close friend of Manwell and former resident of Yuba County, 
ordered Company I, of Oroville, and Company G, of Sacramento, together 
with Troop B of the latter place, to Wheatland, where martial law reigned 
for several days. 

Sheriff Voss was removed to a Marysville hospital, where he was forced 
to remain until well into September before reporting at his office. For a 
time his life wa« despaired of ; and while he lived for several years aftc-i this 
experience, his friends contended that his life was cut short by the treatment 
he received on "bloody Sunday" at Wheatland. 

Through arrests made, and through further investigation, E. B. Stan- 
wood, who was appointed by the supervisors to succeed E. T. Manwell as 
district attorney, learned with the aid of other officers that "Blackie" Ford 
and Herman D. Suhr were the ringleaders among the I. W. W. rioters. Ford 
was traced to Winnemucca, Nev., and returned on August 18 to Marysville, 
where he was recognized; as a man who previously had preached I. W. W.' 
doctrine in the county-seat, Suhr was taken in Prescott, Ariz. 


The trial of Ford and Suhr, together with that of several suspects 
indicted by the grand jury for the murder of Manwell, began on January 12, 
1914. In the court-room appeared a number of "sob-sisters," some repre- 
senting a San Francisco journal, and some others, members of organizations 
allied with the I. W. W. The latter organization rented a house across from 
the courthouse and established headquarters there, sending out literature 
intended to create sympathy for the men on trial. The jurors chosen to hear 
the evidence were A. F. Folsom, Browns Valley; W. H. Finch, eastern Yuba 
County; A. J. McCarty, Hammonton ; C. E. Stephenson and Frank Platte, 
Marysville ; Emile -Picard, who later was one of the victims, with his wife, 
in a double murder, mentioned in this chapter; C. E. Shogren, August Erick- 
son, and Edward Carlson, all of Arboga ; R. E. Alderman, of Waldo ; John 
J. Norton, of Marigold ; and W. Bainbridge, of Rackerby. A. C. Allread, 
a Marysville blacksmith, was selected by agreement as an alternate juror, 
to take part in the verdict in the event of sickness or death of an}- member 
of the jury. Daily attendants at the trial were men well known as active 
in I. W. W. ranks. Such as were suspected of being present for ulterior 
purposes were closely watched by the officers. 

District Attorney Stanwood was assisted in the prosecution of the 
defendants by W. H. Carlin, well-known Marysville attorney, who bore a 
State-wide reputation as a criminal lawyer, but who always preferred to be 
on the side of the defense. It was proven by the prosecution that Suhr had, 
during the agitation at Wheatland, sent a telegram to I. W. W. headquarters 
at San Francisco, ordering that "more wobblies be sent to Wheatland." A 
verdict of conviction was returned against both Ford and Suhr, and they 
were given life sentences. Several unsuccessful attempts have been made 
to secure their parole, but to no avail. Judge E. P. McDaniel, who presided 
at their trial, would never take a part in any movement toward commutation 
of sentence or parole. 

In Memoriam 

Edward Tecumseh Manwell was a native of Wheatland. He taught 
school a number of years in his native county, at the same time studying 
law. His first political office was that of Assemblyman; and he served two 
terms as a representative from this district, then known as the Eighth 
Assembly District. He next was chosen county superintendent of schools, 
holding the office from 1906 to 1910. In 1910, he succeeded Fred H. Greely, 
present county auditor and recorder, as district attorney, filling the office 
until his death. He was a member of the Masonic fraternity, as well as of 
the Odd Fellows, and had served as a member of the National Guard. 

Manwell was survived by his widow and eight children, the oldest being 
Ray Manwell, who at the time this is written is himself filling the office of 
district attorney. The remains of Edward T. Manwell rest in the family 
plot at Wheatland. The funeral procession that proceeded from Wheatland, 
where the services were held, to the grave, was attended by people from all 
walks of life in Yuba and the surrounding counties. 

The conviction of Ford and Suhr has for years caused the I. W. W.'s 
to give this section a wide berth. The Wheatland tragedy, it should be 
added, had the effect of arousing the people of the State to legislation pro- 
viding more definite rules for camps where workers are employed, particu- 
larly as to sanitary conditions, proper housing, water supply, etc. 

Murder of the Picards 
The only double murder recorded in the annals of Yuba County took 
place on the night of April 29, 1915, at the "Bit House," a roadside place on 
the Marysville-Oroville highway, seven miles north of Marysville. The 


victims were Emile Picard, an aged Frenchman, and his wife, Ellen Picard, 
who was considerably younger. Connected with the place was a bar, through 
which an entrance could be gained to their living-rooms. 

The dastardly crime was discovered by Harvey Smullin, clerk for his 
father, S. N. D. Smullin, a grocer of Honcut. Young Smullin, early in the 
morning, entered the Picard kitchen with an order of groceries, and was 
surprised not to find Mrs. Picard there to greet him. Going to the dining- 
room, he came upon the kneeling form of Mrs. Picard, her hands joined as 
if in prayer, and her head upturned as if pleading with her murderer to spare 
her life. Mrs. Picard was dead from two bullet wounds, one entering between 
the mouth and ear, and the other entering the neck and terminating in the 
spinal cord, as the post-mortem examination afterward showed. The remains 
of Picard were found in the barn on the place. Smullin rushed to the home 
of ]. E. Strain and told of his discovery. Strain at once telephoned the 
news to Sheriff C. J. McCoy, who with his deputies and the newspaper men 
was soon at the scene of the crime. The first theory was that the couple 
were robbed of their money and killed because they recognized the operators. 
But when two purses were found on the premises — one in the bar and the 
other in Mrs. Picard's lodgings — with $140 in coin in them, the officers were 
puzzled, but for a short time only. 

Behind an old clock in the barroom, Sheriff McCoy came upon a business 
card bearing the name and address of William Shannon, cobbler of Honcut, 
who was recognized by the neighbors of the Picards as a drinking man who 
frequently visited their place. Eater in the clay, Sheriff McCoy met a farm 
hand who said he observed a man answering Shannon's description walking 
along the road between Ramirez Station on the Western Pacific Railroad 
and the Picard place. That was about six o'clock in the evening; and the 
coroner's office had reported to the officers that the Picards, according to 
their observations of the bodies, had been killed about that hour. Two days 
later a man serving time on the chain-gang in Marysville, for drunkenness, 
told the police that he had seen a man burning a pair of overalls in a heating 
stove at the rear of the Chicago Saloon. In the stove the officers found 
the buttons from the overalls and a patent mark, all of which corresponded 
with those on the brand of overalls William Shannon always wore. 

Shannon was arrested at the Western Pacific depot as he was about to 
board a train for Honcut. The wife of Shannon, when visited at Honcut a 
few days before, told Sheriff McCoy that her husband had left home on the 
night the murder was committed and had not returned. She said she thought 
he had gone to Marysville for a spree. 

Although he weakened after placed in jail, and made remarks in the 
hearing of his fellow prisoners indicating a troubled conscience, Shannon 
never confessed. He went to trial and was convicted. Certain peculiarities 
on the soles of his boots corresponding to tracks found on the Picard 
premises helped the jury to agree that the defendant was the murderer. One 
juryman, however, saved him from the gallows, and he was given a life 
term. He now is endeavoring to secure a parole. 

Picard was a man of education, and when young was employed as buyer 
of silks for a wholesale house in New York. His remains, with those of his 
wife, rest in the Marysville Cemetery. 


John Sperbeck 

In the period between September 6, 1915, and February 6, 1922, Marys- 
ville lost three policemen at the hands of assassins. Police Officer John 
Sperbeck was the first to receive a fatal bullet wound. About four o'clock 


on the afternoon of September 6. 1915, while Sperbeck was on duty at the 
police station, word came that a Chinese store on C Street, between First 
and Second, had just been held up by a youthful-looking bandit, and the 
contents of the till taken. Sperbeck at once responded, and with Chief of 
Police C. A. Smith traced the robber to a lumber-yard near the corner of 
Fourth and C Streets and found him hiding behind a pile of lumber, where 
he was changing his outer clothing for some he had previously placed there. 
He flashed a gun on Smith, at the same time taking refuge behind another 
stack of lumber. Smith shouted to Sperbeck to beware of the man, and the 
next moment a shot rang out. The robber had espied Sperbeck taking aim 
at him from another portion of the yard, while crouched behind some tim- 
bers. The robber's aim was true, the shot striking Sperbeck in the back of 
the head and inflicting a fatal wound from which he died about seven o'clock 
that evening, in a hospital to which citizens had hurried him. He never 
regained consciousness. 

The murderer proved to be Kosta Kromphold, alais John W. McLarney, 
a New York lad, only eighteen years of age. He was caught in the Yuba 
River bottom east of the city while trying to escape a horde of citizens who 
took up the trail from the lumber-yard. The jury that tried him returned 
a verdict of murder in the first degree, and he was hanged at Folsom prison. 

James Mock 

Policeman James Mock was shot at a spot in the jungles, a short distance 
from the Western Pacific passenger depot on K Street, on May 7, 1918, 
while in the discharge of his duties. His murderer was a colored man named 
William Shortridge, who was traced to the spot after he had attempted an 
early morning robbery at the Dawson House, a hostelry of pioneer days 
which was wrecked in the year 1922 to make way for the service station now 
located at Second and E Streets. Mock died a few days after he was shot. 

Mock was in the act of placing his handcuffs on Shortridge when the 
negro wrenched the officer's pistol from him and fired. He escaped, but was 
found by citizens in the afternoon of the same day hiding in a grain-field 
south of the city. He, too, was convicted and hanged. 

Francis M. Heenan 

About 9 : 30 o'clock in the evening of February 6, 1922, Police Officer 
Francis M. Heenan had his attention attracted, as he was walking along C 
Street, between First and Second, to a pistol shot fired in the Canteen Saloon 
at the northwest corner of Second and C Streets. Hastening, with a citizen, 
to the swinging doors of the place, Heenan observed that a hold-up was 
being enacted. Bolting through the doors, without seeming to realize the 
seriousness of the situation, he came face to face with the robber. In a flash 
the man fired a shot into the officer's breast, killing him almost instantly. 
The murderer lost no time. He was seen to hasten along the north side 
of Second Street to Elm, where he changed his course up that narrow street ; 
and although citizens at once took up the trail, he covered his tracks com- 
pletely. Many explanations have been made as to how he got away, but 
none has been accepted as the correct one. 

Joe "Silver" Kelly, alias Con Connelly, is wanted for this crime. There 
is a reward of $800 on his head, $300 of which was offered immediately by 
the owner of the Canteen Saloon, and the remainder by the city council. 
The fact that Kelly was in Marysville on the day preceding the night of the 
murder, and could not be found after the shooting, convinced Chief of Police 
C. A. Smith and Sheriff McCoy that he was the murderer of Heenan. Circu- 


lars have been sent to all parts of the world giving Kelly's description, and 
heralding the reward, but so far to no avail. 

In the" early days, an officer named "Butch" Dobler was killed by a 
Mexican near the spot where Officer Heenan was murdered. In this instance, 
also, the murderer made a successful get-away. 



At one time in Marysville the whipping-post promised to become a 
steady means of meeting the minor crimes. In the Register of Suits, a 
very interesting volume, used by the first alcalde of Marysville, Stephen J. 
Field, and still preserved with the Yuba Count}- records, pages 112-117, the 
following is found : 

"In the case of the People of the State of California against Frederick 
Burcholder and John Barrett, the jury found the defendant Barrett guilty 
of stealing a tin box containing about sixty dollars' worth of gold dust and 
a gold dust bag containing a quantity of gold dust of the value of from 
twelve to fifteen hundred dollars. The judgment of the court was : 

"Therefore, it is ordered that the said defendant, John Barrett, be 
taken from this place to Johnson's ranch (the place where the theft was 
committed), and there receive on his bare back within twenty -four hours 
from this time fifty lashes well laid on; and within forty-eight hours from 
this time fifty additional lashes well laid on ; and within three days from 
this time fifty additional lashes well laid on; and within four days from 
date fifty additional lashes well laid on ; and within five days from date fifty 
additional lashes well laid on. But it is ordered that the four last punish- 
ments be remitted provided the said defendant make in the meantime resti- 
tution of the said gold dust bag and its contents. The Sheriff is ordered to 
execute this judgment. Witness my hand and seal this seventh day of 
April, 1850. Stephen J. Field, First Alcalde of Marysville." 

Under date of the 8th of April the record adds : "The sentence executed 
by the infliction of twenty lashes, after receiving which he confessed the 
theft of the bag containing from twelve to fifteen hundred dollars in gold 
dust and made restitution of the same." 

Directory Account of a Whipping-post Case 

The City Directory of 1856 also interestingly describes how, as early 
as 1850. the whipping-post had to be resorted to. In the month of April, 
the town was thrown into a state of excitement by a daring burglary, com- 
mitted at^the Sutter House, conducted by John Gildersleeve. A truck con- 
taining $700 in gold dust had been robbed, and the perpetrators had fled. 
The alcalde issued a warrant; and the robbers, two in number, were pur- 
sued and captured by Sheriff Twitchell and posse. A grand jury was sum- ' 
moned in due form, and indictment was speedily returned, G.' N. Swezy 
acting as prosecuting attorney. A petit jury was forthwith summoned; the 
accused were tried, found guilty and sentenced to be whipped ; the sentence 
was executed; and the culprits, who left town with their plunder at four 


o'clock in the morning, left the same town at four o'clock in the afternoon of 
the same day with well-merited stripes. The absence of secure jails, or other 
places of confinement, rendered this mode of punishment unavoidable, unless 
crime was to be allowed to go unchecked. 


The code of honor was frequently resorted to as a method of healing 
wounded feelings in the early days of Yuba County, but the practice soon 
sank into decay. Many of the meetings were held so secretly, and the results 
were so trifling, that the affairs never became generally known. Some, how- 
ever, were subjects of general comment for a long time. 

Near-Duel between Judges 

Probably the most celebrated duel, or rather incipient duel, which ever 
occurred in the county, was that between Judges Stephen J. Field and 
AVilliam T. Barbour. The latter was judge of the Tenth District Court, and 
in some manner a feeling of enmity sprang up between the two jurists. This 
spirit led to innumerable little squabbles and nearly culminated seriously. 
George C. Gorham wrote a criticism on Judge Barbour and handed it to 
O. P. Stidger, editor of the Herald, for publication. The same day, as Judge 
Field was proceeding to his office, with his arms full of books, he was 
assaulted by Judge Barbour, who claimed that his opponent had caused the 
publication of the offensive article. 

The parties being separated, by some diplomatic efforts Judge Barbour 
was forced to send the challenge. This left Judge Field with the privilege 
of selecting the weapons and the manner of meeting. It was at first proposed 
to fight with knives in a dark room, but Judge Barbour would not accede 
to this, claiming that it was cruelty. Finally it was decided to have a meet- 
ing with firearms, on the opposite side of Bear River. Charles S. Fairfax 
acted as second for Judge Barbour, and Gordon N. Mott for Judge Field. 
Although both parties appeared on the ground, an actual conflict was avoided. 

Cause, a Woman 

Early Tuesday morning, March 8, 1853, two men fought a duel near 
the cemetery, in Marysville, with double-barrelled shotguns, loaded with 
buckshot. One was wounded in the thigh, and had his left arm broken. 
Cause, a woman. No notice was taken by the authorities. 

Newspaper Men Mix 

A duel occurred in 1853 in which Richard Rust, editor of the California 
Express, challenged O. P. Stidger, editor of the Marysville Herald. They 
met two miles below Yuba City, and used revolvers, firing at a distance of 
ten paces. One shot was fired, and the bullet went through the coat of 
Stidger. The cause was some articles appearing in the Herald criticizing 
some in the Express, and the motives of the editor in publishing them. 

Another Bloodless Duel 

In 1854 a stranger in Camptonville was inveigled into a sham quarrel, 
and as a result a duel was arranged. Two seconds were chosen and a sur- 
geon appointed. The parties went to the grounds south of Camptonville. 
When the stranger fired, his opponent fell and was immediately sprinkled 
with red berry juice. The stranger, seeing him fall, and observing the red, 
which he supposed to be blood, thought that a good place to get away from, 
and no time so good as the present, and therefore broke for the wilderness. 
Several months later his bones and clothes were found at the foot of a 
precipice over which he had fallen in his fright, a distance of forty feet, and 
been dashed to death. The body was accidentally discovered in the follow- 


ing manner: A man named Blackburn had murdered a boy, George W. 
Carothers, and fled in the direction the stranger had taken ; and while hunt- 
ing for Blackburn, the citizens discovered the remains of the unfortunate 
victim of their practical joke. 

Turner-Howser Duel 

Albert Turner and William Howser agreed to settle in an honorable 
way, and adjourned to Sutter County, opposite the Yuba County Hospital, 
for that purpose, June 10, 1858. The sheriff interfered, however, and they 
started for Butte County, but finally returned to Marysville. They met 
near the hospital the next morning, with seconds and surgeons, and had 
five shots at each other, at a distance of fifty paces, with shotguns loaded 
with ounce balls. At the last fire Howser was badly wounded in the right 
arm. Howser was an uncle of S. C. Howser, of the present police force. 

Last on the County Records 
The last resort to the "code honorable" was made by Thomas Burns 
and John Davis, both of Marysville. They had a quarrel over some domestic 
difficulties, in which Davis received severe chastisement. He challenged 
Burns to the field of honor, and they fought a duel on January 8, 1871, a 
few miles below Yuba City. Revolvers were used at thirty paces. After the 
exchange of four harmless shots, the honor of these men was completely 
satisfied and they retired from the field. 


District Court 

Under the California law of 1850, Yuba County was in the Eighth 
Judicial District, and the first term of the court was commenced on June 
3, 1850, by Hon. William R. Turner. The jurisdiction of this court was very 
wide, including chancer)', civil and criminal. It had original jurisdiction 
in all cases in equity, and its civil jurisdiction included all cases where the 
amount exceeded $200, causes involving the title to real property or the 
validity of any tax, and issues of fact joined in the Probate Court. It had 
power to inquire into all criminal offenses by means of a grand jury, and 
to try indictments found by that body. The first grand jury convened on 
June 4, 1850. 

In 1851 the legislature took from the court its criminal jurisdiction and 
conferred this upon the Court of Sessions, leaving it the power of hearing 
appeals from that court in criminal matters, and the power to try all indict- 
ments for murder, manslaughter, arson, and other cases that could not be 
tried in the Court of Sessions. At the same session the legislature formed 
Yuba, Nevada and Sutter Counties into the Tenth Judicial District. In 1851 
Hon. Gordon N. Mott was appointed by the Governor to fill the vacancy 
caused by the removal of Hon. William R. Turner to another district. 

In 1853 the Tenth Judicial District was changed by the legislature so 
as to embrace Yuba, Nevada, Sutter and Sierra Counties. Again in 1857 
an alteration was made, reducing the territory covered by the district to 
Yuba and Sutter Counties. In 1863, the size of the district was again in- 
creased to four counties, Yuba, Sutter, Colusa and Sierra. The legislature 
in 1863 also raised the civil jurisdiction of the court from amounts over $200 
to amounts over $300, gave it exclusive power to try indictments for treason, 
misprision of treason, murder, and manslaughter. 

Court of Sessions 

The Court of Sessions was composed of the county judge as chief 
justice, and two justices of the peace as associate justices, whose term of 


office was one year, and who were elected annually by the justices of the 
county, The first term was commenced on June 10, 1850. The duties of 
this court included those now discharged by the board of supervisors. The 
court continued to perform these duties until 1855, when the board of super- 
visors was organized. In 1851, the power to inquire into criminal offenses 
by means of a grand jury was transferred from the District Court to the 
Court of Sessions. All criminal indictments were tried here, except for 
murder, manslaughter and arson. In 1863, the Court of Sessions was abol- 
ished by act of the legislature. 

County Court 

In this early period the County Court was held by the county judge, 
whose term was fixed by the constitution at four years. Hon. Henry P. 
Haun was elected by the people of Yuba County on the first Monday in 
April, 1850, and opened the County Court on June 3, 1850. An appeal lay 
to this court in civil cases from a justice of the peace and the Recorder's 
Court. The business transacted by this court was at first necessarily small. 

In 1860, the legislature made the jurisdiction of this court to embrace 
cases of forcible entry and detainer. The Court of Sessions having been 
abolished, criminal jurisdiction was also given to this court, with power 
to try all indictments, except those for treason, misprision of treason, murder 
and manslaughter, which indictments had to be certified to the District 
Court for trial. 

Probate Court 

The county judge was also the judge of the Probate Court. The juris 1 
diction of this court embraced all probate matters. Issues of fact joined here 
were adjourned to the District Court for trial, or by agreement could be 
tried in this court. Afterwards, by act of the legislature, the Probate Court 
was given the power to summon juries and try issues of fact. 

Recorder's, Mayor's and Police Courts 
The charter by which the City of Marysville was incorporated in 1851 
provided for a Recorder's Court to be held by the recorder of the city, 
elected annually by the people. The first to fill this position was Gordon 
N. Mott, elected in 1855. The jurisdiction of this court extended to the city 
limits, and embraced the same civil and criminal powers as those possessed 
by a justice of the peace. It also had exclusive jurisdiction of all violations 
of a city ordinance, nuisances in the city, vagrancy, and disorderly conduct. 
By the charter of 1855, the civil jurisdiction of this court was taken 
away. The office of recorder was abolished by the legislature of 1862, 
and a Mayor's Court was established. All powers of the recorder were 
transferred to the mayor of the city, who held a new court. 

By act of the legislature, the city was reincorporated in 1876, and the 
Mayor's Court was changed to the Police Court, as it exists at present, with 
the same powers as those possessed by the Mayor's Court. The police judge 
thereafter was elected annually by the mayor and common council. 

Justices of the Peace 

By the law of 1850 the term of a justice of the peace was fixed at one 
year. His jurisdiction extended to the limits of the township in which he 
was elected. He had cognizance of actions on contract, for damages, and 
to recover specific property when the amount or value did not exceed $200. 

In 1851 the powers of the justice of the peace were considerably in- 
creased. He had jurisdiction of actions to recover money for damages 
to personal property, for fines, penalties and forfeitures, actions on bonds, 
enforcement of lien on personal property, actions to recover personal prop- 


erty, and judgments by confession, where the amount in all these cases 
did not exceed $500, and on a bond taken by him, even if the amount did 
exceed that sum ; also jurisdiction over cases of forcible entry and detainer, 
and for the trial of the right in mining claims. 

In the City of Marysville, the Police Court has cognizance of criminal 
cases to the exclusion of the Justice's Court. 


Among Judge Field's associates at the Marysville bar during his resi- 
dence in the city he helped to christen were : Richard S. Mesick, afterwards 
district judge in Storey County, Nev. ; Charles H. Bryan, who died in Vir- 
ginia City, Nev. ; Jesse O. Goodwin, afterwards Speaker of the Assembly, 
district attorney, and State Senator; Gabriel N. Swezy, afterwards in both 
branches of the legislature ; Gen. William Walker, the "grey-eyed man of 
destiny," the foremost filibuster of the world ; John V. Berry, whom a drug- 
gist poisoned by mistake; E. D. Wheeler, afterwards State Senator; T. B. 
Reardon, who died in Oroville ; Isaac S. Belcher, later district judge, supreme 
judge and Supreme Court commissioner; E. C. Marshall, later a member 
of Congress and Attorney General ; and at least fifty others, including Charles 
E. Filkins, Charles Lindley, Henry P. Haun, N. E. Whitesides, F. L. Hatch, 
George Row r e, William C. Belcher, Charles E. De Long, afterward minister 
to Japan, and Henry K. Mitchell, who became prominent in law and politics 
in the State of Nevada. 

The early bar of Yuba County had among its members men who later 
gained national and State fame. We recall Judge I. S. Belcher, who was 
made a Supreme Court commissioner, ranking with the judges of the State 
Supreme Court under a provision of the new constitution adopted in 1884. 
Judge Belcher had established a lucrative law business in Marysville in 
partnership with his brother, W. C. Belcher ; and with the latter he later 
established an office in San Francisco, where they were equally successful. 
During the latter part of their career in Marysville, they had associated with 
them another brother, E. A. Belcher. 

Charles De Long was appointed minister to Japan by President U. S. 
Grant, because of the brilliant record made by him in this section. 

James G. ("Jim") Eastman became one of the leaders of the Los 
Angeles bar, and was noted throughout the State for his eloquence and 
wit. Eastman took a prominent part in bringing about the adoption of the 
new State constitution. 

L. J. Ashford had an office on Third Street. He spent his last days 
on the orchard of his brother in Sutter County. 

S. M. Bliss, who later served as district attorney of Yuba County, is 
remembered as a very energetic man with an enviable record. 

The same can be said of Frank B. Crane, who became district attorney 
of Sutter County and superintendent of schools in Yuba County. 

D. H. Cowden, another early-day lawyer, married a daughter of Peter 
Van Fleet, who was made a Supreme Court commissioner when that body 
was increased to five members in 1889. Mrs. Cowden, formerly Annie Van 
Fleet, was a graduate of the Poston Seminary in Marysville. 

Edwin A. Davis, who became judge of the Superior Court of Yuba 
County, began his career as teacher in the schools of Camptonville, studied 
law while serving as such, and opened his first office in Marysville. 

Charles E. Filkins is remembered as a short, portly, dignified man, and 
an able attorney. He seldom took a criminal case. He acquired a com- 
petency and died in very comfortable circumstances. His home was at the 
cornes of Seventh and D Streets, in the dwelling now occupied by Mrs. 


Marv Aaron. A daughter of Filkins became the wife of A. C. Bingham, 
well-known banker in his lifetime. Another daughter, Jennie Filkins, 
married C. P. Tubbs, of San Francisco. 

Jesse O. Goodwin was very prominent in the early history of Yuba 
County. He acquired a fortune. At one time he owned the vast acreage in 
Sutter County that became the property of Berg Brothers. While he remained 
a bachelor during his palmy days, shortly before his death he married Mary 
Wadsworth, who became a celebrity as a singer. The ceremony took place 
in San Francisco, while Goodwin was in declining health. During his resi- 
ednce in Marysville, Goodwin had a narrow escape from death while riding 
with Dr. R. H. McDaniel on the Feather River bridge. That structure was 
then enclosed with a heavy framework. A runaway team entered the bridge 
from the end opposite to which Dr. McDaniel and Goodwin had driven in. 
Dr. McDaniel escaped without injury when the collision came, but Goodwin 
received injuries which left him indisposed for a long time. 

George C. Gorham, another early-day lawyer of Marysville, became 
secretary of the United States Senate, through the efforts of his friend, Judge 
Stephen J. Field, a position he held many years. He was distinguished as a 
great orator. He was a brother of Charles M. Gorham, who "was made mayor 
of Marysville. 

Phil W. Keyser, who for many years held the position of judge of the 
Superior Court of Yuba and Sutter Counties, while the two were in one 
judicial district, was a very popular man in Marysville and Yuba City. He 
gained prominence in the State and nation through his decision in the case of 
Keys against the North Bloomfield Mining Company, which led to the famous 
Sawyer decision estopping hydraulic mining, the detritus from which threat- 
ened great damage to the valley counties. 

Lloyd Magruder became county clerk in 1857, and was killed in 1863 
by highwaymen in Washington Territory. He practiced here for many years, 
and reared a family in Marysville. 

R. H. McDaniel, brother of the present superior judge of Yuba County, 
practiced in Marysville until his health failed. He died in 1868. 

J. C. McQuaid, an uncle of C. E. McOuaid, present assessor of Sutter 
County, also was a member of the Yuba County bar. 

Zach Montgomery's name is inseparable from the early history of the 
county. He attained State-wide fame as an orator and pleader. He became 
prominent in the anti-debris litigation. 

Gordon N. Mott was one of the judges of the county in the very early 
days. He was a great friend of Judge Stephen J. Field, and was the father 
of Rev. Edwin Marshall Mott, pastor of the Episcopal Church in Washing- 
ton, D. C, to which charge the younger Mott was called through the influ- 
ence of Judge Field. 

William Singer, Sr., is remembered as a noted land lawyer, making his 
start in Mary r sville. His son, William Singer, Jr., followed in his footsteps 
and became chief counsel for the Southern Pacific Company in their land 

Gabriel N. Swezy was a noted and prominent citizen and leading lawyer 
of Marysville in its early history. At one time he was greatly interested 
in live stock. In every State and county fair his herds always were on dis- 
play, especially his shorthorn cattle, to which strain he leaned. He built the 
house still standing at the southeast corner of Seventh and D Streets. His 
daughter, Mrs. Amelia Coult, was a highly respected and able teacher in the 
Marysville schools in the eighties and nineties. Charles E. Swezy, land 
attorney, who died recently in Sacramento, was a son of Gabriel Swezy\ 


William Walker brought the bar of Yuba County into prominence when 
he became the leader of the famous filibustering party that invaded Central 
America. His band captured a number of the citizens of Nicaragua, and 
had it not been for Uncle Sam's gunboats, which took him into camp, he 
would have accomplished his aim to become head of that country. 

N. E. Whiteside was another of the successful lawyers of the com- 
munity. His son, "Bo" Whiteside, was made a deputy sheriff by one of 
the early-day sheriffs. "Bo" Whiteside is now an officer in Arizona. The 
elder Whiteside married a Miss Vineyard, sister-in-law of Matt Woods, 
early-day sheriff. He became famed as a great orator and wit. 

Other early lawyers were B. W. Howser, who built up a splendid office 
business, E. G. Fuller, and J. H. Craddock, who specialized in probate work. 

In a later group of Marysville attorneys were M. C. Barney, W. G. 
Murphy, C. L. Donohoe, C. J. Covillaud, C. A. Webb, E. P. McDaniel, Edwin 
A. Forbes, and Wallace Dinsmore. Forbes became district attorney of the 
county and later adjutant-general of the State of California. Donohoe 
moved to Willows, Glenn County, where he still lives. 

Still later accessions were Edward Tecumseh Manwell, who, while serv- 
ing as district attorney, was killed by the I. W. AV.'s in the Wheatland hop- 
riots, as is told in another chapter; M. T. Brittan, who also served as district 
attorney, and died in 1922; W. S. Johnson, who died in the fall of 1 Q 23 ; 
F. H. Greely, now serving as auditor and recorder; and Arthur H. Redington. 

Present-day members of the Yuba County bar are : Richard Belcher, 
W. H. Carlin, W. E. Davies, Arthur De Lorimier, F. A. Durvea, John E. 
Ebert, Ray Manwell, R. R. Raish, W. P. Rich, E. B. Stanwood," Alvin Weis, 
Charles A. AYetmore, and E. S. Norby. 



Judges and Justices 

District Judges, 1850 to 1860: William R. Turner, Gordon N. Mott, 
William T. Barbour. 

1860 to 1879: S. M. Bliss, I. S. Belcher and Phil AY. Keyser. 

County Judges, 1850 to 1860: Henry P. Haun, S. M." Bliss, Charles 
Lindley, L. R. Sellon. and Charles Eindley (returned). 

1860 to 1879: Charles E. Filkins, Jesse O. Goodwin, S. M. Bliss, and 
L. R. Sellon. 

Under the new constitution, beginning in 1879, Phil W. Keyser became 
first Superior Court judge. Judge Keyser and his successor, Edwin A. 
Davis, served Yuba and Sutter Counties jointly for many years. In Janu- 
ary, 1903, Eugene P. McDaniel was advanced from the position of district 
attorney and made the third superior judge of the county, which position he 
holds at the present time. Judge McDaniel was first elected district 
attorney in 1893. 

Justices of the Peace: Samuel Garber is remembered as an early-dav 
justice of the peace of Marysville Township. Garber was preceded in the 
office by B. AY Howser, Marysville attorney. At the departure of Garber 


for San Francisco, where he spent his remaining days, Isaac N. Aldrich 
became justice of the peace. At one time the township had two justices, 
Garber and Aldrich. 

At Aldrich's death, James M. Morrissey succeeded to the position, which 
he held for twenty-three years. He expired suddenly in his office in Decem- 
ber, 1922, and was succeeded by the present incumbent, George F. Herzog. 
who had been chosen in November, 1922, to succeed Judge Morrissey. 

Constables serving in the Justice Court of Marysville Township during 
these years are recalled as follows : Ezra E. Brow, C. C. Kelser, and Henry 
Miehe. The present incumbent is Thomas J. Tyrrell, who also fills the posi- 
tion of deputy sheriff. 

District Attorneys 

1850 to 1860: S. B. Mulford, H. P. Watkins, Jesse O. Goodwin, Charles 
H. Brvan. G N. Swezy, L. Martin, T. B. Reardon, I. S. Belcher, and 
F. L. Hatch. 

1860 to 1870: George Rowe, F. J. McCann,- and R. R. Merrill. 

1870 to 1880: AVilliam G. Murphy, E. W. Halloman, Edwin A. Davis, 
and E. A. Forbes. 

These were succeeded by the following: Eugene P. McDaniel, M. T. 
Brittan, Fred H. Greely. Edward T. Manwell, E. B. Stanwood, and Ray 
Manwell, the last named being now the incumbent. 

Sheriffs and Coroners 

Sheriffs, 1850 to 1860: R. B. Buchanan, Michael Gray, AVilliam R. 
Thornburg, Matt AVoods. 

1860 to 1870: Richard H. Hall, Herndon Barrett, L. D. Adkison, and 
A. P. Spear. 

Since 1870 the following have served in this office: Matt Woods, A. W. 
Torry. Hank L. McCoy, who died August 5, 1885; S. E. Inlow, J. A. Saul, 
Daniel P. Donahoe : R. E. Bevan, George H. Voss, Oscar E. Meek, and 
Charles J. McCoy. 

Coroners: S. T. Brewster, J. B. AVarfield, H. AV. Teed, Edward B. 
Hand, E. Hamilton, A. P. Barnes, George M. Fronk, A. B. Hopkins, Dennis 
Hayes, R. E. Bevan, John K. Kelly, and Frank T. Bevan. 

Public Administrators 

A. J. Gray, E. D. AVheeler, Seymour Pixley. B. F. Mann, James R. 
\ r ance, Henry Eilerman, C. G. Hubbard, C. G. Bockius, AV. E. Eawrence, 
Samuel Cummins, C. A. Stratton, Thomas C. Martin, Newton Seawell, J. P. 
Scott, A. J. Cumberson, A. J. Batchelder, W. C. Shaffer, Patrick Brannan, 
Joseph P. Arnoldy, AA^allace S. Durkee, F. E. Smith, and H. A. Niemeyer. 

Members of the Board of Supervisors 
Those who have served as members of the Yuba County Board of Super- 
visors, representative of five districts, in the years since 1855, are: J. O. 
Goodwin, A. O. Hyde, Herndon Barrett, Isaac Allen, Samuel Rideout, F. R. 
Stryker, Charles G. Bockius, AA^illiam Buntin, Wilson T. AVoods, S. S. 
Stinchicum, J. H. Beaman, H. G. Russell, F. L. Ande, AV. C. Campbell, 
C. E. Stone, A. Cross, A. G. Hough, AV. AA r . Presbury, AAllliam Gregory, 
R. H. Hall, G. S. Saunders, John AVhealdon, Byron AVhitcomb, John Lowery, 
AVilliam Carpenter, L. D. Adkison, AV. H. Hartwell, Eli Teegarden, Martin 
Knox, George AV. Mallory, D. A. McConnell, S. C. Hutchings, R. S. Jenkins, 
N. D. Rideout, D. C. McGanney, A. DeCray, E. A. Harrington, John Stine- 
man, J. H. Bowman, C. F. Brown, J. P. Brown, Fred Buttlemann, H. Lohse, 
C. K. Dam. Joseph A. Flint, AVilliam Slingsby,< S. D. Wood, D. P. Derrick- 
son, A. S. AVight, L. H. Babb, J. F. Flathman, B. F. Dam, Charles C. Duhain, 


Tames Lowerv. John H. Beatty, Jr., G. W. Pine, James Malaley, W. T. 
Ellis, Jr., S. H. Bradley, T. B. Hopkins, T. J. Arnold, James O. Rusbv. 
T. M. Hawley, J. A. Saul, W. B. Atkisson, Louis Conrath, Hugh J. McGuire, 
Lewis Wilder, A. C. Irwin, John Stineman, W. J. Mellon, W. B. Filcher, 
W. M~. Jefferds, Fred Roberts, Phil J. Divver, David Morrison, A. G. Wheaton, 
I. T- Casev, Harry E. Hyde, G. E. Nutt, William J. Forbes, Clarence E. 
Swift, W. J. Mello'n. and Frank M. Booth. 

County Assessors, Treasurers, and Tax-Collectors 

County Assessors: S. C. Tompkins, Mix Smith, F. M. Davenport, Joel 

D. Martin, John Rule, T. J. Sherwood, Newton Seawell, M. J. Crawford, 
B. F. NewbeVry, H. C. Newberry, Lewis M. Wilder, W. B. Meek, and Thomas 

E. Bevan. "Tom" Bevan has held the office since 1894, and is now the 
oldest assessor in the State of California in point of service, if not in years. 

County Treasurers : L. W. Taylor, George Rowe, John A. Paxton, 
A. F. Williams, Samuel P. Wells, A. O. Hyde, A. C. Chapman, J. P. Brown, 
W. H. Hartwell, J. R. Rideout, J. Fred Eastman, C. A. Stratton, W. T. 
Ellis, E. C. Ross, W. W. Holland, George W. Pine, Thomas Fogarty, and 
Harvey D. Eich. 

County Tax Collectors : During the period between 1856 and 1868 the 
office of county tax collector was independent of the county treasurer's office, 
not combined with it as it is today. Those who served as tax collector during 
that period were : C. N. Felton, L. B. Moore, John S. Love, Horace Beach, 
and C. E. Stone. In the period between 1874 and 1880 these offices were 
again combined, J. F. Eastman filling the place during all that time. 

County Clerks and County Auditors and Recorders 

County Clerks : E. D. Wheeler, Charles Lindley, E. Dorland, W. W. 
Dobbins. Lloyd A. Magruder, William Sharkey. William T. O'Neale, E. M. 
Ragan, D. E. Arnold, Barney Eilerman, Emerson E. Meek, Thomas J. 
Sherwood, James K. Hare, Sid Reardon, Gordon Bowman, J. F. Eastman, 
Phil J. Divver, and W. M. Strief. " 

Auditors and Recorders : Alfred Lawton, E. D. AVheeler, Charles Lind- 
ley, S. C. Tompkins, D. C. Berham, W. H. Wickersham, L. T. Crane, L. R. 
Sellon, Barney Eilerman. John H. Krause, S. O. Gunning, C. N. Jenkins, 
S. O. Gunning (returned), William P. Cramsie, and Fred H. Greely. 

Other County Officials 

Superintendents of Schools: Samuel P. Wells. J. M. Abbott, E. B. 
Walsworth, W. C. Belcher, D. C. Stone, H. H. Rhees, Isaac Upham, A. A. 
McAlister, T. H. Steel, Frank B. Crane, H. H. Folsom, James A. Scott, Jesse 
E. Rich, William P. Cramsie, and Jennie Malaley. Miss" Malaley has the dis- 
tinction of being the first woman to hold the position. 

County Surveyors : James B. Cushing, W. W. O'Dwyer, D. B. Scott, 
Joseph Johnstone, Nelson Wescoatt, R. P. Riddle, H. H. S'anford, Jason R. 
Meek, James M. Doyle, Jason R. Meek (returned), L. B. Crook and Tason 
R. Meek (returned at last election). 





The story of the christening of the city of Marysville is best told by 
Stephen J. Field, who later was chosen first alcalde of the place. After 
telling, in his memoirs of those early days, how he was attracted from his 
home in New York by the report of the finding of gold in California, and how 
he landed in San Francisco on December 28, 1849, with but ten dollars in his 
pockets, seven of which went for cartage of his two trunks. Judge Field 
describes his river trip to Vernon and his sudden determination to proceed 
to Nye's Ranch instead. 

Three or four hours after leaving Sacramento on the steamer Lawrence, 
for Vernon, the captain suddenly cried out with great emphasis, "Stop 
her! stop her!" and with some difficulty the boat escaped running into what 
seemed to be a solitary house standing in a vast lake of water. Field asked 
what place this was, and was told that it was Vernon — the town where he 
had been advised to settle as a rising young lawyer. He turned to the cap- 
tain and said he believed he would not put out his shingle just then at 
Vernon, but would go further on. 

The next place at which the boat stopped was Nicolaus ; and the follow- 
ing" day the party landed at a place called Nye's Ranch, at the confluence of 
the Feather and Yuba Rivers. No sooner had the vessel struck the landing 
at Nye's Ranch than all the passengers, some forty or fifty in number, as if 
moved by a common impulse, started for an old adobe building that stood 
upon the bank of the river, and near which were numerous tents. Judging 
by the number of these tents, Field concluded there were from 500 to 1000 
people there. When the newcomers reached the adobe and entered the princi- 
pal room, they saw a map spread out upon the counter, containing the plan 
of a town, which was called "Yubaville," and a man standing behind it, cry- 
ing out, "Gentlemen, put your names down ; put your names down, all. you 
that want lots !" Field asked the price of the lots and was told that they 
were "$250 each for lots 80 feet by 160 feet." Field then said, "But suppose 
a man puts his name down and afterwards doesn't want the lots?" "Oh you 
need not take them if you don't want them ; put your names down gentle- 
men, you that want lots." Taking the man at his word, Field wrote his name, 
subscribing for sixty-five lots, aggregating in all $16,250. This produced a 
great sensation. While Field had but about $20 left of money he had raised 
in San Francisco selling newspapers from New York at $1 each, it was imme- 
diately noised about that a great capitalist had come up from San Francisco 
to invest in lots in the rising town. The consequence was that the propri- 
etors of the place waited upon Field and showed him great attention. 

Two of the proprietors were French gentlemen, named Covillaud and 
Sicard. They were delighted when they found Field could speak French, and 
insisted upon showing him the townsite. It was a beautiful spot, surrounded 
by live oaks that reminded the visitor of the oak parks in England, and the 
neighborhood Field considered lovely. Field at once saw that the place, from 
its position at the head of practical river navigation, was destined to become 


an important depot for the neighboring mines, and that its natural beauty 
and the salubrity of its climate would render it a pleasant place for residence. 

Field, having handed Charles Covillaud, one of the proprietors, a copy of 
a New York paper containing a notice of Field's departure for California and 
wishing him God speed, the Frenchman, able to read English, saw and read 
the article. He at once hunted up Field and said, "Ah Monsieur, you are the 
Monsieur Field, the lawyer from New York, mentioned in the paper?" Field 
meekly and modestly confessed, when Covillaud rejoined, "We must have a 
deed drawn for our land." 

Field made inquiries and found that the proprietors had purchased the 
tract upon which the town was laid out, and several leagues of land adjoining, 
of General — then Captain — John A. Sutter, but had not received a convey- 
ance of the property. Field assured Covillaud he would draw the deed. 
Immediately, a couple of vaqueros were dispatched for Captain Sutter, who 
then lived at Hock Farm, six miles below the present site of Yuba City on 
Feather River. When Sutter arrived, the deed was ready for signature. It 
was for some leagues of land, a considerably larger tract than Field had ever 
before aided in transferring. And when it was signed, there was no officer 
to take the acknowledgement of the grantor, nor any office in which it could 
be recorded, nearer than Sacramento. 

Field at once suggested that in a place of such fine prospects, where 
much business and many transactions in real property were likely, there 
ought to be an officer to take acknowledgments and record deeds, and a mag- 
istrate for the preservation of order and the settlement of disputes. It hap- 
pened that a new house, the frame of which had been brought in by steamer, 
was put up that day. It was suggested by Covillaud that the people of the 
new settlement should meet there that evening and celebrate the execution 
of the deed, and take into consideration the subject of organizing a town by 
the election of magistrates. 

When evening came, the house was filled. It is true it had no floor, but 
the sides were boarded up and a roof was overhead, and seats of improvised 
planks were ready for the assemblage. The proprietors sent around to the 
tents for something to give cheer to the meeting, and, strange as it may seem, 
they found two baskets of champagne. These they secured, and their con- 
tents were joyously disposed of. When the wine was passed around, Field 
was called upon for a speech. He started out by predicting in glowing 
terms the prosperity of the new town, and referred to its advantageous situ- 
ation on the Feather and Yuba Rivers. He told how it was the most acces- 
sible point for vessels coming from San Francisco and Sacramento, and must 
in time become the depot for all the trade with the northern mines. He 
pronounced the auriferous region lying east of the Feather River and north of 
the Yuba the finest and richest in the country, and said he felt certain that 
its commerce must concentrate at the junction of the rivers. He impressed 
upon the settlers the advisability of organizing and establishing a govern- 
ment, and said the first thing to be done was to call an election and choose 
magistrates and a town council. These remarks met with general favor, 
and it was resolved that a public meeting should be held in front of the adobe 
house the next morning, and that if this meeting approved the project, an 
election should be held at once. 

Accordingly, on the following morning, which was the 18th of January, 
1850, a public meeting of the citizens was there held, and it was resolved thai 
a town government should be established and that there should be elected 
an ayuntamiento, or town council, a first and second alcalde, and a marshal. 
The alcalde was a judicial officer under the Spanish and Mexican laws, having 
a jurisdiction something like that of a justice of the peace. But in the anom- 

After Whom Marysville Was Named 


alous condition of affairs in California at that time, he assumed and exercised, 
as a matter of necessity, very great powers. 

The election ordered took place in the afternoon of the same day. Field 
had modestly whispered to different persons at the meeting in the new house, 
the night before, that his name was mentioned by his friends for the office 
of alcalde. His nomination followed. But he was not to have the office 
without a struggle. An opposition candidate appeared, and an exciting elec- 
tion ensued. The main objection entered against Field was that he was a 
newcomer. He had been in town only three days ; his opponent had been 
there six days. Field won by nine votes. 

On the evening of the election, there was a general gathering of people 
at the adobe house, the principal building of the place, to hear the official 
announcement of the result of the election. When this was made, some one 
proposed that a name should be adopted for the new town. One man sug- 
gested "Yubafield," because of its situation on the Yuba River ; and another. 
"Yubaville," for the same reason. A third urged the name ''Circumdoro" 
(surrounded with gold, as he translated the word), because there were mines 
in every direction roundabout. But there was a fourth, a solid and substan- 
tial old man, evidently of kindly domestic affections, who had come out to 
California to better his fortune. He rose and remarked that there was an 
American lady in the place, the wife of one of the proprietors ; that her name 
was Mary, and that, in his opinion, her name ought to be given to the town, 
and it should be called, in her honor, "Marysville." No sooner had he made 
the suggestion than the meeting broke out into loud hurrahs ; every hat made 
a circle around its ow r ner's head, and the new town was christened "Marys- 
ville" without a dissenting voice. For a few days afterward, the town was 
called Yubaville and Marysville ; but the latter name soon was generally 
adopted, and the place has been so called ever since. The lady in whose 
honor it was named was the late Mrs. Mary (M.urphy) Covillaud, wife of 
Charles Covillaud, one of the founders of Yuba County. She was one of the 
survivors of the Donner Party, which suffered so frightfully while crossing 
the Sierra Nevadas in the winter of 1846-1847, and had been living - here ever 
since that terrible time. 

A Tribute to Marysville's Godmother 

Through the courtesy of Mrs. Mary M. Fairfowl, of Eugene, Ore., the 
editor is able to produce with this chapter a photograph of Mrs. Covillaud. 
It is a likeness made by Mrs. Fairfowl, granddaughter of Mary Covillaud, 
from a painting made by a French artist while the Covillauds were still 
residing in Marysville. Mrs. Fairfowl is herself an artist of no mean ability. 
We quote from the letter sent by her to the editor with the photograph : 

"Since you are writing, a history of Marysville and Yuba County, may I 
use this opportunity to correct a statement that is so often erroneously made, 
namely, that Marysville was named for Mary Covillaud because she was the 
first, or only, woman in Marysville at the time? This, I have been told by 
those who know, and were there at the time, is not true. In fact, there were 
many families living at the place that afterwards became Marysville, at the 
time grandmother arrived. 

"In a Marysville Appeal of the year 1871, the author of the 'Tetters 
from Juanita' speaks incidentally of the naming of Marysville. He recalls 
William G. Murphy and his sister, Mary Murphy, and adds, 'who became 
the wife of Charles Covillaud on Christmas Day, 1848, and who subsequently 
gave the name to your now famed city. I had the good fortune to become 
acquainted with the lady, and, now that she slumbers in the grave, say that 
never on the soil of California has a woman trod of a purer nature, more 


amiable disposition, a more generous heart. When she went away from 
earth, it was with the regret and lamentations of thousands.' 

"And for those who love Marysville and the home, I feel they would 
like to know that the one for whom Marysville was named was one of Cali- 
fornia's first home-makers — 'shedding its quiet life far for those who else 
were homeless.' 

"And from all that I have, been told of her, she was one of California's 
first social workers — but one, who made her home the center for all her good 
works. And, although she had servants in her home, to send on her errands 
of mercy, she always went herself to carry what was needed to the poor, 
and with her own hands cared for and nursed the sick. 

"And the books and pictures still in the family show that she found a 
way, although cut off from civilization, to put art and science and the best 
in "literature into her home. And her worn books on plant life show the 
study she gave to her garden. And her garden, I have been told, was one 
of the most beautiful in early California days. So this valiant little woman 
overcame all difficulties to realize her vision of a wife, a mother, and of a 
home. And I have always believed that her light shone on the type of men 
who came to California in the early days." 

The remains of Mrs. Covillaud now rest in the family plot in a Marys- 
ville cemetery. Each Memorial Day the Native Daughters of the Golden 
West, members of Marysville Parlor, place sweet flowers above her grave. 

A Highly Prized Souvenir 

A letter written by the late Chief Justice Stephen J. Field on July 17, 
1880, from Washington, D. C, to Dr. R. H. McDaniel, father of the present 
judge of the superior court of Yuba County, is in the possession of the Yuba 
County jurist, and is highly prized, both because it bears the signature of 
Judge Field and because it makes reference to the strong friendship that 
"in the early days of Marysville existed between Judge Field and Dr. Mc- 
Daniel. Dr. McDaniel did" not receive the letter, having died five days before 
it was written, his death being unknown to Judge Field, who also has 
answered the final summons. The letter reads as follows : 

"Washington, D. C„ July 17, 1880. 
"My dear Doctor : 

"I have mailed to you today a copy of my little book entitled 'Personal 
Reminiscences of Early Days in California.' This narrative was dictated 
to a shorthand reporter in San Francisco in the summer of 1877; and it has 
been put in print for the perusal of a few friends, not published. It is a 
very meager account of what I saw, and of my experiences in Yuba County. 
Had I at the time supposed it would ever be printed, I should have given 
a much more extended history of men and things in Marysville. Another 
year I shall probably issue a new edition, and shall then give a much more 
full account of those whom I met and knew and loved in old Yuba. Among 
other things, I wish to incorporate some incidents of yourself and of your 
experience. At your early leisure please jot these down as they may occur 
to you, so that when I visit your city in September next you may give me 
your memoranda. 

"I remember with gratitude your attentions to me during my fearful 
sickness of 1856, and how, probably, to 3 r our attentions I am indebted more 
than to those of any other one, that I passed safely through. I often think of 
those days and of the many friends I had in Marysville. Please present my 
kind regards to Mrs. McDaniel and believe me to be 

"Very sincerely yours, 

"Stephen J. Field." 



It will be interesting to observe, in passing, how the historian of other 
days viewed the city of Marysville while it still was in swaddling clothes. 
In the preface to the first directory ever printed of the new settlement, in 
1853, a copy of which the compiler found in the possession of Steve C. 
Howser, now a member of the Marysville police force, the following sketch 
of the city is given : 

"What is now known as the City of Marysville, three and a half years 
ago was called Nye's Ranch. At that period but one tenement graced the 
northern bank of the Yuba River. Its locality was near the site of the 'Ohio 
House,' at the foot of D Street. It was an adobe structure, venerable and 
antique, but doomed to fall in the great fire of August, 1851. With this 
single exception, the plain upon which our city now stands was unadorned 
by the hand of art, and uninhabited, save by the occupants of the castle and 
the roving squads of idle and worthless Indians. 

"Early in the winter of 1849 and 1850, the mountain trade began to 
center at this point, the small boats engaged in freighting from the lower 
cities finding this a natural and almost necessary terminus. The consequence 
was, that large quantities of goods were soon deposited upon what is now 
the Plaza, teams and packers came crowding in from the mountains, a brisk 
and profitable trade sprung up, a hundred snow-white tents lent their charm 
to the scene, and Nye's Ranch began to give promise of future importance. 

"The proprietors of the ranch, Messrs. Sampson, Ramirez, Covillaud, 
and Sicard, did not long remain blind to their own interests, nor to the signs 
of the times, but as early as December conceived the idea of laying out a 
city. A surveyor was accordingly procured, and the old ranch laid off into 
lots, blocks and ranges ; and city lots were soon being sold and conveyed with 
all the technical solemnity incident to the transfer of an English manor. 

Earliest Form of Government 

"Things being thus organized, large numbers of adventurers from below 
daily landed upon our shores, pitched their tents, and commenced business. 
But up to this period there was no government, no law, no officers of justice ; 
and questions of interest and importance, involving the rights of citizens, 
were constantly arising. Accordingly, on the 18th of January, 1850, an 
election was held, at which some three hundred votes were cast. Stephen 
J. Field, Esq., was duly elected chief judiciary of the realm, or in Spanish 
parlance, alcalde. T. M. Twitchell was elected sheriff, but for some reason 
declined serving, whereupon R. B. Buchanan was appointed in his place. A 
common council also was elected. Mr. Field soon after received a com- 
mission from the governor, qualified, and commenced the administration of 
law and justice in an able and satisfactory manner, as the records of his pro- 
ceedings, now reposing in the archives of the county, will abundantly testify. 

"The wheels of government being thus set in motion by the popular will, 
the oil of a liberal fee bill preserved the machinery, and everything connected 
with the growth and prosperity of our city moved forward with unparalleled 
success. A thousand avenues to wealth opened before us ; trade increased 
with a rapidity hitherto unknown ; steamers daily visited our landings ; build- 
ings arose on every street and corner ; hotels were furnished and opened ; 
saloons were erected and richly ornamented ; and every feature of the young 
city assumed the aspect of thrift and enterprise. 

First County Election 

"Thus matters progressed till the first Monday in April, when, pursuant 
to an act of the legislature, an election was held for county officers. A 
swarm of candidates, irrespective of politics, took the field ; and after a warm 


though good-natured contest, the following named gentlemen were elected: 
County judge, H. P. Haun ; count}' attorney, S. B. Mulford ; county clerk, 
E. D. Wheeler; sheriff, R. B. Buchanan; county recorder, Alfred Lawton; 
county surveyor, J. B. Cushing; county treasurer, U. W. Taylor; county 
assessor, S. C. Tompkins ; coroner, S. T. Brewster. At this election about 
800 votes were cast in Marysville. 

New City Incorporated 

"During the summer of 1850 improvements in town were moderate, 
many feeling undecided as to which of the up-river towns would be 'the 
place.' The following winter was extremely dull — money scarce, and real 
estate very much depressed. Notwithstanding these unfavorable signs, a 
bill, during the winter, passed the legislature, incorporating the 'City of 
Marysville,' dividing it into four wards, and authorizing an election on the 
first Monday of March, 1851, for mayor and eight aldermen. The election 
resulted in the following choice : For mayor, S. M. Miles ; aldermen, Messrs. 
Ransom, Stambaugh, Shaeffer, Tallman, Smith, Rice, Covillaud, and Tomp- 
kins. AVith the return of spring, and the establishment of a regular muni- 
cipal government, a new and cheering era dawned upon the City of Marys- 
ville. Business, in all its phases, revived ; and improvements of a durable 
nature began to be made. And since that period our city has progressed 
with a firm, healthy step, constantly increasing in wealth, population and 
beauty. The river bed has been cleared of obstructions, so that steamers 
visit us every day in the year. Our population now numbers nearly ten 
thousand. The canvas tent of 1849 and 1850 has retired, to give room for 
elegant brick structures which now adorn every portion of our city, giving 
pleasing and substantia! evidence of our prosperity, Mills, iron works, 
machine shops and manufactories are established to supply the wants of the 
community; churches and schools to improve our education and morals; and 
charitable institutions to gladden the hearts and ameliorate the condition of 
the unfortunate among us. Two daily newspapers are published, which 
contain all the important news, both foreign and at home. 

"Thus do we stand before the world, three years having changed the 
wilderness to a city; and. considering our commercial advantages, our beds 
of gold, our lofty mountain forests and broad, productive fields, we certainly 
can, without exaggeration, indulge the brightest hopes for the future great- 
ness of our beloved Marysville." 

In the days when the above was written, Marysville and Yuba City were 
connected up with a toll-bridge built by Bryan & Saunders at a cost of 
$20,000. It was the crossing for those going to the valley points below 
Marysville by Knight's Ferry, and also for those going to Shasta, Trinity 
Diggings and Oregon. The bridge was located near the west end of Third 
Street and crossed the Feather River to the central and business part of Yuba 
City. _ G. M. Hanson, who collected the toll, had a charter on the bridge 
covering twenty years. The bridge was over 500 feet long, and was thirty- 
five feet above low-water mark and six feet above highest water mark. 


Marysville's First Fire 

Through the courtesy of Mrs. Carolyn E. Hamilton, of Rockford, III, 
there will be added to the archives of the historical room of the Packard Free 
Library here a well-preserved lithograph picturing the first disastrous con- 
flagration ever to visit Marysville— on the night of August 30, 1851. 

Mrs. Hamilton, writing to City Clerk E. B. Stanwood a letter donating 
the lithograph, explains that she never lived in Marysville; that she dis- 


covered the lithograph in a second-hand store in Rockford and realizing its 
historical value, determined to present it to the city of Marysville. 

In the lower left-hand corner beneath the lithograph is written the 
words : "From Hiram Hattley to Lucinda S. Hattley," giving the impression 
that the donor lived in Marysville at the date of the fire, when Marysville 
was scarcely two years old, and that Hattley mailed the lithograph to a 
relative in the East. The earliest history of Marysville published refers to 
the disastrous fire as follows : 

"The first baptism of fire occurred on Saturday night, August 30, 1851. 
The blaze originated in a Chinese wash-house on High Street, and spread 
with the utmost rapidity. The buildings were chiefly of board and canvas, 
and so dry had they become in the long heat of summer that in an almost 
incredibly short space of time three blocks of them were burning fiercely. 

"The people were panic-stricken. There was no organization to combat 
the flames, and no one had authority as leader. The citizens, however, 
manfully disputed the advance of the destroyer, and in two hours succeeded 
in subduing the flames. The district burned was included between D, Sec- 
ond, E and First Streets, the Plaza, and the Yuba River. The flames were 
prevented from crossing D Street to the east by hanging blankets over the 
fronts of the buildings and keeping them thoroughly wet. 

"The buildings burned, eighty in number, were in the chief business 
portion of the city, and the loss was estimated at about $500,000. The old 
adobe building at the foot of D Street, the first ever to be erected in Marys- 
ville, and which was serving as a jail, was among those lost. The next day 
new buildings were commenced, and soon the whole territory was again 
alive with business. The widespread destruction awakened the citizens to a 
realization of their unprotected state and turned their thoughts to the organ- 
ization of a fire department." 

The lithograph shows the old-time bucket fire brigade at work. 

Other Early Fires 

Ten days later the citizens had again to contend with the enemy. At 
one o'clock Wednesday morning, September 10, 1851, flames were seen issu- 
ing from the rear of the wholesale liquor store of Mitchell & Nunes, on the 
south side of First Street, east of D Street. In half an hour twenty-five 
buildings, situated between D and First Streets, Oak Street (then Maiden 
Lane), and the river were in ruins. Water carts were used to convey water 
to the scene of the conflict, and this was thrown upon the burning buildings 
by the excited citizens. The estimated loss was $80,000. 

The origin of these two earliest fires was doubtful, although they were 
generally supposed to have been the work of incendiaries. Steps were im- 
mediately taken to form a fire department, which resulted in the organization 
of Mutual Hook & Ladder Company No. 1, on the 18th of September. 

At one o'clock in the afternoon of January 23, 1852, a fire broke out in 
the American Hotel in Maiden Lane (now Oak Street). The new fire com- 
pany responded promptly to the call to duty, with their hook-and-ladder 
apparatus, and soon extinguished the flames. Again a small fire occurred 
on Thursday afternoon, February 19, 1852, in a vacant building on High 
Street. This fire was also subdued before much damage was done. Thus, 
by the organization of this company, the city was happily saved from what 
might, in both cases, have been disastrous conflagrations. 

The year 1854 was a noted one in the fire annals of the city, no less 
than three fires occurring, two of them being very destructive. On May 25, 
1854, a fire was discovered in the Mansion House on the east side of D Street, 
between Second and Third Streets. The Eureka Hand Engine Company 


and the Mutual Hook & Ladder Company were quickly oh the spot, and 
worked energetically for nearly two hours in their endeavor to arrest the 
course of the devouring element. The block bounded by D Street, Maiden 
Lane, Second and Third Streets, was all reduced to ruins, except the Empire 
Block, which still stands. The flames there crossed D Street and fastened 
themselves on the theater and courthouse, formerly the old St. Charles Hotel, 
and with but few exceptions destroyed the entire block between Second, 
Third, D and High Streets. Then they leaped over Third Street and made 
some progress north, reducing to ashes the Presbyterian Church and a num- 
ber of dwellings between Third and Fourth Streets. Here their progress was 
finally arrested and the fire extinguished. The loss sustained in this blaze 
was estimated at $158,550. 

The second conflagration of the year was still more extensive and 
disastrous. A fire originated in a Chinese house on the corner of Second 
Street and Virgin Alley about ten p. m., on July 18; and, although it was 
subdued in fifty minutes, so fiercely did it burn, that five squares, comprising 
over 200 buildings, were swept away. A high wind prevailed, and spread the 
flames so rapidly that it was only with the utmost exertions of the small 
fire department, aided by the citizens, that they were subdued. The bound- 
aries of the district burned extended from the corner of B and Second Streets 
to the corner of B and Fourth Streets, down Fourth Street to C, north to 
Fifth Street, west to D Street, down D Street to Second Street, and then east 
to B Street. It will be observed that the area destroyed covered some of 
the territory burned over by the fire in May, which had been largely rebuilt. 
The Tremont House and City Hall were included in the loss, which footed 
up the immense sum of $250, 000. 

The third blaze in 1854 occurred at midnight, October 22. and originated 
in an unoccupied house on B Street, between First and Second Streets. 
Eleven houses were consumed, valued at $11,000. 

The city was then free from any disastrous conflagrations until 1856, 
when another of the old-time visitations is recorded. In the month of 
August, 1856, a blaze was discovered in a stable on F Street, between First 
and Second Streets. The alarm was promptly sounded ; and the whole fire 
department, consisting of three hand engines and the hook and ladder com- 
pany, responded. As the fire was on the river bank, two of the engines were 
placed on the ferry-boat for convenience in working ; but the clumsy craft 
sank with its precious burden, and the fire raged on. The balance of the 
department, with the active assistance of the citizens, finally subdued the 
flames, after they had consumed about $145,000 worth of property. The 
burned district was in the heaviest business locality, and the loss was great 
in proportion. It extended along First Street to the Merchants' Hotel, then 
up Commercial Alley, and on the south side of the Plaza. 

At 3:30 a. m., November 17, 1864, fire was discovered in the rear of a 
clothing store under the old brick theater on D Street, between Second and 
Third Streets. The spread of the flames to any extent was prevented ; but 
the theater, with the stores under it, was entirely destroyed. The loss was 
estimated at $40,000. 

The next noted blaze occurred on July 17, 1871. A fire originated at 
noon in Swain's sash factory on Fourth Street and spread toward the north. 
The whole block lying between D, C, Fourth, and Fifth Streets was des- 
troyed, with the exception of the Presbyterian Church and a few dwellings. 
W. C. Swain's factory, John Pefrer's factory, and Harrington's factory were 
all consumed. The loss was about $80,000. 

About half past eleven o'clock on Sunday night, September 7, 1879, fire 
was discovered in the store of E. C. Ross & Company on D Street. A general 


alarm was sounded, and soon the whole fire department was on hand with 
the three steamers. The fire had made so much progress, however, that the 
firemen were unable to extinguish it until it had burned the stores of E. C. 
Ross & Company and N. D. Popert, and two houses on High Street. The 
loss was about $50,000, besides the damage to goods removed from stores 
in danger of being consumed. 

The Fire at the Southern Pacific Freight Sheds 

In the same year the greater portion of the freight sheds and platform 
of the Southern Pacific Railroad Company at Sixth and A Streets was wiped 
out by fire, together with much additional property. Starting in the freight 
shed at the north end of the unloading platform, the blaze spread to box 
cars standing on the sidings, thence to the Denton House, a two-story brick 
building on the west side of A Street, that occupied the lots where the 
Fourth Ward House now stands. The Denton House was completely razed, 
together with three saloons that stood to the south of Denton's store and 
saloon, which were located on the ground floor of his building. The loss 
was estimated at almost $100,000. 

Fire and Flood Combine 

On September 19, 1887, a large hole was burned out of the heart of the 
business section of Marysville. About 12:20 a. m.. Police Officer John Col- 
ford discovered what appeared to him to be but a bundle of shakes burning 
in the driveway of the Union Lumber Company's yard, which then was 
located at the southwest corner of Fourth and C Streets. Before Colford 
could summon the fire department, the lumber yard, which covered the space 
now occupied by the Marysville Water Company's attractive park, was a 
seething mass. Despite the work of the fire laddies, the flames crossed the 
alley now known as Oak Street and ignited a frame barn on the west side 
filled with hay, and also a dwelling occupied by Mrs. Wiscotschill and her 
daughter. Soon the fire was carried by the night wind to the row of then 
frame structures occupied by Joseph Brass as a grocery and tobacco store, 
the shoe shop of Joseph Bowen, the office of George Merritt, the tailor shop 
of H. Voss, and the fruit stand of William Hoffart. At the same time the 
fire attacked the Louvre Saloon, the Ben Bigelow gun store, and B. F. 
Oilman's Red House. These, like the frame stores to the north, were gutted, 
and the Meyer bakery and the stores of Kertchem & Corley, both in the Odd 
Fellows' Building, were threatened. At the north end of the block, the flames 
ate into the water works building and destroyed the underpinning of the 
large tanks carrying the water with which the fire was being fought. In a 
short time the tanks collapsed with a roar, spilling their waters into D Street, 
where they were almost knee-deep. 

Anticipating the loss of the tanks, L. C. Williams, who was both engi- 
neer of the fire department and chief engineer for the water company, had 
arranged, an hour before, to pump water for the fire from the company's 
wells directly into the mains. The engine house on the east side of the water 
plant was then threatened. Although the heat became almost unbearable, 
and wet sacks had to be thrown oyer him by citizens as he worked, John 
Colford, Jr., assistant engineer, stayed at his post and fed wood into the 
furnaces, that the water-works engines might be kept going. For his heroic 
work that night Colford was later presented with a gold watch and chain by 
the citizens of Marysville. 

The loss in this fire was $165,000. In less than a month the owners of 
the buildings destroyed had let contracts to have them rebuilt, and in more 
substantial form. On March 1, 1888, Joseph Brass moved into his new two- 


story brick structure. Soon after, the water company purchased the lots 
to the north of the Brass Block and placed one-story brick structures on 
them. All the other buildings to the south were also rapidly restored. 

It was the fourth fire to take place within five weeks on Monday morn- 
ings at the same hour, and the citizens then were convinced that a firebug 
was at work in the city. In a short time their suspicions were verified ; for 
several weeks later, on Monday morning, the large Denton barn at Seventh 
and A Streets, filled with hay, was found ablaze. Running from it, one Jack 
Hayes was encountered by citizens. Hayes had formerly been a drayman 
tor "the Buckeye Mills Company. He was arrested, and confessed that he 
was the firebug. His reason for his crime was that he had become dis- 
couraged, and vexed at the world, because of injuries which he received in 
falling from the roof of the Buckeye flour mills, and from the results of which 
he was left a cripple for life. 

Frost & Shaffer Fire 

The next fire of large proportions occurred on the morning of July 5, 
1888. Shortly after midnight, and while Fourth of July celebrants were yet 
discharging fireworks, the blaze" was discovered in the packing room of Frost 
& Shaffer in the Ellis Block. A skyrocket falling through the skylight of 
the building was blamed for this conflagration. The flames, fanned by a 
strong wind from the south, crept to the rear and crossed High Street to the 
stables of W. T. Ellis and J. R. Garrett, and at the same time to the north 
end of the block, taking in its course the buildings then owned by C. J. 
Ripley. The barley rooms of W. T. Ellis, to the south, also were threatened. 
Besides Ripley, Ellis and Garrett, other losers in the fire were the Marysville 
Savings Bank, F. W. H. Aaron, C. A. Glidden, and all the tenants on the 
upper floors of the structure who were occupants of lodgings. After the 
fire, W. T. Ellis purchased the interests of all owners in this block, and has 
since owned it in its entirety. It is now the property of his estate, which is 
managed by his son, W. T. Ellis. Jr. 

Later Fires 

On July 16, 1890, the building at Second and Elm Streets, occupied by. 
the Union Soda Works, was found in flames at an early morning hour. 
Firemen working in the building discovered the remains of George Ball, 
driver for the concern, and a highly esteemed citizen. Examination of the 
remains and of the premises showed that he had been murdered for money 
supposed to be in the building, and the building ignited to cover up the 
crime. As related in another chapter, his slayers were captured. One died 
in the county jail while awaiting trial. The other was sent to the peniten- 
tiary. A third accomplice, who was said to have planned the deed, was 
killed in Stockton. 

In a fire occurring on October 11, 1895, the city lost its only fruit-pack- 
ing plant of that time, located at the corner of Twelfth and E Streets, and 
conducted by R. W. Skinner, now a Sutter County grower. A loss of $32,000 
was sustained in this fire. 

On December 19 of the same year, the Empire Foundry & Harvester 
Works, at Fifth and F Streets, went up in smoke with a loss of $20,000. This 
was another blow to the city's industrial life. 

Twenty-eight horses, including a noted racer, owned by Daniel Morgan, 
were burned in a fire that destroyed the New York Stables on Second Street, 
between C and Oak Streets, on September 15, 1896. 

On July 6, 1898, the stable at Second and High Streets, built by Henry 
Elmore, who had formerly occupied the New York Stables, was also des- 


troyed, together with the warehouses of W. T. Ellis and White, Cooley & 
Cutts. located at the rear. 

On September 26, 1900, occurred the burning of the Marysville Brewer)' 
at Ninth and B Streets, owned by M. Reisinger. The same year the stable of 
Daniel McCrate, on High Street, between Second and Third, was destroyed. 

Esteemed Youth Loses Life 

Frank Peck, aged nineteen, son of County Surveyor and Mrs. W. F. 
Peck of Yuba City, Sutter County, lost his life, and the Marysville Woolen 
Mills- Company sustained a loss of $150,000, in a fire that consumed the 
woolen mills plant, at the southeast corner of Second and B Streets, on Friday 
evening, March 10, 1899. Young Peck followed the hosemen into the blazing 
lower story of the mill, was blinded by the heavy smoke, became confused 
when he sought an exit, and succumbed to the terrific heat and to suffoca- 
tion. His remains were found the following Sunday, after relatives and 
friends had hoped in vain that those who reported the young man at the 
scene of the fire were mistaken. He was a graduate of the Marysville High 
School, class of 1898, and at the time of his death held the State champion- 
ship amateur mile bicycle record. 

In this fire Marysville lost its largest manufacturing establishment. 
The blaze was found at eight o'clock in the evening, and did not at first 
cause much concern ; but soon the flames crept into the upper portion of the 
mill, putting the entire plant beyond saving. Both the south and east walls 
fell into the ruins. Only a portion of the old engine room at the south of the 
structure was saved. The insurance companies paid $75,000 toward the loss. 

Burning of the Old Theater Building 

In June, 1903, Marysville lost its old-time theater building. The fire 
started in the planing mill of Swain & Hudson on the south, and ate through 
a window in the wall dividing the planing mill and the show-house. 

Out of this fire grew the present Atkins Theater, on the site of the old 
planing mill, and the Elks Home, on the lot where the old theater stood. 

Fire Chief Loses Life 

Loss of life, including that of Fire Chief Joseph J. Bradley and other 
members of the fire department, accompanied a fire that broke out in the 
tin shop of White, Cooley & Cutts on High Street, December 18, 1906. 

Ignorant of the fact that a shipment of dynamite had temporarily been 
stored in the tin shop, the firemen worked on both the High Street and E 
Street sides of the burning building. Chief Bradley was directing the men at 
the nozzle on the E Street side when the dynamite exploded with a deafening 
roar. Bradley's body was pierced by fragments of metal and other foreign 
substances. He died in about a week from the wounds, which were con- 
sidered fatal from the start. R. Moran, volunteer fire-fighter, lost a leg and 
died in a few days from the shock. Others who were injured, including 
firemen and citizens, were Harry Wyrick, Charles Onyett, John Mock, Jack 
Darniele, Bert Rathburn, F. E. Smith, John Thomas, F. Hughes, Viola 
Shaffer, Mrs. Earl Hall, H. A. Niemeyer, present public administrator, Walter 
Edeler, Al Driscoll, Clark Matson, L. H. Richards, Frank Williams, George 
Baird, Albert Lewek, Espie White, F. Cunningham, W. S. Kirk, and two 
Chinamen and three Japanese. Several lawsuits were brought against the 
firm of White, Cooley & Cutts, and judgments were rendered for the injured. 

Destruction of the Binet Row 
The Binet Row, frame dwellings on B Street near Seventh, fed one of 
the hottest fires in the city's history. This fire took place on July 21, 1908, 
and wiped out the row, spreading also to the homes of Mrs. Susan Sheer. 


M. Schwab, Kate A. Murray, Mary Santry, Mrs. J. Lockhart, John Galligan, 
and Mrs. A. Lynn, all of which were destroyed. The old grammar-school 
building on the north side of Seventh Street suffered damage in the sum of 
$1000. Morgan J. Williams, E. J. Goodpastor, Mrs. J. F. Keane, P. J. Binet, 
W. C. Poole, and A. L. Poole, tenants, lost most of their effects. 

Other Fires 

On November 4, 1908, a fire that started in the delicatessen department 
of the W.'T. Ellis grocery store did $15,000 damage. 

On April 7, 1909, the Yuba County Hospital had a narrow escape from 
destruction ; and on November 14 of the same year the Peri Block on D 
Street, between Third and Fourth, was destroyed with a loss of $75,000. 
This fire was communicated to the stores of S. Ewell and the S. G. King 
Company. The tenants in the Peri Block who lost heavily were F. S. Juch, 
H. D. King, and F. B. Moor. 

Other fires showing a heavy loss were those in the Marysville Steam 
Laundry, on July 19, 1911; the Moran Packing Company, on August 15, 
1912; the Kelly Brothers stable, on July 21, 1913; arid the Marysville Woolen 
Mills, on January 17, 1918. In the Kelly Brothers fire, County Surveyor 
Leslie B. Crook, who climbed into the hayloft to fight the fire, narrowly 
escaped with his life. He was badly burned, and his life hung in the balance 
for some time. 

Biggest of All 

For extent of territory covered, and for damage done, the fire of July 2, 
1921, will always be remembered as the most thrilling and disastrous in the 
history of the city, up to the present time. This fire started in the Pavilion 
Stables at the northwest corner of Sixth and B Streets while the north wind 
was raging at a velocity said to have been seventy miles an hour ; and in 
less time than it takes to write it, a dozen fires were started from flying 
sparks in the section bounded by Sixth, First, B and Yuba Streets. The oil- 
soaked trestle of the Southern Pacific Company, extending from Fourth to 
Second Street, carried the fire lightning-like through the doomed section, 
scattering the blaze to both sides of A Street. Only the Front Street levee 
stayed the flames, when there were no. other buildings for the fire to attack. 

The loss in this fire amounted to $300,000. Boys shooting firecrackers 
at the rear of the Pavilion Stables were blamed for this destructive con- 
flagration. The burned section is gradually being built up again, for the most 
part with residences and hotels. 

The City's First Fire Company 

The devastating, fires that visited the young city of Marysville in 1851 
caused the question of a fire department to be seriously discussed. The 
need of such a department was now very apparent, and the fact was con- 
ceded by all that an organization of some kind, provided with suitable 
apparatus for fighting the devouring element, was imperatively necessary 
to protect the city from the frequent accidental and incendiary fires. With 
vhis object in view, a number of citizens met on September 18, 1851, and 
perfected the organization of a fire company, which was christened Mutual 
Hook & Ladder Company, No. 1. At the inception of the movement, the 
company was a purely independent organization ; but soon after, it was placed 
under the control and patronage of the city authorities. 
Other Early Companies 

The names of the companies that followed in the wake of Mutual No. 1 
were : Eureka Engine Company, No. 1 ; Yuba Engine Company, No. 2 ; 


Eureka Hose Company, No. 1 ; Mutual Engine Company, No. 3 ; Yuba Hose 
Company, No- 2 ; Mutual Hose Company, No. 3 ; Salamander Hook & Ladder 
Company, No. 1 ; Warren Engine Company, No. 4 ; Pioneer Engine Com- 
pany, No. 5 ; Protection Engine Company, No. 2 ; Pacific Engine Company, 
No. 3 ; and Tiger Engine Company, No. 4. 

Fraternity and Rivalry Among the Early Companies 

Among firemen, especially in the volunteer departments, there always 
has existed in a remarkable degree a fraternal feeling; and although, in the 
hurry and heat of action, sharp rivalries and seeming animosities may spring 
up, when the work is over, all such bitter spirit vanishes, and the members 
of different organizations mingle together in the most amiable and harmoni- 
ous social intercourse. This fraternal spirit goes beyond the limits of one 
city, extending over miles of distance to meet a kindred feeling in the hearts 
of firemen in other cities. 

It was no different in early days. On Thanksgiving Day, November 
27, 1851, an exhibition of this fraternal spirit was given on the occasion of a 
visit by the Mutual Hook & Ladder Company, No. 1, of Sacramento, to the 
Marysville Company. The guests were entertained at a grand banquet in 
the evening, at which the mayor and prominent citizens were present. The 
visitors returned to Sacramento the next day. This visit was subsequently 
returned, and the Marysville company was received with great honors and 
courtesies. On June 17. 1852, the Howard Engine Company of San Fran- 
cisco visited Marysville. In the afternoon, after the procession, the members 
of the fire companies, with invited guests, sat down to a banquet in the 
Hotel du Commerce. The stay of the Howards was necessarily brief, and 
they embarked at four o'clock on the Governor Dana for Sacramento. 

These were but the first of many similar courtesies between the various 
volunteer companies of Marysville and those of her sister cities. Frequent 
balls, receptions, and parades were given, which were productive of much 
enjoyment and pleasure. Not to be a member of the fire department was 
in those days to be outside the pale of social activities. 

Competitive trials were frequent, and great rivalry existed as to the 
length of time required to make a run and get on a stream of water, and 
especially as to the distance to which a stream could be thrown. At the 
first State fair held in Marysville, in 1858, the Warren Engine Company, 
No. 4, using a Hunneman tub hand engine, threw a stream of water 215 feet, 
which was about thirteen feet farther than any of the rival companies' best 
efforts. This company was but one of about twelve companies organized 
in Marysville after the formation of Mutual Hook & Ladder Company, No. 1. 
All of the rival companies were equipped with hand pumps, and were on an 
equal footing, as regards equipment, in tests of skill and strength. 

In 1862, however, the Eureka Company, aided by the city, purchased 
in the East what was then considered the last word in fire-fighting apparatus. 
In these days of powerful gasoline engines, the old-time steamer would 
probably cut a poor figure ; but so great a bone of contention was the intro- 
duction of the steamer in the ranks of the rival companies, that the common 
council put an end to the constant bickering by ordering the other companies 
to disband, leaving the Eureka Company alone in the field. 

This condition of affairs existed for about a year, when it became 
apparent that but one engine would not afford the rapidly growing city 
adequate protection ; so the council permitted the formation of three addi- 
tional engine companies, equipped, of course, with hand engines. This 
arrangement proved satisfactory until 1872, when the council found it expedi- 
ent to purchase another steamer. In 1876, a third steam engine was added 


to the equipment, being the one that had been on exhibition at the Centennial 
Exhibition. The first steam engine coming to this coast was shipped to 
Marysville. It is now a permanent exhibit at Sutter's Fort, in Sacramento. 

Personnel of the Department 

Chief Engineers: During the fifties the following firemen filled the 
position of chief engineer, in the order named : D. Buckley, P. H. Pierce, Jr., 
Charles Ball, A. W. Nightingill, and P. J. Welch, the latter serving until 
1861. During the later sixties the following filled the position, in the order 
named : W. P. Winkley, Jim B. Leaman. William Murphy, F. D. Hudson, 
William C. Ogden, and D. H. Harney. The last-named served also during 
the years 1870, 1872, 1873, and after a short lapse, from 1874 to 1878. In the 
days since Harney (now deceased), who was the father of Horticultural 
Commissioner George W. Harney of Yuba County, the position has been 
filled by the following, in the order named: John Colford, Sr., L. C. Will- 
iams, James O. Rusby, George B. Baldwin, Fred C. Meyers, B. B. Divver, 
Clarence E. Rockefeller, Joseph J. Bradley, C. H. Hedges, William B. Meek. 

In the past thirtv years death has removed many of the once valiant 
fire-fighters of the city, among them Luther Gates, driver of the early-day 
hpse-wagon ; William Gates, his son, an engine driver ; and the following 
hosemen: Louis P. Knorsa, Jacob Knorsa, Edward Knorsa (brothers), 
James Sullivan, Clinton Cunningham, Francis Heenan, Porter Andross, 
Henry Hadlich, Jesse Rathburn, J. M. Morrissey, and Leo Haggerty. Fire 
Chief Joseph J. Bradley ; C. J. Price, engineer ; Thomas Norman, assistant 
engineer ; and Phil J. Divver, engineer, have also answered the final call. 

Present Officers and Members : The officers and members of the depart- 
ment in 1923 were: William B. Meek, chief; William Reilly, assistant chief; 
Goya J. Rodriguez, captain of the house ; William H. Norman and Frank 
Looze, engine drivers ; Lloyd Sligar, relief driver ; and the following ten 
hosemen : Louis Anthony, John J. Barrett, Francis Johnson, Carl Syvertsen, 
Edward Kneebone, Eugene Correll, Charles H. Rowe, Edwin Brow, James 
Durkin, and E. H. Holmes. 

Reminiscent of the fire-fighting days of 1854 in Marysville is a fireman's 
certificate, yellow with age and worn, and yet well preserved considering 
it was secreted for sixty-three years. This paper, resurrected five years ago 
in the ruins of the pioneer town of Shasta, Shasta County, is now among 
the effects of the late Judge James M. Morrissey, justice of the peace of 
Marysville Township, who died suddenly in his office in December, 1922. 
The certificate was found during a Grand Parlor session of the Native Sons 
of the Golden West, held in Redding, Shasta County, in 1917. It reads: 
"Marysville Fire Department. Fireman's Certificate. 

"Office of Chief Engineer. Marysville, November 27, 1854. 

"This certifies that George Schrater is a fireman of the City of Marys- 
ville, attached to Eureka Hose Company, No. 1, he having been duly con- 
firmed as such by the City Council on the 19th day of October, 1854. 

"Signed, Charles Ball, Chief Engineer, 
"G. E. Winter, Mayor, 
"W. Wilsonsmith, City Clerk." 

Improvements in Equipment 
In the year 1917 the horse-drawn fire apparatus used for so many years 
in the fire department was put away by the common council, at the urge of 
the board of fire underwriters. In its stead were purchased a motor-driven 
chemical and hose wagon and a motor-driven engine, at a cost of $15,000. 
The old steam engines, two in number, are kept in reserve, giving to the 


city what is thought to be adequate protection. The motor-driven engine 
has a pump capacity of 1100 gallons per minute; the chemical-and-hose- 
wagon engine, a capacity of 550 gallons a minute. At the present time the 
department carries 3500 feet of 2j4-inch hose, and 600 feet of lJ/2-inch hose. 
In the early part of the year 1923, the old City Hall fire-bell, which for 
more than half a century had sounded the fire alarms and tolled many a 
requiem, was lowered from the City Hall tower, and a siren substituted. A 
general protest was sounded by the people, who had learned to love the old 
bell because of the part it had taken in both their joys and their sorrows. 
The protest grew so strong that at the end of a month the city council was 
forced to replace the bell and dispense with the siren. 

The/ Marysville Herald 

Marysville was laid out in December, 1849, and within five months 
thereafter Col. R. H. Taylor, a San Francisco merchant of 1849, was so 
favorably impressed with the future before the new city that he decided to 
establish a paper here. As soon as he. could negotiate for a press and type, 
he put his ideas into form, and on August 6, 1850, issued the first number of 
the Marysville Herald, the pioneer journal of the city. At first the paper 
appeared semi-weekly ; but so successful was it, that in October the editor 
announced that he would in the future issue tri-weekly, only he should need 
"more advertisements to help fill up." On January 28, 1851, Stephen C. 
Massett, a talented young man from Sacramento, became interested with 
Colonel Taylor, and the paper was then edited and published by Taylor & 
Massett. On July 15, 1851, L. AY. Ransom purchased a one-third interest, 
and the style of the firm was changed to Taylor, Massett & Company. 

At its inception, the Herald was independent in politics ; but it soon fell 
into the Whig ranks, where it did good work for some time. The impos- 
sibility of procuring a sufficient quantity of white paper compelled the 
publishers frequently to print their issue upon brown paper, or, as the editor 
remarked, "do it up brown." A feature of this paper was a column of news 
and opinions printed in the French language. In addition to its regular 
issue, the Herald published a "steamer edition" a few days prior to the sailing 
of each steamer for the East. 

On August 8, 1853, the Herald was changed to an evening paper, issued 
daily, and called the Daily Evening Herald. Again on January 9, 1854, it 
was changed to a morning paper, and bore the name of the Marysville Daily 
Herald. During the troubles in San Francisco in 1856, the Herald supported 
the actions of the Vigilance Committee. 

The California Express 

The Herald was printed little more than a year before Marysville had 
a second newspaper, the California Express, a full-fledged Democratic paper. 
The first number was issued on November 3, 1851, by George Giles & Com- 
pany, and edited by Col. Richard Rust. Following many changes in the 
editorial and managing departments, we find the Express issued in 1861 by 
the Express Printing Company. 

The Express was from the first an exponent of pure, unadulterated 
States' Rights Democracy, and during the long Civil War, was an earnest 
advocate of the "Lost Cause," and the right of the Southern States to 
secede from the Union. So distasteful did its course become to the loyal 
citizens of Marysville, that it was several times threatened with destruc- 
tion at their hands. The Express was ably edited, and had for contributors 
some of the most talented men on the Coast. It was very successful and 


influential until it adopted its policy in defense of the South. From this 
time it began to decline, and in 1866 was compelled to succumb. 
The Daily Inquirer 

Although there already was one well-established Democratic paper in 
the field, yet on November 1, 1855, J. DeMott & Company commenced the 
issue of another, the Daily Inquirer. George C. Gorham, who later became 
prominent in the community, wielded the editorial pen. The paper fell into 
the hands of Oscar O. Ball the next year, who published it until December, 
1857, when it ceased to exist. 

During the two years of its existence the Inquirer was politically 
Democratic, Neutral, Know-Nothing, and finally Democratic again. 

The Weekly Spiritualist 

The first number of the Weekly Spiritualist was issued in February, 
1857, by L. W. Ransom, editor and publisher. It was an exponent of the 
school of Andrew Jackson Davis' Harmonial Philosophy, and met with 
such faint encouragement that it ceased publication the following May. 

Marysville Daily News, and Daily National Democrat 

The first issue of the Marysville Daily News, an independent paper, 
made its appearance on January 9, 1858. The publishers were A. S. Randall 
& Company. They purchased the Herald from L,. R. Lull & Company, and 
the Daily Inquirer from Oscar O. Ball. The paper was placed under the 
editorial charge of James Allen. On August 12, 1858, Allen sold his inter- 
est to John R. Ridge, and the paper became the Daily National Democrat. 

John R. Ridge, having retired from the California Express, purchased 
an interest in the Daily News, and assumed the position of editor. The 
News had been an independent paper ; but now it was changed to an advocate 
of Douglas Democracy, and was issued on August 12, 1858, as the Daily 
National Democrat. On April 23, 1861, Ridge retired and George C. Gorham 
took editorial charge. 

Although Democratic, the paper was thoroughly Union in its sentiment ; 
and as there was another Union paper published in Marysville, the Appeal, 
it was thought best for them to combine. Consequently, in October the 
Democrat was merged in the Appeal, which appeared as a Republican organ. 

The Daily and Weekly Appeal 

The first number of the Daily Appeal appeared on January 23, 1860, 
with H. B. Mighels as editor. It was issued by G. W. Bloor & Company, 
and was independent in politics. B. P. Avery & Company purchased the 
Appeal on June 5, 1860, and began issuing a thorough Republican paper, 
Avery managing the editorial department. It began at this time to issue a 
weekly edition. 

On October 29, 1861, the Daily National Democrat was combined with 
the Appeal. The paper was published by the Appeal Association, with 

B. P. Avery as editor, and A. S. Randall as business manager. In 1862, C. V. 
Dawson purchased an interest in the paper. Avery relinquished the editorial 
duties in 1862 to A. S. Smith. In January, 1866, E. AY. Whitney became 
manager, and was succeeded the following May by L. Barney Ayers, who is 
still very well remembered in Marysville. On April 26, 1870, A. S. Smith 
resigned the editorial chair to Frank AY. Gross, and in September of the same 
year P. H. Warner became manager. In November, 1871, H. S. Hoblitzell, 
who afterwards became city clerk and also police judge, assumed the man- 
agement, which he resigned on August 13, 1873, to H. W. Haskell. 

The Appeal has since passed through the hands of E. J. Lockwood and 

C. D. Dawson, A. S. Smith, F. W. Johnson; E. A. Forbes, and V. M. Cassidy, 


who moved to Marysville from Yuba City in 1922. In May, 1923, the Appeal 
was taken over by James M. Cremin, former State printer and State statisti- 
cian, who purchased from V. M. Cassidy. 

The Marysville Daily Standard 

When A. S. Smith retired from the editorial rooms of the Appeal, he 
commenced the issue of an independent daily, called the Marysville Daily 
Standard. The first few numbers, commencing on May 16, 1870, were 
printed at the office of the Weekly Sutter Banner, while Smith was awaiting 
the arrival of his printing material. On June 6, 1870, the Standard was 
enlarged from a six-column to a seven-column paper. The Standard was 
edited with vigor and ability for three years, when the material was sold to 
the Appeal Association. 

The Marysville Democrat 

In 1883 the Marysville Democrat was established by a company made 
up of Yuba County Democrats, who purchased shares in order that they 
might have an organ of influence in the city and county for political purposes. 
It is still in existence as Marysville's only evening paper, and is owned by 
Arthur W. Gluckman, a Republican. The first editor was Milton McWhor- 
ter, now deceased. 

Since McWhorter's time, the paper has been owned by W. H. Phillips, 
the Democrat Publishing Company, W. S. O'Brien, and Gluckman. T. J. 
Sherwood edited the paper for a time. The late William M. Cutter was 
editor of this paper for a number of years. L. A. P. Eichler is now editor. 


Marysville Foundry 

The first foundry and machine shop in Marysville was established in 
1852 by Stombs, Daggett & Company, and was at first located at the corner 
of A and Seventh Streets. The business increasing from the start, it became 
necessary to move to larger quarters, and the corner of B and Fourth Streets 
was chosen as the new location. The firm became known as the Marysville 
Foundry. Under this name it was conducted by F. H. Booth and later by 
Booth & Scheidel. I. G. Shepherd for many years was superintendent, 
and Charles M. Gorham, manager. From thirty to fifty men were employed 
in the machine shop and molding room, and in the yards. A specialty was 
made of mining machinery, and the output was sent to Nevada, Arizona, 
Utah, and Montana, and to many points in California. A few of the men 
who were employed in this foundry in its latter days are still living in this 
section, but it can be safely said they can now be counted on the fingers of 
one hand. The foundry building was destroyed by fire in the conflagration 
of July 2, 1921. 

Empire Foundry 

In 1870, H. B. Williamson and C. S. Cary established the Empire Foun- 
dry, which still exists at the corner of Fifth and F Streets. John H. ("Jack") 
Collins is the present owner. In 1878 the plant was sold to Richard Hoskin, 
who for a time retained H. B. Williamson as superintendent. In the days 
of hydraulic mining, the firm reaped a harvest in the manufacture of the mon- 
itors used in that business in the mountains. Engine boilers and agricultural 
implements also were turned out. The gang-plow American Chief, and 
the Eittle Giant, a piece of hydraulic-mining machinery, were turned out 
here. Some of the products went into South America and other foreign 
countries. The Western States and Territories also proved a splendid field. 
The Hoskin giants and deflectors helped spread the fame of the foundry, 
which for a time became known as the Empire Foundry & Harvester Works. 


Marysville Woolen Mills 

Among the great industries of Yuba Count}- in the three and a half 
decades following the year 1867, there were none that attracted more wide- 
spread interest and proved of more importance than the manufacture '■ of 
woolen goods. Among the manufacturing establishments in this part of 
California, the Marysville Woolen Mills stood preeminent in their line. 

It was in 1867 that the plant was established, with a capital stock of 
$50,000. Located at the corner of Second and B Streets, for thirty years the 
mill continued uninterrupted operations, until destroyed by fire in the year 
1899. When rebuilt, the mill was constructed on a larger scale, being 
equipped with the latest improved machinery operated by means of elec- 
tricity. The late D. E. Knight, who gave to Marysville the race-track 
grounds, now known as Knight Recreation Park, was for years the moving 
spirit at the head of the concern. The trade, which was large, extended over 
the Western and Northern States, Mexico and British Columbia, and finally 
to London, England. Besides giving employment to many, the establish- 
ment provided a home market for the wool-raisers of Yuba and Sutter Coun- 
ties. It was an institution of which Marysville was justly proud; for its 
blankets, underwear, and suit material became known both in Europe and 
America. Toward the end of its career, after the death of D. E. Knight, the 
establishment was owned by John Martin. A second fire left the mill in its 
present ruined condition. 

The Marysville Winery 

Another establishment that flourished early in Marysville was the 
Marysville Winery. At its zenith, none in the State enjoyed a higher repu- 
tation for the excellence of its products. The business was established by a 
stock company in 1872, and was purchased by the late Gottlieb Sieber in 
1884. The distillery consisted of very substantial buildings equipped with 
the latest improved continuous stills, with a capacity of 250, 000 gallons of 
high-grade brandies and sweet and dry wines per year. Sieber was assisted 
in the management of the concern by his son, Henry Sieber, now of Berke- 
ley, Alameda County. Until it ceased operations in the late nineties, the 
winery afforded a ready market to the grape-growers of the two counties. 

Buckeye Flour Mills 
An influential factor that contributed to the prosperity of the city of 
Marysville, and of Yuba and Sutter Counties in general, in the days when the 
farmers of the two counties depended chiefly upon grain-raising, was the 
Buckeye Flour Mills at Fifth and Yuba Streets. The name of the late Justus 
Greely, father of the present county auditor and recorder, Fred H. Greely, 
was almost synonymous with the concern, at the head of which he stood for 
years. During Mr. Greely's regime, shipment of Buckeye flour to China 
began. The concern has since been absorbed by the Sperry Flour Company. 

A Faithful Watchman 

The Buckeye Flour Mills, and its successor, the Sperry Flour Company, 
had about its properties for many years a well-known night watchman, 
Samuel Harrington, whose death was only recently recorded. On August 
9, 1893, during an encounter by night with a trespasser on the property of 
his employers, Harrington was shot in the arm and disabled for some time. 
Besides more substantial recognition as a reward for his faithfulness at all 
times, the flour company gave Mr. Harrington favorable mention and ex- 
tended tribute in a magazine published by the concern. 

"Sam" Harrington had as his loyal companions during many a night his 
well-trained dogs; and woe be to the intruder who ignored these faithful 


animals when once their master commanded them to investigate an unusual 
noise on the premises. 

Trayner & Ellis Flour Mills 

Just west of the depot of the Sacramento Northern passenger and freight 
depot, in early days, stood the Trayner & Ellis Flour Mills. James Trayner, 
long deceased, was the father of John H. Trayner of Gridley, and the grand- 
father of James Trayner of this city. 

This firm did a thriving business until their plant was ruined by a flood 
of the early days, when they were forced to discontinue. 

Early Carriage and Wagon Works 

During the early days in Marysville there were several wagon-making 
concerns. Among the owners of these were the following : George P. Hunt, 
A. W. Cutts, Suber & Cutts, Charles Raish, Katzner, Russell & Chase, 
Easton & White, S. H. Bradley & Co., W. C. Ogden & Sons, James Sneed 
and A. M. Goff. 

To Charles Raish, who commenced work in Marysville in 1853, belonged 
the honor of making the first top buggy. This vehicle was made by him in 
1854. and sold for $500. 

A. AY. Cutts, who started a shop in 1851, built, in the summer of the next 
year, the first wagon manufactured in the city. In the summer of 1851, 
George P. Hunt had built two stages for John Adrient, to run to Long Bar 
and Parks Bar. In 1880, the firm of Suber & Cutts, formed in 1854, had the 
record of being the only firm mentioned in the directory of 1855 which had 
remained unchanged. 

The spring wagons made later by S. H. Bradley, for delivery purposes, 
gained State-wide reputation. In the earlier period, Bradley tried his hand at 
stages and Concord coaches for use in the mountains, with decided success. 

Katzner, Russell & Chase excelled in road carts for a number of years, 
in which line they specialized. 

Union Lumber Company 

The Union Lumber Company was established in 1852 by W. K. Hudson 
and Samuel Harryman, under the name of Hudson & Company. In 1854, 
Harryman sold out to W. H. and G. B. Pepper. The yard was burned in 
1854. In 1857, the firm was acquired by A. P. Willey, EHsha Scott and Thad- 
deus Dean, who did business under the name of Willey, Dean & Company. 
Dean sold out to P. P. Cain ; and in 1858 W. K. Hudson again became a 
member, the firm name being changed to Hudson, AVilley & Cain. 

In 1864, the firm was incorporated as the Union Lumber Company. W. 
K. Hudson was elected president, and A. P. AVilley vice-president ; T. E. 
Perkins, R. S. Jenkins and A. J. Batchelder were the other directors. In 
1873 Hudson died, and A. P. AAilley was chosen president, and F. D. Hud- 
son vice-president. The company at one time owned and operated fifteen saw- 
mills in the county, and several in other counties. Since 1873 the company 
has been limiting its activities to yard business only. H. Cheim has owned 
the controlling interest in this business for many years now. 

Other Manufacturing Industries of Early Days 

Other factories and firms that Marysville boasted in the earlier days 
were : The California Brewery, which was owned by Gottlieb Sieber ; boot and 
shoe shops, conducted in a small way by F. Terstegge & Company, P. J. 
Flannery, E. Healy, Philip Fisher, and Moon & Creighton ; a broom factory, 
run by W. F. Lefavre ; the Pioneer Tannery, built by Drake & Spindler in 
1852; marble works, started by McCready & Brothers in 1859; the Marysville 
Coal & Gas Company, established in 1858; the H. M. Harris Saddlery, which 


still is in existence; a sash, door and blinds factory, built in 1854 by C. H. 
Goodwin; the Marysville Soap Works, established in 1863, by J. W. Cowan 
and later conducted by James Cook and others ; and a wine and brandy man- 
ufactory. In the tinware line, the writer recalls E. C. Ross & Company, 
Cooley & Cady. Kertchem & Corley, and White, Cooley & Cutts, as firms 
no longer in existence. 

Early Express Companies 

Adams & Company's Express had an office at the corner of High Street 
and the Plaza. They advertised : "Our express will always be accompanied 
by faithful messengers, and thus we are enabled to offer to our patrons the 
greatest security for the transmission of treasure and valuable packages at 
the lowest possible rates." Daily expresses were sent from Marysville to 
Sacramento, San Francisco, Benicia, Grass Valley, Nevada, Auburn, Co- 
loma, Shasta, Stockton, Sonora, Jackson, Placerville, Mormon Island, "and 
all parts of the Northern and Southern Mines." The express for the Atlantic 
States and for Europe was forwarded by every mail steamer, and also by 
the Nicaragua Line. 

Everts, Snell & Company had the "Feather River Express," connecting 
with Adams & Company to Sacramento, San Francisco and all parts of the 
Northern and Southern Mines. Their principal offices were located at Marys- 
ville, St. Louis, Gibsonville, Pine Grove, and Chandlerville. 

Wells, Fargo & Company also had an express office at Marysville. 

Other Early Business Firms 

A Lager Beer and Refreshment Saloon was conducted by "William Clark 
in connection with the City Baths, corner First and D Streets, in 1856. "At 
Home Again" is the way Clark's advertisement read. He assured his friends 
that he would be happy to meet them again at his old stand. "To be up 
with the times, I have made several additions," he said, "among which is a 
Lager Beer and Refreshment Saloon in the basement, equal to any in the 
city." Bathers were furnished with refreshments in their rooms, if desired. 

Others engaged in business in Marysville at that time were : Reynolds 
Bros., bankers ; S. T. Watts, wholesale druggists ; J. McGlashan & Co., books 
and bookbinding; the Commercial Steam Book and Job Printing Establish- 
ment ; G. & O. Amy, books and music ; Thomas Aliment, coffee and spices ; 
Bourne, Elwell & Co., groceries, provisions and liquors ; H. F. Tarrant & Co., 
Burton Ale House ; J. S. and W. C. Belcher, attorneys-at-law ; Marysville 
Iron Foundry and Machine Shops, Benham & Booth ; Mark Brumagim & 
Co., bankers ; California Stage Co. ; Canfield & Wright, watchmakers and 
jewelers ; Eugene Dupre, real estate and money brokers ; S. Decker, Phoenix 
Saloon; Denckla & Bro., commission merchants; Samuel L. Dewey, gro- 
ceries and liquors ; Deardorff & Lowery, carpenters and builders ; French & 
Blackman, clothing; Charles Carl, stationers; A. P. Flint, crockery; J. H. and 
J. R. Gassaway, barbers ; Isaac Glazier & Co., "old corner cigar store," corner 
First and D, Sign of the Big Indian ; James Grant, storage, commission and 
forwarding; Haun House, George Rowe, prop.; Hudson & Co., lumber; 
Hartwell & Co., hardware; J. Hisey & Co., harness and saddlery; Heuston, 
Hastings & Co., tailors; W. Hawley & Co., groceries; Hudson, Eilerman & 
Co., tailors ; Langton & Co., bankers ; Pioneer Cigar Store, L. Lewis & Co. ; 
Levi W. Taylor, general agent and collector ; J. C. Smith, Magnolia Saloon ; 
John T. McCarty, lawyer; McFarlane & Co., wholesale and retail grocers; 
Prof. F. Grambss, teacher of piano ; O. M. Evans, Merchants' Hotel ; J. C. 
Miller, furniture; John McQuinn, green and dried fruits; McCormick & 
Tennent, forwarding and commission; Murray's Western House; Philadel- 
phia House, Bause & Harrington ; Pegram & Presbury, drugs, etc. ; E. M. 


Pierson, livery ; Frank Baker, upholsterer; A. Prou & Co., painters; J. N. 
Rohr, house and sign painter ; Randal & Co., agents for San Francisco 
papers; J. Ruth, daguerreian, ambrotypist and photographer; Rice-Coffin, 
drugs ; The Spring House, John Spring, prop. ; Joseph F. Smith, lumber ; 
C. F. Scholl, gunsmith; E. B. Stephens & Co., groceries and feed; J. M. 
Schermier, tailor ; Queen City Mills, Soule, Bordewell & Co., props. ; United 
States Hotel, Lee & Shields ; H. Wagner, books and stationery ; Warren & 
Hill, stoves and tinware ; AVorthington & Fox, wines and brandies ; A. 
Walker, groceries ; Winter & Burlingame, dentists ; Watkins & Keyser, 
attorneys; J. H. Wright & Co., hardware; D. S. Lord & Co., stationery; Jo- 
siah J. LeCount, stationery; Macy, Lowe & Co., bankers; Taylor & Wads- 
worth, clothing; W\ C. Stokes, bottling; and Cox & Dougherty, "El Dorado" 
bar and billiard saloon. 


The character and standing of the financial institutions of a locality form 
a basis from which may be determined the genuine worth, stability and 
enterprise of its communities ; for no feature of progress in any community 
sustains more important relations to its mercantile and manufacturing in- 
terests than the banking institutions. Therefore, in reviewing the business 
interests of Yuba and Sutter Counties, it is just and proper that more than 
passing notice should be given to the banking houses of the "twin counties," 
the chief of which are located in Marysville and Wheatland in Yuba County, 
and in Yuba City and Live Oak in Sutter County. These will be described 
in connection with the cities or towns in which they are located. 

Earliest Banking Houses 

The first banking institution in the city of Marysville was that of Cun- 
ningham & Brumagim. In the first directory of the city, this firm adver- 
tised as having a "fire-proof building on D Street, third door south of the 
United States Hotel." (All advertisers in those early days of the city seemed 
to direct the stranger to their places of business from the hotel.) The adver- 
tisement says further : "Cunningham & Brumagim have a treasure vault of 
the most approved construction, and are prepared to receive deposits, special 
or otherwise. Sight and time exchange on the Eastern States for sale at all 
times, in sums to suit purchasers. Gold dust purchased at the highest rates. 
Sight drafts on San Francisco at par." 

The firm early had opposition in Adams & Company, bankers, who also 
advertised a "fire-proof building, corner High Street and the Plaza." They 
issued bills of exchange drawn on the leading cities in the East and payable 
at many banks distant from those they were drawn upon. C. B. Macy was 
the agent of this bank. 

Decker-Jewett Bank 

In 1858 Peter Decker and John H. Jewett took over the existing banking 
business of Mark Brumagim & Company, and formed the partnership of 
Decker & Jewett, later changed to Decker, Jewett & Company, when the late 
A. C. Bingham became a member of the firm. On the death of Peter Decker 
in 1888, the business was incorporated with additional capital by the Decker 
Estate, John H. Jewett, A. C. Bingham, W. T. Ellis. D. E. Knight, Thomas 
Dougall and I. S. Belcher. A. C. Bingham was the bank's cashier, and until 
1917 carried on its traditions and policies. He had commenced with the bank 
as a young man in 1867, and at the time of his death had completed fifty 
years of active work. W. H. Parks, whose generous character and winning 
personality are well remembered, had been with the bank thirty years, and at 
the time of his death in 1913 was its vice-president. 


The present cashier, H. B. P. Carden,' joined the bank's forces in 1888, 
and became a director in 1909. President Elliott McAllister became a direc- 
tor to represent the Decker interests in 1903, and president in 1910, after 
acquiring the Jewett stockholding. John K. Kelly, recently elected vice-pres- 
ident, and W. T. Ellis became directors in 1913. 

Of the 447 banks in California doing business under the State charter 
in 1918, the Decker- Jewett Bank was the oldest. The present officers of this 
bank are: President, Elliott McAllister; vice-president, T- K. Kelly; cashier, 
H. B. P. Carden ; directors, Elliott McAllister, J. K. Kelly, H. B. P. Carden, 
and AY. T. Ellis. 

Originally this bank was located at the corner of First and High Streets. 
In 1873 it moved to its present location on D Street, between Second and 
Third Streets, west side. 

The Rideout String of Banks 

The late N. D. Rideout for many years stood prominently among the 
heads of the banking business in the field north of Sacramento. Gaining his 
first experience as an associate of Brown & Company in a bank instituted 
at Camptonville, Yuba County, Rideout, in 1861, launched the Rideout Bank 
in Marysville, which later became the Bank of Rideout & Smith. The busi- 
ness grew rapidly and earned the confidence of all classes. At the death of 
Rideout, there were branches in Oroville, Gridley, Live Oak, Auburn, and 
Wheatland. In 1922, the Rideout interests in Marysville were purchased by 
the Bank of Italy, which at that period was buying up established banking 
institutions in all sections of the State. 

At the entry of the Bank of Italy into the local field in 1922, Dunning 
Rideout, a nephew of the founder of the Rideout string of banks, was made 
the local manager for the concern. W. B. Swain is assistant to Rideout, his 
long experience with the Rideout institutions making him a valuable asset. 

In the early nineties, the bank and the community suffered a distinct 
loss in the death of Norman A. Rideout, son of the founder. He was crushed 
to death in a mine .near Bangor by the falling of a huge boulder, while mak- 
ing a survey of the property, in which he was interested. 

Northern California Bank of Savings 

One of the most creditable and interesting histories of steady progress 
in a financial way is that of the Northern California Bank of Savings, which 
was duly organized under the laws of the State of California in 1889. It has 
made itself a bank for the people, and has always been a favorite with the 
business interests of Marysville. Its large deposits are drawn from all 
classes of citizens, including many leading business firms, farmers, and in- 
dividuals of Marysville, and of other towns and localities in Yuba and Sutter 
Counties ; and from its inception its career has been one of marked success. 
The bank was for a long time located at the corner of Fourth and D Streets, 
in the water-works building. It now owns its own building on the west side 
of D Street, between Fourth and Fifth Streets. 

In 1923 the officers of this bank were : President, Phoebe M. Rideout, 
widow of N. D. Rideout ; vice-president, Heiman Cheim ; cashier, S. J. Flan- 
ery; assistant cashier, E. S. C. Farrant. 

First National Bank of Marysville 

"As Solid as the Buttes" is the business slogan of the First National 
Bank of Marysville, the youngest banking house in the city at the present 
time. This bank was instituted on July 3, 1918, establishing headquarters at 
the corner of D an d Third Streets, where it still is located. The present offi- 
cers of the bank are: President, Thomas Mathews; vice-president, Dunning 


Ricleout ; cashier,, P. T. Smith ; assistant cashier, Wesley C. Owen ; directors, 
Phoebe M. Rideout, T. A. Gianella, P. T. Smith, A. W. Lewis, Thomas 
Mathews, Dunning Rideout, J. E. Strain, and Lloyd H. Wilbur. 


Strange as it may seem, Marysville, which at this time can boast no 
more than three bona fide hotels, saw built during the fifties no less than 
thirty hostelries in which to house the stranger in a new land. 

The first hotel in Marysville was an old adobe structure, which served 
also as a trading post and the residence of the proprietor. 

The next was the United States Hotel, a canvas structure, on the east 
side of D Street, between First and Second Streets, which gave way to the 
"Selby Building," now occupied as a garage and offices of the Chamber of 
Commerce and the Red Cross. This canvas hotel was erected about Jan- 
uary, 1850, and during the latter part of February and first part of March 
was replaced with a board house. A few years later the brick building 
now still standing was erected. 

The City Hotel, another canvas building on the northeast corner of D 
and First Streets, was also erected in 1850. 

In July, 1851, the following hotels were opened: Fremont House, cor- 
ner Maiden Lane (now Oak Street) and Second Street; the Eagle Hotel, 
on High Street ; and the Hotel De France on the Plaza. About this time 
several other public houses were opened: The Oriental House, corner of 
Second and High Streets ; the Express Hotel on First Street ; St. Charles 
Hotel, in the postoffice building, corner D and Third Streets ; and the Marys- 
ville Hotel and brewery, corner Front and C Streets. Before the end of 
the year Coleman's restaurant was started on High Street, between First 
and Second ; and the Washington Hotel, corner of Second and High Streets. 

The Merchants' Hotel was built in 1852 on the Plaza, at the corner of 
First Street. This was the first brick hotel in the city. Humphrey & Clash- 
ing kept a hotel on Second Street, between C and Maiden Lane, in 1852. 
Humphrey removed to the site of the United States Hotel and put up a 
brick building there. 

The Western Hotel 

The Western Hotel was built of wood about 1852, on the corner of D 
and Second Streets, and "was destroyed by fire in May, 1854. Upon the site 
of the old hotel, R. J. Murphy, at a cost of $30,000, erected a brick building, 
opening it in November, 1854. The owner had charge of the hotel and made 
of it a profitable institution. In 1858, Gideon Woodward was the manager. 
In 1861, Moody & Smith were the proprietors, and in 1870, M. C. Dufficy & 
Company. In 1871, the management was taken by George Wappel, formerly 
of the Dawson House. The property at that time was owned by M. T. 
Keller. Successors in interest thereafter were John A. Woodward, Berg 
Brothers and Captain J. R. Foster. The Western Hotel Company, organ- 
ized by Captain Foster, who died in 1921, now owns the structure, which 
was remodeled and enlarged by Captain Foster. 

The Dawson House 

The Dawson House was erected of brick on the northeast corner of E 
and Second Streets in 1855 by John Linhill, at a cost of $10,000. For years 
this was a very popular house under Linhill's management. In 1861 and 
1870, respectively, G. V. Dawson and G. F. Wappel were proprietors. For 
years it was quite the proper thing to put up there. In 1922 this building 
was razed to give place to a service station. 


United States Hotel 

A second and lasting United States Hotel, still standing, was built in 
1856. at the southwest corner of Third and C Streets, where it was opened 
by Lee & Hoffman. Subsequently W. C. Stokes and A. M. Shields assumed 
the management. They were followed by Scheu & Swank, who in turn sold 
in the early eighties to Sol Lewek. He conducted the place until 1917, when 
the building was purchased by Fred Peardon and A. C. Powell, who remod- 
eled it for lodgings only, on the upper floors. The lower floor is now occu- 
pied as a hardware store by Booth & Herboth. The lodgings portion is 
managed by Charles J. Becker, the city's mayor. 

Other Early-Day Hostelries 

The Golden Eagle Hotel, a three-story brick building containing forty 
rooms, was erected in 1862 by A. Farnham. This hostelry is now known as 
the National Hotel. At one time it was conducted by Bernard Mehl, and 
later by Joseph Errissey. 

The Vandevere House (now lodgings) was established in 1869, at the 
northwest corner of B and Third Streets. The Ebner House, on B Street, 
between Fourth and Fifth, was built in the seventies. The Denton House, 
erected about the same time at the southwest corner of A and Seventh 
Streets, was destroyed by fire in the nineties. 

Other hotels built in the early days but no longer in existence, are : 
Hotel de France, 1851, High Street, near Second; Phoenix House, 1853, 
on High Street, between First and Second ; Ohio House, 1853, corner D and 
Front Streets; Atlantic Hotel, 1853, Maiden Lane, between First and Second; 
Mansion House, 1853, D Street, between Second and Third; Hotel de Com- 
merce, 1853, Front Street, in the Plaza block; American Hotel, 1854, Maiden 
Lane, between First and Second; Crescent City Hotel, 1854, east side of 
High Street, between First and Second; Virginia Hotel, 1854, Second Street, 
near Maiden Lane ; Philadelphia House, 1854, corner C and Second Streets ; 
Pacific House, 1855, corner A and Seventh Streets ; Orleans Hotel, 1856, 49 C 
Street; Spring House, 1857, Third Street, between D and High Streets; 
What Cheer, 1857, corner Second and Maiden Lane ; St. Louis, 1857, 126 D 
Street; Haun House, 1858, corner D and Third Streets; St. Charles, 1858, 
corner Second and High Streets ; St. Nicholas, 1860, corner D and Third 
Streets; Railroad House, 137 Third Street; Hotel du Nord, 1860, corner High 
and Second Streets; Washington Hotel, 1860, 70 C Street; Globe Hotel, 
1862, C and Second Streets; and Merchants' Hotel, 1863, west side of D 
Street, between First and Second. 

Projected Hotel 

Marysville is now looking forward to the early completion of a modern 
hotel of six stories at the southeast corner of Fifth and E Streets, on lots 
formerly occupied by the Rideout Memorial Hospital, which was razed to 
make room for it. The cost of this structure is. to be $400,000, including 
furnishings. Rossi & Nelson, experienced hotel men, are to be the lessees. 
The money for its construction was raised by the Marysville Hotel Com- 
pany through popular subscriptions gathered in Yuba and Sutter Counties. 
The building is to be practically fireproof. 


Public Buildings erected in Marysville in the early fifties, of brick, 
nearly all of which still stand in testimony of the lasting material and un- 
stinted artisanship of those early days, are : 

1854-1855: Yuba County Courthouse, corner D and Sixth Streets, 80 by . 
SO feet, two stories; cost $45,000. Yuba County Jail, 28 by 50 feet, one story; 


cost, $15,000. Gity Hall, corner Third and Maiden Lane, now Oak Street, 
40 by 70 feet, two stories; cost, $25,000. Center Market, between Second 
and Third Streets, fronting on both C Street and Maiden Lane (now Oak 
Street), 42 by 142 feet, one story; cost, $11,000. Owned at the time of erec- 
tion by D. C. Haskins and Packard & Woodruff. 

1856: Yuba County Hospital, on Seventeenth Street, between H and I, 
north side, 54 by 75 feet, two stories; cost, $16,000. Razed when present 
hospital building was erected on J Street, between Fourteenth and Fifteenth. 
In 1856 a jailor's dwelling was built on the south side of the Courthouse at 
a cost of nearly $6000. The Hall of Records now occupies this site. 

1859: Yuba Engine House, 40 by 60 feet, two stories; cost, $5000. 

Some of these are described more in detail below. 

The Courthouse 

The first building erected for the transaction of county business was a 
canvas structure built on the corner of E and Third Streets in 1850. It was a 
room about twenty feet wide and thirty feet long, the second story being 
used as a Masonic hall. In this place were held the sessions of the court, 
public meetings and religious services. 

In September, 1850, a one-story frame jail, 18 by 28 feet, was completed 
on the lot at the corner of D and Sixth Streets, at a cost of $8000. The jail 
lot cost $300. The expense of grading it was greater than its original cost. 

In December, 1852, the Court of Sessions, which body filled the place 
now occupied by the Board of Supervisors, appropriated $6000 for the pur- 
chase of the St. Charles Hotel property, on the southwest corner of D and 
Third Streets, for a courthouse. They also gave $500 to repair it. There 
were only canvas partitions in the building at the time. After the present 
Courthouse was built, the old property was sold, in 1855, for $10,725. 

In 1854, Lot 5, Block 3, was bought by the Court of Sessions. The need 
was now felt for a more improved and convenient courthouse. Accordingly, 
in 1855, a new building, with jail attached, was erected at the corner of D 
and Sixth Streets, and was occupied in November. The contract price was 
$28,000; but the structure probably cost as high as $45,000. 

The County Hospital 

In September, 1853, the city established a hospital, in charge of John 
T. McLean, M. D.. on Maiden Lane, between Sixth and Seventh Streets. 
This was in part a private institution. The French citizens at this time 
also had a hospital, which they maintained, in charge of Dr. Amouroux. 

The first County Hospital was erected in 1856, the lot costing $1600. 
The contract at first called for a one-story structure, for $8292. Before it 
was completed, a second story was added at an additional cost of $6820. 
Before it was ready for occupation, more money had to be expended in fur- 
nishings and making the necessary arrangements for the reception of the 
patients. This building was located on the north side of Seventeenth Street, 
between H and I Streets, a site now outside the levee. 

The present County Hospital on J Street, between Fifteenth and Six- 
teenth, was built in the late eighties. The specifications called for the use 
of wood as the material for the construction of the building. Against this 
there was considerable protest ; but Dr. C. E. Stone, who was then on the 
board of supervisors, insisted on the original plans, and won out. For this 
reason the building was for some time referred to as "Stone's Folly." 

The City Hall and Other Buildings 

The present City Hall was contracted for in October, 1854, for $16,000, 
although when finished it cost $25,000. 


The present station house was erected in 1857, taking the place of a 
residence property that stood on the lot. It was completed in the spring of 
1858. About the same time the city erected a circular building on Frank- 
lin Square, thirty feet in diameter, one story high, and thoroughly fireproof. 
This was used as a powder magazine for the storage of that dangerous sub- 
stance. In the eighties it was destroyed in an explosion of unknown cause. 

The Marysville Library Association 

The splendid free public library at present maintained by the city of 
Marysville grew out of a literary and scientific association organized in 
1855. On the 10th of February in that year a number of citizens assembled 
and formed a society called the Young Men's Literary and Scientific Asso- 
ciation, which was subsequently incorporated under the name of the Marys- 
ville Library Association, with a capital stock of $25,000, divided into 1000 
shares. They elected Edwards Woodruff president ; Dr. D. W. C. Rice, vice- 
president ; Dr. J. T. McLean, corresponding secretary ; F. H. Woodward, 
recording secretary; Mark Brumagim, treasurer; John S. Eckman, J. E. Gal- 
loway, Rev. D. A. Dryden, Warren T. Miller, William K. Hudson, William 
Hawley, T. B. Reardon, D. C. Benham, and A. A. Vantine, directors. 

The object of the association was to collect a library and maintain a 
reading room where the members could enjoy themselves in a manner not 
possible elsewhere, and, by pleasant social communion, and the literary ad- 
vantages offered by such an association, improve themselves in mental cul- 
ture. It was afterwards decided that the advantages of the library should 
be extended to all the citizens ; and to that end the trustees of the association, 
on December 15, 1858, deeded the library to the city, making it conditional 
in the deed of transfer that the library should be kept open during certain 
hours every day and should be free to the citizens of Marysville, and that 
the council should annually appropriate $250 for the purchase of books, 
and should pay the expenses of the library and the salary of the librarian. 
All these requirements, and more, are being lived up to at the present time. 
Thus, the Marysville Public Library grew out of this original organization. 

At the outset, the library collection was kept in the upper story of a 
building located at the corner of the Plaza and First Street, the rent being 
$25 a month. During all the early meetings, John O. Packard was the lead- 
ing spirit; and he was ably assisted by W. T. Ellis, Sr. The records, as 
kept by the different secretaries, begin in 1856, the first meeting recorded 
being that of February 22 of that year, held in the office of Mark Brumagim 
& Company. This was a special meeting called to organize a new board of 
trustees. The first regular meeting was held on March 4, 1856, the follow- 
ing being present: M. Brumagim, president; W. A. Bollinger, A. G. Coffin, 
W. T. Ellis, Sr., C. M. Patterson, and J. H. AVright. At this meeting an 
offer was made by Henry Gordon Walton to act as librarian, his services 
being offered without remuneration. John O. Packard was one of the early 
directors of the association, and resigned as such in 1856, his place being 
taken by A. P. Flint. 

At these first meetings a series of lectures was conducted, to which an 
admission of one dollar was charged. Among the lecturers named in the early 
records are noted G. N. Swezy, Dr. McLean, Judge Stephen J. Field, and 
T. B. Reardon. There seemed to be great interest taken then in establish- 
ing a permanent library, as is evidenced by the efforts to obtain reading mat- 
ter, and by the many volumes donated by citizens, some of which are yet 
to be found on the library shelves. 


Besides the' lectures, as a means of revenue, there were several benefits 
given, among which was part of the proceeds derived from a performance 
by "Rowe's Equestrian Circus," the library realizing a net sum of $289. 

Organization and Growth of the City Library 
As previously stated, the Marysville Library Association, on December 
15, 1858, donated all its books, maps, etc., to the city of Marysville, "said 
city agreeing to furnish all the necessary rooms, to pay the librarian, and 
to provide a sinking fund for the increase of the library, the same to be 
controlled by a board of directors," of which the mayor was to be ex-ofHcio 
chairman, the directors to consist of three aldermen (to be elected by the 
city council), and three citizens. 

The first meeting of the new board under city management was held 
on December 29, 1858, and was presided over by Mayor Peter Decker. T. 
Dean, S. J. Lover, and S. W. Selby were present as councilmen ; Rev. E. S. 
Wadsworth, S. C. Tompkins, and W. C. Belcher, as school commissioners ; 
and A. G. Coffin, Dr. John T. McLean, and John H. Jewett, as repre- 
sentatives of the donors. 

Miss Jane Jones held the position of librarian from April 19, 1880, until 
her death in 1894, when Mrs. J. A. Saul was elected. Mrs. Saul held the 
office until her resignation on March 8, 1898, when the present librarian, Mary 

E. Suber, was elected. In Miss Suber the public has a most efficient and 
faithful official. She keeps the office in excellent order, is kind and con- 
siderate, and deservedly popular among the patrons of the institution on 
account of the very able and courteous manner in which she assists in the 
selection of the books desired. 

As a means for procuring new reading matter from time to time, the 
library has a lasting fund from donations made by wills and otherwise. The 
interest from bequests made to the library through all the years since 
Marysville established it, more than pays for the new books and for re- 
bindings. In the order of the bequests made by citizens who had come to 
love their adopted city are: The William Fletcher Fund, $1000; the John 
Nash Fund, $1000; the Peter Decker Fund, $1000; the Phil W. Keyser Fund, 
$250; the Edwards Woodruff Fund, $1000; the W. C. Belcher Fund, $1000; 
the D. E. Knight Fund, $3000; the W. H. Parks, Jr., Fund, $500; and the 

F. Alfred Peel Fund, $500. The money at the present time is invested as 
follows : In bonds of the city of Marysville, bearing eight per cent interest, 
S3500; and in stock in the Marysville Elks' Home, $6500, bearing interest 
at the rate of six per cent. 

The Library Building 

For many years, indeed up to 1906, the library was housed in crowded 
apartments in the City Hall. Then John Q. Packard came to the rescue, and 
gave to Marysville the handsome free library building standing at the north- 
west corner of Fourth and C Streets. On Friday evening, October 12, 1906, 
at seven o'clock, the doors of this building were thrown open to the public. 
It was built by Packard at a cost of $75,000. It was his wish that the men's 
rooms on the lower floor be kept open on Sundays as well as during the 
other days of the week. 

The main reading room is on the second floor, and at the rear is the 
librarian's desk. Back of the partitions behind this desk and the serving 
counter, are the stack-rooms, private office, and children's room. At one 
end of the desk is a stairway leading to the basement, where the men are 
made comfortable. During the World War, a portion of this basement was 
used by the women of Yuba-Sutter Chapter, American Red Cross, for sew- 


ing, reception of donations, and packing- of the soldiers' packs and other 
articles sent "over there." 

On the top floor of the library building is a hallway and a large audi- 
torium with a stage for speakers. This stage is made large enough for 
amateur performances. Entrance to the top floor is gained by two stairways, 
one at each side of the building, leading from the vestibule to a mezzanine 
floor above the librarian's desk and overlooking the main reading room. 

The building was completely furnished by the city council, and is as 
convenient and beautiful in its appointments as any in the West. 

John Q. Packard, Philanthropist 

John Ouackenbos Packard, the pioneer merchant who gave to the city 
of Marysville her magnificent library building, to be at all times free to her 
people, was a retiring man, one who strenuously objected to publicity, or 
notoriety of any kind. He allowed no celebration of his gift. "Ladies, will 
you permit me to conduct my affairs as I see fit?" was his reply to a delega- 
tion of women who waited upon him to insist that some ceremony be held in 
dedication of his handsome donation to the city. When the corner-stone was 
laid, Mr. Packard supposed there would be a total absence of ceremony ; 
but the contractor, R. Dewar, San Francisco architect, and the sub-contrac- 
tors, together with a number of citizens, saw to it that a receptacle was 
made in the great piece of stone for the usual copper box. Into this box 
were placed a number of coins of the realm, cards of the interested firms, 
a brief history of the building, and of the local conditions at the time of the 
erection of the library. The late Col. Edwin A. Forbes, who later became 
adjutant general, at the head of the National Guard of California, wrote the 
history that went into the corner-stone. Copies of the Marysville Democrat 
and of the Marysville Appeal were also placed in the box. Further than 
this, there was no ceremony at any time in connection with the building. 

When the library was turned over to the city, the gift was acknowledged 
in the adoption of the plainest form of resolution that could be prepared. 
No flowery words, or adjectives of praise, were allowed. 

John O. Packard was born in Johnstown, N. Y., November 26, 1822. 
He was eighty-six years, of age at his death, which occurred in Santa 
Cruz in this State in 1908, and eighty-four at the time of the dedication of 
the building, which is a monument to his memory, notwithstanding his mod- 
est}'. Mr. Packard was a direct descendant of the Packard family of Hol- 
land. He received his education in the common schools, and at the age of 
eighteen he became a clerk in a silk house in New York. When the discov- 
ery of gold in California was heralded to the world, he was attracted to the 
West and came, with others, by way of the Isthmus of Panama, and thence 
on the old ship Equator to San Francisco. Eighty-seven days were spent 
on the trip. He first went to the San Joaquin district and there worked in 
the mines at Jacksonville. Later, after some privations on prospecting trips, 
he returned to San Francisco, where he leased a lot on Montgomery Street 
and erected thereon a wooden structure in which he started a mercantile 
business. He later sold to a partner. 

After this venture he came to Marysville, then the center of mining 
activities. Here he formed a partnership with the late Col. Edwards Wood- 
ruff, which partnership continued until the death of Woodruff in 1899. They 
conducted a general merchandising business until the flood of 1862, when 
they sold out. In the seventies, while the two were en route to New York, 
Packard became interested in Salt Lake City, and acquired an interest in 
the Eureka Hill Mine in the Tintic district. Later he and his brother. 
Joseph, acquired a controlling interest. Packard became president and 


manager, remaining as such until 1895. He located other mines in the dis- 
trict, and as a result of his good judgment and foresight he was rewarded 
with immense wealth from the properties. 

In 1900 he again made his residence in Marysville ; and although he 
spent most of his time at his fine residence in Santa Cruz, he called this city 
his home and visited Marysville frequently. He owned large property 
interests in Santa Cruz, and not long before his death sold large holdings 
and water rights to the Martin-DeSabla Syndicate for power purposes. Be- 
sides his holdings at Santa Cruz and in Nevada, he owned large tracts in 
Yuba and Sutter Counties. 

In spite of his years, Mr. Packard remained hale and hearty, and a 
delightfully pleasant gentleman, to the end. Plain and honest, he was re- 
spected wherever known. He was a life member of the Society of California 
Pioneers and vice-president of the Pioneer Society of California. He well 
performed his share in the development and- upbuilding of the West : and 
notwithstanding he never would allow the applause of those who would 
honor him, he is revered in the memory of thousands. It is only fair that 
the building he presented to the city of Marysville shall always be known 
as the Packard Free Library. 

Through the efforts of Richard Belcher, attorney of this city, who was 
a close friend of John O. Packard, an enlarged photograph of the philan- 
thropist decorates the library over the desk of the librarian. It is the only 
sign, or token, by which the donor of the handsome building may be known 
to the stranger ignorant of the history of the structure. Air. Belcher gives 
much of his time to the affairs of the library, selecting and purchasing. 
from the funds appropriated by the city and the donors, the new volumes 
being constantly added. 


The founders of the city of Marysville wisely set apart arid held for 
the community use many breathing spots. They provided that the parks 
should revert to the original owners in the event they are ever converted 
to other use. Of a dozen such places, four are at present made especially 
attractive to the weary visitor and to the home folks. Here again the 
Women's Civic Improvement Club is to the fore. If a tree dies, or the work 
of maintaining the parks is neglected, these women report the matter to 
the city council. 

The four parks thus far made inviting by trees and vegetation are Cor- 
tez. Napoleon, Washington and Yuba Squares. The first two have each 
a band-stand, from which free concerts are rendered during the summer 
months. These concerts always are well attended, showing the apprecia- 
tion of the people. Gradually the improvement will extend to the other 
parks given the city by the pioneers. In 1922, Mrs. Corinne Kimball Ride- 
out, widow of a former mayor, left, through a clause in her will, a trust fund 
insuring, for all time, free concerts in the public parks of the city. 

Knight Recreation Park 

Another splendid gift to the city, ranking with the bequest of Mrs. 
Rideout and with that of John Q. Packard, who gave Marysville her library 
building, is the race-track grounds, bequeathed by the late David E. Knight, 
and now known as Knight Recreation Park. Here the Marysville Golf Club 
has its links, a popular retreat for the business man seeking diversion. 

Marysville's Free Motor Park 

The city council of Marysville, realizing the need of providing accom- 
modations for the hundreds of automobile tourists who are now passing 


through Yuba County, maintains a free auto park, which is in a class by 
itself. Its renown has traveled to all parts of the Union. Frequently the 
local Chamber of Commerce receives from some far-off Eastern community 
a request for its plans, with a view to creating similar grounds. 

Free shelter houses, free telephone, free correspondence material, free 
bathing facilities and free water are provided visitors to the camp ground, 
which is kept as attractive in appearance as any of the city's parks. Gas 
for cooking is provided through meters. Almost yearly there is need of 
new shelter houses. 

The city is indebted to the Carpenters' Union for free labor in erect- 
ing these shelter houses. From the creation of the park, the carpenters have 
builded these shelters gratis. Nature has done the rest, causing the protect- 
ing vine to grow over and around them. 

The Marysville Women's Civic Improvement Club see to it that the 
Free Motor Park has an abundance of flowering shrubs, evergreen trees, 
rose bushes and every sort of plant. Two gardeners keep the walks and 
lawns spotless. In the height of the motoring season, a man is in attend- 
ance night and day. The visitor is made to go away shouting the hospitality 
of .the people of Marysville. Marysville is as proud of its Free Motor Park- 
as it is of its Free Library. 

List of the City's Breathing Spots 
Marysville's public parks, inclusive of the Plaza at the foot of E Street, 
number eleven. Their names and locations are as follows : Cortez Square, 
bounded by Fifth, Sixth, B and C Streets ; Miner's Square, bounded by 
Fourteenth, Fifteenth, Swezy and Sampson Streets ; Sacramento Square, 
bounded by Fourteenth, Fifteenth, B and C Streets ; Market Square, bounded 
by Fifteenth, Sixteenth, G and H Streets ; Sutter Square, bounded by Four- 
teenth, Fifteenth, L and M Streets ; Franklin Square, bounded by Fifth, 
Sixth, L and M Streets ; Napoleon Square, bounded by Fifth, Sixth, G and H 
Streets; Yuba Square, bounded by Eighth, Tenth, Yuba and Ramirez Streets; 
Washington Square, bounded by Ninth, Eleventh, E and F Streets ; and 
Lafayette Square, bounded by Ninth, Eleventh, J and K Streets. 

Fealty of a Fraternity 

In the Marysville City Cemetery stands a monument over a well-kept 
grave attesting the fealty of an Eastern fraternity for a brother. In the 
plot lie the remains of John Templeton McCarty, early-day attorney of 
Marysville, who died in this city on February 4, 1860. 

For many years the members of the college fraternity Phi Gamma Delta, 
away back in Brookville, Ind., had lost trace of John Templeton McCarty, 
their fraternity fellow. Finally, after the death of McCarty, they traced him 
to Marysville, and then learned of his demise. At once the fraternity became 
interested in his final resting-place, following a custom the members have 
of following a brother even beyond the death call ; and by order of the fra- 
ternity a headstone bearing this inscription now marks the grave : 


Born in Brookville, Indiana, August 28, 1828; 
died in Marysville, California, February 4, 1860. 
This memorial was erected to his memory by the 
College Fraternity of Phi Gamma Delta, of which 
he was a founder, and the influence of which, 
magnified beyond his fondest hopes, lives to en- 
noble his memory. 



Marysville residents early took to various amusements as a diversion ; 
and while at the start nothing more than fair talent was seen in the compan- 
ies of strollers, the patronage always was encouraging. The first public en- 
tertainment ever presented in Marysville was given by H. Rossiter. It con- 
sisted of a few legerdemain tricks and slack-wire dancing. The entertain- 
ment was given in the winter of 1850 in the ballroom of the St. Charles 
Hotel, corner of D and Third Streets. 

Shows and Showhouses 

Early in the summer of 1851, Dr. Robinson opened a spacious canvas 
theater on the corner of High and Second Streets, with a very fair vaudeville 
company, and was very successful. 

Following him came James Stark, the California tragedian, supported 
by Nesbitt McCron, an English actor of much merit, and Mrs. J. H. Kirby, 
who later became Mrs. Stark. The season was a good one for both mana- 
gers and audiences. 

In 1852, the somewhat celebrated George Chapman furnished some 
economical theatricals in a little room on First Street. The drama was still 
patronized, and the patience of the people exercised. 

In October of the same year, C. E. Bingham visited Marysville with a 
company and held forth in a bathhouse at the corner of D and Front Streets. 
His success was such that it was thought a theater might be sustained, but 
who would build it? It might be a failure, and money was paying five per 
cent a month interest. At last, however, two enterprising citizens — Seymour 
Pixie}-, architect, and William W. Smith, city clerk, entered upon the experi- 
ment. A neat and tastefully decorated theater was completed in December, 
and was opened by Bingham, who, though himself a good actor, had col- 
lected around him a company more numerous than talented. He did well 
for more than two months, which was considered a long season for so 
small a town. 

This theater was destroyed by fire in 1854, and- in its stead another show- 
house was erected on its ruins by R. A. Eddy. Ten years later, this latter 
theater, situated on the west side of D Street, between Second and Third, 
was razed by a fire that started in a clothing store on the lower floor. Dr. S. 
T. "Watts and Charles P. Henry, owners, lost heavily. 

The lot now occupied by the Elks' Home and the paint store of the 
Robinson-Brooks Company was next selected as a theater site. The building 
erected here served, under several ownerships, until June, 1903, when it, too, 
was burned low, from a fire that started in the Swain •& Hudson planing mill 
on the south. W. C. Swain was the then owner. When the Elks decided to 
build, they chose the Swain lot. 

The present Atkins Theater was built on the ruins of the planing mill, 
the citizens of Marysville giving to Frank Atkins, Sr., a bonus to engage in 
the enterprise, in order that there might be a continuance of the theatricals to 
which they had become accustomed. 

Marysville is particularly favored with visits from the best shows that 
visit the Coast, chiefly because of its splendid railroad connections, night 
and day. A troupe showing in San Francisco and desiring to "jump" to 
Portland, Ore., must lose at least one night en route. That night is generally 
given to Marysville, because of the fact that the troupe can make a stand 
here and catch a train Portland-bound that passes not long after midnight. 

Besides the big showhouse, Marysville supports two moving-picture 
houses at the present time. 


The Famed Intrepid Baseball Club 

Marysville always has leaned to sports of a cleanly nature — the uplift- 
ing, helpful sort — and the national game of baseball has always been in the 
lead. This city was the home of the famed Intrepid Baseball Club, which 
gained State-wide reputation in the seventies, eighties, and nineties. 

The club was formed on March 10, 1875, by George W. Elder, "Low" C. 
Williams and others. The members were Marysville young men who made 
no claim for qualifications above the amateur, on the diamond. Some of the 
players went East in 1884 and made good with Eastern clubs. George Cum- 
mings, pitcher, who gained the sobriquet of "Speedy George" because of the 
speed of his delivery, went to Harrisburg, Pa. ; Mike DePangher, catcher for 
the Intrepids, was called to Detroit, Mich. ; and Jack Cullen, also catcher, 
than whom there never was a more graceful player, went to Reading, Pa. 

Among the notable victories of the club were those won by the Intrepids 
in their games against the Eurekas of Sacramento, score 11 to 2 ; the Unions 
of Sacramento, score 12 to 3, in 1883; and the Enterprises of San Francisco, 
score 9 to 7, in 1885. Jack Cavanaugh of Chicago, half-brother of second- 
sacker Low C. Williams, played for Marysville in the last-mentioned game. 
Many games were played between the Intrepids and the Riversides of 

The Intrepids were defeated in San Francisco, in 1878, by the Eagles, 
score 10 to 0. Here the Marysville boys faced for the first time a curved- 
ball pitcher. His deliveries were truly puzzling, as the score plainly shows. 

The Intrepids continued as a club for about twelve years, and their 
strength always lay in their team work. Among the members were : George 
W. Elder, who afterwards became State purchasing agent and lived in Sac- 
ramento ; Lowell C. Williams, who became mayor of Marysville, and who 
now holds a responsible position with the Marysville Water Company ; 
George B. Baldwin, who became first mayor of Nome, Alaska, and who now 
is with the Pacific Gas & Electric Company in Sacramento ; James M. Cre- 
min, who later was State statistician, State printer, and a member of the 
State Reclamation Board ; and John McDonald, who is with the Sacramento 
fire department as an engineer. John' Baugh, better known as Barr, was the 
first baseman. He stood six feet, four inches high ; so the high throws did 
not bother him. Then there were Jack and Jim Haggerty, Kelly Derrickson, 
James Kertchem, Les Jennings, Chub Casey, and Phil J. Divver. Hank Ly- 
don was also a member in later years. 

Low Williams and Chub Casey still reside in Marysville. Though not 
so active as in the days of the Intrepids, their hearts are still in the game. 
Specific plays made in .the several important contests in which the Intrepids 
figured, are still recalled when this pair play with the "hot stove" league. 

Harvest Festival in Marysville's Chinatown 
Chinatown in Marysville is one of the oldest Chinese settlements in the 
United States. At one time it was the headquarters for about 3000 Celestials 
employed in the mines, and later in railroad building. During the gold rush, 
the Chinese came in droves ; casting their lot with the white man, they 
were with him in his privations and in his successes. Five dollars a day, an 
amount often dug from the earth in a day's work, looked good to one who had 
been glad to earn ten cents a day, or even less, in his native country. For 
many years Ah Fee, a merchant wdio came early to Marysville, -was, the go- 
between for the whites and Chinese. 

Those were the days when the Chinese had their annual celebration of 
the Harvest Festival, a holiday that ranked with the Fourth of July celebra- 
tion of the whites, and which brought quite as many people to the city as 


did the Independence Day festivities or the circus. There always was a big 
parade, with the big dragon, of nation-wide fame, as a feature. Fifty men 
were required to carry the silken, jointed, and high-spirited reptile. Three 
or four others were employed to prance in front of Mr. Dragon, waving in 
front of him a model of a fish, intended to tease him into writhings, which 
writhings were produced by the carriers of the "big fish," a half block long. 
The high priests, representatives of the tongs, and delegations from the Chin- 
ese lodges took part in the parade. Delegations depicting the warriors of old 
brought up the rear, headed by a Chinese band. 

The day's ceremonies centered in Bock Ky Church, an edifice which still 
stands at the corner of Front and D Streets. The "bomb throwing," which in 
the earlier days was accompanied by battles calling for the interference of 
the police, is still a custom. At the explosion of the bomb, a ring of bamboo, 
to which is attached a strip of red cloth bearing a number, is sent heaven- 
ward. The contestants on the ground reach for this ring in its descent, and 
must catch it before it touches the earth. From the characters on the red 
strip of cloth, the "catchee" learns the prize that has come to him — gener- 
ally considered as a token of good luck. The man who catches the capital 
prize has charge of the church, and also receives certain emoluments during 
the next twelve months. 

Early Vigilance Committees 

Yuba County, like all other districts of California settled in the early 
days, was forced to, have its Vigilance Committee. Legal proceedings were 
carried on under the old Mexican laws. With the insufficient force of officers 
provided, it was difficult to apprehend a criminal ; and under the laws in 
force, it was quite as difficult to convict a man of crime. The miners, real- 
izing this fact and knowing the consequence of leniency toward the criminal 
class, took the law into their own hands. If a crime was committed, the 
neighboring miners quickly captured the suspected person; a judge was ap- 
pointed, a jury was summoned and sworn, attorneys (unlearned in the law) 
were provided, and the trial proceeded with all the gravity and formality of 
a legally organized court. The testimony was heard, arguments were made, 
and the case was then placed in the hands of the jury. Their' decision was 
final ; and upon it depended, in most instances, the life of the prisoner, for 
hanging in those days was a favorite and common punishment, not only for 
murder, but even for stealing. 

Soon after the organization of the celebrated Vigilance Committee in 
San Francisco, the people of Marysville decided to unite and form a similar 
institution for mutual protection. The tendency of the actions in the metrop- 
olis was to drive the criminal class into the interior cities ; and is was for 
this reason, partly, that the Vigilance Committee was formed in Marysville. 

It was in July, 1853, that the local committee organized, with addresses 
by prominent citizens upon the need for the body. At a meeting of the 
Marysville committee held on August 19, 1851, the following resolutions 
were passed, which clearly showed the spirit of the organization : 

"Resolved, that this committee will never lend its aid to any man 
or set of men, for the purpose of disorganizing established government or 
nullifying the laws ; 

"Resolved, that our aim and object is to create order in society, and not 
to foster anarchy and confusion." 

About August of the same year, a Vigilance Committee was organized 
at Barton's Bar on the Yuba River, probably growing out of the action taken 
in punishing a man named Reynolds, a gun thief. 


On October 13, 1851, a special committee was appointed by the Marys- 
ville Vigilance Committee to make assessments, to collect the same, to de- 
fray the debt, and to dispose of the property of the organization. A com- 
mittee of ten was made a standing executive committee. The general com- 
mittee, finding no more work to perform, ceased to function. 

Officers of the Police Department 

In November, 1853, William H. Lent, later a San Francisco capitalist, 
was appointed first captain of police by the city council of Marysville. In 
1854 the police force was one marshal, one captain and eight policemen. Now 
it is composed of the chief, six policemen and a night watchman, the latter 
being paid by the merchants through private subscriptions. The council has 
the power to name such other policemen as they see fit, and extras are often 
named in emergencies. 

Only a few of the present generation living in Yuba and Sutter Counties 
can hark back to the days when! M. R. ("Mart") Casad was head of the po- 
lice force of the city of Marysville, working with one or two regular officers 
in the beginning, and sometimes assisted by special men, including the 
Chinatown policeman and a constable. Casad first appeared as city marshal 
in 1872. Those who preceded him in the office were: A. S. Miller, 1851 and 
1852; L. L. Springer, 1853; S. P. Wells, part of 1853 and of 1854; J. W. 
Easterling, 1854 and 1855; I. M. Anderson, 1855 and 1856; A. W. Nightin- 
gill, 1856 and 1857; A. J. Barkley, 1857 to 1861; A. W. Johnston, 1862 and 
1863; P. W. Winkley, 1864 and 1865; J. C. Donley, 1866 and 1867; G. R. 
Nightingill, 1868 and 1869; Samuel Garber, 1870 and 1871. Mart Casad served 
from 1872 to 1880, when he was succeeded by M. C. ("Mike") Hogan, who 
had served as police officer under him. Hogan served one term, when he was 
defeated for the office by James A. Maben. The latter held the office — most 
of the time without opposition — for nearly thirty years, until his death. 
Maben's successor was Charles J. McCoy, the present sheriff of Yuba 
County. When McCoy was promoted to the county office, he was succeeded 
by Chester A. Smith, the present head of the police department. 

During the decade when Mart Casad was marshal, he had as subordinate 
officers, with power of arrest, Hank L". McCoy, who afterward became sheriff, 
Jim Devolt, J. B. ("Jim") Leman, John Cunningham, Patrick Corr, J. F. 
Smiley, P. P. Polley, John Colford, E. E. Van Sickle, H. A. ("Fawn") Clark, 
and G. W. Harris, who was a special officer employed at the theater. 

In the next decade, the eighties, the following names appear on the 
record : D. P. Derrickson, H. A. Clark, John Colford, M. C. Hogan, William 
T. Gore, E. B. Morse, Robert Finn, John L. Murphy, and John Spillane. Finn 
and Murphy resigned to take positions on the San Francisco police depart- 
ment's force, both having made local records deserving of the promotions. 
H. J. McCoy succeeded Murphy. 

During the nineties, Spillane continued in office for a short time, when 
he too was called to the San Francisco force. At Spillane's promotion, W. C. 
Burroughs was added to the force ; and he had as co-workers H. J. McCoy, 
Gus Musselman, Oscar L. Meek, and J. E. Parmelee. Others who served 
in that decade were J. H. Single, present under-sheriff, and Charles J. Becker, 
present councilman. 

New names appearing on the record between 1900 and 1910 were: 
Charles J. McCoy, John Colford, Jr., Erwin Sayles, and Chester A. Smith, 
who is the present police head. Sayles became under-sheriff under Charles J. 
McCoy. He died in Eos Angeles in the fall of 1922, following an extended 
illness that forced his removal from this section. 

Between 1910 and 1920, new additions were: Henry Blue, present coun- 
cilman, John Sperbeck, B. J. Chapman, Henry Harrington, James Mock, 


Francis M. Heenan, Richard Barrett, William Booth, and S. C. ("Steve") 
Howser. Of this set of officers, three gave up their lives in the performance 
of their duties — John Sperbeck, James Mock, and Francis M. Heenan. A de- 
tailed account of their killing, in the period between 1915 and 1922, is given 
in the chapter entitled "Crimes and Criminals." 

Since 1920, the officers who have served, and those still serving, are : 
William Booth, S. C. Howser, A. E. Allread, Dennis McAuliffe, Thomas 
Bennett, J. Ed Wemple, Lewis M. Allen, Henry Faul, and Samuel Johnson. 
The last named, and also William Finley, George Anderson, George K. 
Meyers, William Anderson, O. W. Holland, and Eewis M. Allen, served 
the city of Marysville as traffic officers from time to time. George K. Meyers 
met injuries during his term as traffic officer, which later caused his death in 
the southern portion of the State. 

Through all the years since the organization of the Marysville police 
department its officers have won enviable spurs in their trying work. Im- 
portant captures have been made for other sections by the local force ; and 
the reputation of the department not only has become State-wide, but reaches 
beyond the boundaries of California. 

Mayors and Aldermen 

1851 and 1852: Mayor, S. M. Miles; aldermen, E. W. Ransom, S. C. 
Stambaugh, F. W. Shaeffer, B. Tallman, J. G. Smith, and D. W. C. Rice. 

1852 and 1853: Mayor, John H. Jewett; aldermen, E. Garst. Edwards 
Woodruff, H. Beach, S. A. Duval, D. W. C. Rice, D. C. Haskin, B. Green, 
and W. H. Chapman. 

1853 and 1854: Mayor, S. M. Miles ; aldermen, I. A. Eaton, E. Woodruff, 
W. C. Armstrong, J. A. Paxton, H. P. Osgood, W. T. Fonda, C. McLaugh- 
lin, and E. Slosson. 

1854 and 1855 : Mayor, G. E. Winters ; aldermen, J. C. Fall, E. Garst, 
J. A. Paxton, W. B. Thornburg, H. P. Osgood, J. T. Dickey, F. C. Chase, 
and A. Ellison. 

1855 and 1856: Mayor, James Allen; aldermen, William Hawley, J. E. 
Galloway, H. B. Summers C. H. Hedges, W. P. Thompson, W. P. Miller, 
W. K. Hudson, A. J. Lucas, C. G. Moxley, B. F. Mann, E. E. Stephens, and 
P. M. Chandler. 

1856 and 1857 : Mayor, Levi Hite ; aldermen, J. E. Galloway, J. H. 
Tennant, I. Mears, J. C. Wilson, J. A. Paxton, P. W. Randle, S. C. Tompkins, 
S. Paine, M. Fuller, H. J. Booth, M. Brumagim, and E. Teegarden. 

1857: Mayor, S. C. Tompkins; aldermen, F. F. Lowe, E. Garst, John S. 
Love, W. B. Thornburg, J. A. Paxton, George F. Thomas, E. Woodruff, W. 
C. Dougherty, J. T. Dickey, W. K. Hudson, A. Putnam, and J. T. Campbell. 

1858: Mayor, Peter Decker; aldermen, S. W. Selby, F. L. Hatch, W. P. 
Weaks, Thad Dean, W. P. Miller, John S. Love, W. C. Stokes, George W. 
Aubery, H. M. Heuston, E. D. Wheeler, E. Teegarden, and A. Ellison. 

1859: Mayor, William Singer; aldermen, John H. Jewett, T. P. Otis, 
J. H. Tennant, John S. Love, J. S. Eshom, L. Mann, W. C. Stokes, P. J. 
Welsh, C. B. Fowler, A. Ellison, C. Covillaud, and Joshua Davis. 

1860 and 1861 : Mayor, C. B. Fowler ; aldermen, John S. Love, W. P. 
Weaks, A. Walker, L. Mann, J. S. Eshom, O. Wood, J. T. Dickey, A. M. 
Shields, W. K. Hudson, A. J. Hann, Joshua Davis, and C. L- Thomas. 

1862 and 1863: Mayor, C. B. Fowler; aldermen, William Hawley, P. 
W. Winkley, J. B. Emmal, S. Moody, J. H. Lassiter, N. D. Rideout, A. D. 
Starr, and John T. Bayley. 


1864 and 1865 : Mayor, C. B. Fowler ; aldermen, William Hawley, W. 

C. Ogden, C. P. Pollard, T. W. McCready, William L. Lawrence, Jacob 
Tomb, S. H. Bradley, and C. Meyers. 

1866 and 1867 : Mayor, W. K. Hudson ; aldermen, William Hawley, E. 
Van Muller, George North, R. G. Stanwood, J. H. jewett, J. Trayner, A. D. 
Starr, and D. E. Knight. 

1868 and 1869: Mayor, Charles M. Gorham : aldermen, Sanford Blod- 
gett, A. W. Torrey, P. W. Winkley, J. O. Foster, Dr. S. J. S. Rogers, G. B. 
Hornish (vice Frank Hudson, resigned), J. B. Roblin, and S. Cummins. 

1870 and 1871 : Mayor, C. M. Gorham ; aldermen, A. W. Torrey, S. 
Blodgett, Ed Harrington, James Williamson, Dr. S. J. S. Rogers, John L. 
Steward, Dr. E. Parish, and C. N. Jenkins. 

1872 and 1873: Mayor, C. M. Gorham; aldermen, H. B. AVilliamson, 
A. J. Cumberson, A. J. Binney, W. T. Ellis, Jacob Tomb, F. A. Hill, C. 
Meyers, and S. H. Bradley. 

1874 and 1875: Mayor, William Hawley; aldermen H. B. Williamson, 
W. C. Shaffer, C. N. Jenkins, T. C. Martin, W. L. Lawrence, Tacob Tomb, 

D. E. Knight, and S. H. Bradley. 

Mayors and Councilmen 

In 1875, a legislative act reduced the number of aldermen, who there- 
after were called "members of the common council," to four — one from each 
ward, instead of two. 

1876 and 1877: Mayor, Dr. C. E. Stone; councilmen. G. W. Peacock, A. 
C. Bingham, Dr. S. J. S. Rogers, and James Cook. 

1878 and 1879: Mayor, N. D. Rideout; councilmen, George W. Pine, P. 
C. Slattery, Frank D. Hudson, and Fred A. Grass. 

1880 and 1881 : Mayor, Dr. C. E. Stone ; councilmen, John P. Swift, E. 
C. Ross, J. H. Krause, J. A. Saul (July 6, 1881, vice J. H. Krause, resigned), 
and John Peffer. 

1882 and 1883: Mayor, A. C. Bingham; councilmen, Henry Block, A. D. 
Cutts, Jerry A. Saul, and George S. Cooley. 

1884 and 1885 : Mayor, A. C. Bingham ; councilmen, J. B. Fuller, A. J. 
Wightman, J. A. Saul, and H. R. D. Townsend. 

1886 and 1887: Maj'or, Fred H. Greely ; councilmen, A. W. Lewis, 
George W. Elder, Frank D. Hudson, and D. J. Kertchem. 

1888 and 1889: Mayor, P. C. Slattery; councilmen, George F. Adams, 
Joseph Heyl, Isaac W. Bradley, and V. C. Putman. 

1890 and 1891 : Mayor, J. U. Hofstetter ; councilmen, H. M. Harris, N. 
V. Nelson, David Condon, and John Peffer. 

1892 and 1893 : Mayor, Norman A. Rideout ; councilmen, George W. 
Peacock, J. B. Fuller (April 3, 1893, vice G. W. Peacock, deceased), R. W. 
Skinner, Ed H. Hudson, and Alex C. Irwin. 

1894 and 1895 : Mayor, W. T. Ellis, Jr. ; councilmen, W. F. Kelly, Mar- 
tin Sullivan, Lowell C. Williams, and Bernard Mehl. 

1896 and 1897: Mayor, W. T. Ellis, Jr., reelected; councilmen, W. F. 
Kelly, Martin Sullivan, Lowell C. Williams, and Bernard Mehl, all reelected. 

1898 and 1899: Mayor, Charles S. Brooks; councilmen, Adam Euler, 
F. W. Potter, L. C. AVilliams, and Henry Sieber. 

1900 and 1901 : Mayor, Charles S. Brooks ; councilmen, J. C. Baldwin, 
J. W. Steward, G. W. Hammerly, and Phil J. Divver. 

1902 and 1903: Mayors, Lowell C. Williams and G. W. Harney (vice 
Lowell C. AVilliams, who resigned on account of ill health after serving five 
months of term ; Harney was chosen by the council) ; councilmen, Thomas 
J. O'Brien, Joseph P. Heyl, N. V. Nelson, and Phil J. Divver. 


1904 and 1905 : Mayor, George R. Eckart : councilmen, G. AY. Hall, 
Michael Katzner, Peter J. Delay, and James L. Hare. 

1906 and 1907 : Mayor, G. AY. Hall ; councilmen, George F. Herzog, 
C. Frank Aaron, Peter T. Delay, and Tohn P. Herbert. 

1908 and 1909 : Mayor, Peter J. Delay ; councilmen, William F. Corey, 
Toseph A. Haubrich. Henry A. Bruce, and John Gavin. 

1910 and 1911: Mayor. G. AY. Hall ; 'councilmen, AV. F. Corey, S. D. 
Johnson, R. E. Bevan, and John AA^. Mock. 

1912 and 1913 : Mayor, Harry E. Hyde ; councilmen, Matt Arnoldy, 
S. D. Johnson, R. E. Bevan and John AY. Mock. 

1914 and 1915: Mayor, Harry E. Hvde : councilmen, Matt Arnoldy, 
J. F. Tapley. R. E. Bevan, and John AV. Mock. 

1916 and 1917: Mayor, Harry E. Hyde; councilmen, C. E. Swift, Frank 
M. Booth, Thomas F. Mathews, and F. E. Smith. 

1918 and 1919: Mayor, Matt Arnoldy: councilmen, C. E. Swift, Frank 
M. Booth, Thomas F. Mathews, and F. E. Smith, all reelected. 

Mayors and Councilmen under New Charter 

The election of the spring of 1920 was held under a new charter, which 
provided for the election of five councilmen at large, instead of four council- 
men elected by- wards as provided in the old charter. Three of the council- 
men were chosen for a long term of four years' duration, and two for the 
short term of two years. The candidate receiving the largest number of 
votes in this election was made mayor. 

Elected in 1920 : Mayor, Thomas Mathews : councilmen, long term, 
Thomas Mathews, Frank M. Booth, and George W. Richards ; short term. 
Matt Arnoldy- and Leslie B. Crook. 

In the spring of 1922, Frank M. Booth was promoted to the office of 
mayor, and in the spring of the following year the honor was conferred upon 
George W. Richards, through authority given the board under the new char- 
ter. At the close of the terms of Matt Arnoldy and Leslie B. Crook, Charles 
J. Becker and Henry Blue were chosen to the vacancies by the electors. 

On December 17, 1923, George W. Richards resigned the office of mayor 
on account of the press of private business. He was succeeded by former 
Mayor Frank M. Booth upon the vote of the council. The vacancy caused 
by Booth's promotion was filled by the appointment of L. A. AA'illiams by 
the council. 

On January 21, 1924, a municipal election was held to fill the expiring 
terms of Frank M. Booth. Thomas Mathews and L. A. A\ r illiams. Of eleven 
candidates nominated, James C. Baldwin, with 785 votes, John W. AA'atson. 
with 618 votes, and AA'alter A. Kynoch, with 614 votes, were elected. They- 
were inaugurated into office on February 4, 1924. 

E. B. Stanwood having resigned as city- clerk on January 15. the first 
official act of the new council was to elect George A\ r . Richards to the 
vacancy, which had been filled temporarily, from Stanwood's retirement to 
February 4, by Miss Elice AV. Gern, a deputy clerk under Stanwood. 

Other City Officials 

Recorders : Between the years 1855 and 1860, the office of recorder 
existed. Those who filled that position were : G. N. Mott, S. B. Mulford, 
J. T. McCarty, J. O. Goodwin, and J. I. Kyle. 

Police Judges : The office of police judge was created in 1876 and has 
been filled by r the following incumbents: C. M. Gorham, H. S. Hoblitzell, 
Thomas H. Kernan, Samuel Garber, R. R. Raish, and W. E. Langdon. 

City Clerks and Assessors: The office of city clerk, since 1851 to date, 
has been filled by the following: R. H. Tavlor, AA*. W. Smith, George C. 


Gorham, C. M. Patterson, C. M. Gorham, B. Eilerman, A. Gibson, H. Barrett, 
Michael Fitzgerald, George W. Pine, F. E. Smith, A. H. White, James L. 
Hare, George W. Richards, E. B. Stanwood, and George W. Richards (re- 
turned). The office of assessor was combined with this office until the 
adoption of the new city charter in 1920. 

City Marshals : A. S. Miller, E. E. Springer, S. P. Wells, J. W. Easter- 
ling, E M. Anderson, A. W. Nightingill, A. J. Barkley, A. W. Johnston, P. 
W. Winkley, J. C. Donley, G. R. Nightingill, Samuel Garber, M. R. Casad, 
Michael C. Hogan, J. A. Maben, Charles J. McCoy, and Chester A. Smith. 

City Attorneys : F. J. McCann, J. J. Foster, G. N. Swezy, Charles Lind- 
ley, W. C. Belcher, I. S. Belcher, J. G. Eastman, C. E. Filkins, William G. 
Murphy, Ed A. Belcher, C. A. Webb, Wallace Dinsmore, W. H. Carlin, A. 
H. Redington, E. B. Stanwood, and W. P. Rich. 

City Treasurers : L. Cunningham, M. Brumagim, S. P. Wells, A. G. 
Souk, G. M. Scott, A. D. Starr, J. W. Moore, W. E. Williams, W. T. Ellis, 
James Trayner, E. C. Ross, A. C. Bingham, Justus Greely, C. S. Brooks, 
George R. Eckart, W. H. Parks, Jr., and W. B. Swain. 

City Surveyors and City Engineers : Early-day city surveyors were : 
W. Wescoatt, Joseph Johnston, H. H. Sanford, and Jason R. Meek. This 
office later was made that of city engineer, and it has been filled by L. B. 
Crook and William M. Meek. 



The school system of the city of Marysvilk had its birth in a sheet- 
iron building eighteen feet in length and ten feet in width. The teacher was 
Rev. S. V. Blakeslee, who conducted a private school. When he opened his 
school, in May, 1850, he had nine pupils, male and female, ranging from 
eleven to seventeen years. After a session of three weeks, he was obliged 
to discontinue on account of the great heat and the uncomfortable quarters. 
From this modest start, the schools of the county have grown to thirty- 
seven in number, including a union high school in Marysvilk with branches 
at Smartsvilk, Dobbins and Camptonvilk, and a union high school in Wheat- 
land ; and instead of one teacher, managing his private school, the number 
of teachers has now grown to ninety throughout the county. This includes 
a kindergarten school, connected with the Marysvilk Grammar School. 

Sometime during the latter part of 1851, a school was established by 
Rev. Mr. Thatcher in the Presbyterian Church on D Street. 


Organization and Growth 

During the first years of the growth and settlement of Marysvilk, the 
population was composed almost entirely of males. But in the latter part 
of 1851, and the first part of 1852, several gentlemen brought from their 
Eastern homes their wives and families. It was then that the need of pub- 
lic schools became apparent; and on May 4, 1852, a meeting was held in 
the recorder's office, of citizens interested in establishing a free public school. 


The attendance .at this meeting was small ; but a committee was appointed 
to submit at the next meeting the basis of a plan for the organization of a 
school association. The meeting adjourned to the 6th, and on that evening 
John H. Jewett, afterward mayor, presided. The attendance was large, 
and definite action was taken. A committee of two from each ward was 
appointed to draft a plan and make an estimate on a house for school pur- 
poses, and to solicit subscriptions amounting to $10,000, for that purpose. 
Before taking final action, the promoters made an offer to the Methodists, 
who already had a school at a cost of $5000. to join them ; but the sugges- 
tion was declined. 

In the middle of June, 1852, an ordinance was passed, establishing a 
system of common schools in the city of Marysville. In July, the first public 
school was opened. Since that time, with the exception of the necessary 
vacations, teaching in the public schools of the county has been continuous. 
The basement of the Methodist Episcopal Church was fitted up, and the 
public schools started there. 

The school building at B and Seventh Streets, which still stands and is 
used for manual training, municipal band practice, and other purposes, was 
completed in 1858. It was 66 feet long, 56 feet wide, and two stories high. 
Later it was remodeled. In the beginning, there were four school rooms and 
one recitation room. The contractor was J. A. Steel. 

In 1857 the county had thirteen school districts, as follows : Marys- 
ville, Bear River, Oregon House, Peoria House, Foster Bar, Pleasant Grove, 
Linda, Keystone, Camptonville, Rose Bar, Browns Valley, Bear River No. 2, 
and Linda No. 2. 

Before 1862, the public schools were divided into six departments, of 
which the following were located in the then new building at B and Seventh 
Streets. Grammar Department, Boys' Intermediate Department, Girls" In- 
termediate Department, and Girls' Primary Department. Two primary 
classes of boys occupied the rooms in the basement of the Methodist Church. 
The number in attendance during the year 1861 was over 300, with an aver- 
age daily attendance of 250. 

In the spring of 1870, a wooden building, finished in imitation of stone, 
was erected on E Street, corner of Seventh Street, W. C. Swain being the 
architect. It cost $10,000, and was furnished at an additional outlay of $1500. 
The girls occupied this building. This is the same structure which was 
recently removed to a lot north of the Marysville Union High School, facing 
on Seventh Street. 

A school for colored children was kept in the basement of Mt. Olivet 
Baptist Church on Sixth Street, corner of High Street. Miss Carrie Oldfield 
was the teacher. 

Marysville Eclectic Institute 
The Marysville Eclectic Institute was opened on August 18, 1853, in the 
Methodist Episcopal Church by Rev. James H. Bristow and wife. They 
announced that the various branches of a thorough American education 
were to be taught and the discipline was to be prompt, yet mild. Spelling, 
reading and writing were taught for five dollars a month ; arithmetic (mental 
and practical), geography, definitions, and critical reading, six dollars a 
month ; and English, grammar, logic, and rhetoric, eight dollars a month. 
In the fall C. C. Cummings became the principal. 
Poston Seminary 
This school was opened in November of 1857, on E Street, between 
Seventh and Eighth Streets, by Miss E. C. Poston. Subsequently it was 


removed to the corner of D and Sixth Streets, where it flourished until the 
late seventies, under Miss Poston and others. On its site now stands the 
residence of Dr. J. L. Sullivan. 

How the Eugenia C. Poston Seminary came to be instituted in Marys- 
ville is best told in a sketch written by Miss Poston not long before her 
death, which sketch is in the possession of Judge Eugene Poston McDaniel 
of the superior court, whose middle name came to him through a warm 
friendship that grew up between Dr. R. H. McDaniel, early-day physician, 
his family, and Miss Poston. Miss Poston wrote : 

"My work as a teacher in California began in January, 1856, in a coun- 
try public school located near the Sutter Buttes, within the limits of the 
present Sutter City. The position was obtained for me by George Brittan, 
an influential rancher in the vicinity, and trustee of the school. His children 
were my scholars then, and his two daughters were afterwards with us at 
the Seminary. The early death of the eldest, Mary, was a great loss to me. 
The friendship of this family, so valuable at the beginning of my life 
struggle in this new and strange country, has continued through all the 
subsequent years. 

"The experience gained in this school — ungraded, of mixed classes, boys 
and girls of different ages — was ultimately of great service to me, giving 
an insight into the special needs of California girls, differing even then 
from their sisters on the Atlantic Coast. 

"The term of teaching was brought to an abrupt close by an accident — 
a fall from my horse, and the breaking of a collar-bone. This led to an 
acquaintance with Drs. R. H. McDaniel and E. T. Wilkins, and other promi- 
nent citizens of Marysville, the result of which acquaintance was the erection 
of the Poston Seminary in that place. 

"The following letter from Dr. McDaniel gives somewhat in detail the 
preliminary steps by him, in view of my opening a school in Marysville. 
and the considerations that rendered that city preferable to Nevada, of which 
there had been some question : 

" 'Marysville, July 9, 1857. 
"Dear Miss Poston : 

" T received yours of the 4th instant, and should have answered imme- 
diately, but I wished time to make the necessary inquiries in relation to the 
chance of your establishing a paying school in this place. From all I can 
learn, you can start in with a school that will pay you $150 per month, with 
the chance, if you give satisfaction (of which I have no doubt), of greatly 
increasing your income. This place presents a better field for teaching than 
Nevada, for the reason that it has more permanent inhabitants and the 
winters are less severe. The snows of Nevada, which often last for five or 
six months, must of necessity interrupt the progress of a school. Here-, if 
you chose to do so, you can teach the whole year. 

" T have made inquiries, and find that you can have ten music pupils 
at once — Miss Thompson, the two daughters of Dr. Geller, Miss Nye, Miss 
Magruder, Miss Selby, Miss Davis, Mrs. Brumagim and Nina. All the above 
parties expect to pay ten dollars per month. They can be depended on. 

" T have spoken to a builder here in regard to a room, and he agrees 
to put up an academy, 20 feet by 40 feet, of brick, hard finish, with a good 
well, etc., for $45 per month, the house to be situated on E Street, between 
Seventh and Eighth, only three blocks from our house, good brick pavement 
all the way. The house can be ready to go into, thirty days from the 
time you say you will take it. Write me what you think of it, so that 
I can gfive an answer. 


" 'I am not over sanguine in relation to any matter, as I know to some 
extent the genus homo and know that they are little to be trusted : but at 
the same time I feel assured that you can make a handsome support here and, 
without misfortune, can lay up in a few years a competency for a rainy day. 

" 'Respectfully your friend, 

'"R. H. McDaniel. 

" 'P. S. — I expect you will have to send this letter to my wife to read 
for you, as no one else can read my handwriting.' " 

"An answer expressing thanks for Dr. McDaniel's kindly interest, and 
agreeing to the proposed arrangement with builder, was sent without delay. 
The architect, Thomas Seaward (grandfather of Mrs. Elden Bryan of Sutter 
County), had the building finished in thirty days. Friends, Mr. C. C. Good- 
win and others, had the rooms fitted with necessary furniture, and in Sep- 
tember the school was opened. 

"One bright morning in September, 1857, a group of young girls with 
some of their parents assembled in the just completed Seminary on E Street, 
to greet the new teacher. The eager, inquiring faces come before me now, 
and the surroundings — the large hall, the platform and desk and chair for 
teacher, the scholars' desks, the blackboards, the little music room in the 
rear — I see them all. Truly grateful for the kindly welcome, I felt yet more 
deeply the confidence placed in me — a stranger and untried — by these par- 
ents in entrusting me with the training of their daughters, the future women 
of California — a work of vital importance to a State still in the formative 
period. And I vowed on that first day, God helping, to be true to the best 
interests of those given into my charge. 

"As our numbers increased, the lack of yard room was keenly felt. A 
change became imperative; and in 1863, counseled by friends, I bought the 
Lindley property on D Street, and a smaller lot cornering on D and Sixth 
Streets. On the latter a one-story brick building was erected for school pur- 
poses, and the residence of Judge Lindley was occupied by the boarding- 
school department, music classes, etc. Thus, in 1863, w r e found ourselves 
located under our own 'vine and fig-tree' in as homelike a corner as was 
ever dignified with the title of Seminary. The Marysville courthouse bound- 
ing our view on one side, we felt ourselves under the special protection of 
the officers of the law, and indeed our grateful acknowledgements are due 
them for many, many kindnesses. 

"With the enlargement of our premises, the school grew rapidly. The 
rancher on the plains sent his daughters ; the miner in the foothills sent 
his daughters, and his 'nuggets' ; towns far and near — Smartsville, Grass 
Valley, Nevada, Downieville, Shasta, etc. — gave their girls and their good- 
will. We grew apace." 

State Reform School 

Marysville, in 1859, became a contender for the State Reform School, 
which an act of the legislature, in the session of that year, provided should be 
instituted. Up to that time Marysville had been sadly neglected as regarded 
State favors, and so was considered, by other places seeking the prize, as 
having the preference. 

The common council, at a meeting held on November 7, 1859, appointed, 
as a committee. Aldermen Mann, Covillaud and Fowler, who, in conjunction 
with a citizens' committee, were to attend to the interests of Marysville in 
the matter. In December, 1859, the State commissioners reported that they 
had selected a site for the school, the spot chosen being 100 acres of land 
on Feather River, about five miles north of Marysville, and owned by Charles 
Covillaud. This land had been surveyed and purchased by the city of Marys- 
ville, and conveyed to the State by a deed executed December 6, 1859. 


The next legislature passed an act for the erection of a building for a 
State Reform School. Hon. William H. Parks framed, introduced, and 
secured the passage of the bills necessary. At the same session John Lowery, 
Nelson Wescoatt, and H. S. Foushee were elected a board of trustees, and 
$30,000 were appropriated for the erection of buildings. 

Although the appropriation fell short of the amount needed, three stories 
and a basement were built, and the building was partly enclosed by a high 
brick wall. The legislature of 1861 made a further appropriation of $25,000, 
which served to make the interior arrangements more complete and finished. 
During the erection of the building, Mr. Foushee died, and John C. Pelton 
was appointed to fill the vacancy. He resigned shortly afterwards, and was 
succeeded by John C. Fall. 

The dedicatory exercises were held on December 2, 1861, and consisted 
of addresses by John Lowery, president of the board of trustees, and Hon. 
Jesse O. Goodwin. The superintendents were J. C. Pelton, who served for 
twenty months ; George C. Gorham, for two years ; J. C. Sargent, for fifteen 
months ; and H. S. Hoblitzell. The latter had been a teacher in the school, 
and was elected superintendent in February, 1865. He served for a little 
over three years, until the breaking up of the institution in May, 1868. The 
trustees during the last years of the existence of the school were William 
Hawley, William H. Parks, and Charles M. Gorham. 

The only inmates were boys ; one girl was sent from Sacramento, but 
there being no suitable accommodations, a place was found for her with a 
family in Marysville. The largest roll at any one time numbered fifty-four. 
There were two classes of inmates, those confined for criminal offenses, 
and those placed there by parents or guardians for reformation. Religious 
services were conducted by pastors of Marysville and visiting clergymen. 

When great obstacles' were met in obtaining appropriations from the 
legislature, the beginning of the end came to the institution. It is claimed 
that the breaking up of the school was effected through the influence of 
the managers of the San Francisco Industrial Home. Finally, the land and 
buildings, by an act of the legislature, were donated to the city of Marys- 
ville, and subsequently sold for $6000 to James Strain, the owner of the 
adjoining land. After the removal of the boys, the premises were abandoned 
and thieves entered, carrying off many valuable articles. After much delay, 
the furniture, library and other property were conveyed to Marysville and 
sold at auction, the nominal sum of $200 being realized. 

During the superintendency of H. S. Hoblitzell, Mrs. Hoblitzell greatly 
aided her husband by her voluntary assistance in giving moral and religious 
training to the youths consigned to his keeping. Mrs. Hoblitzell is still 
living, and is now making her home with a son in Seattle, Wash. 

Knoxville Institute 
At Brownsville, on the western slope of the Sierras, thirty-two miles 
northeast from Marysville, was located an institution of learning in the late 
seventies. It was under the proprietorship of Mr. and Mrs. M. Knox; and 
Prof. E. K. Hill, who had served as principal of the Marysville High School, 
was given the general management and control. The design was to make 
it a school complete in itself, from the lowest primary instruction to a full 
high school course, crowned with complete courses in the sciences and arts, 
and in literature and the modern languages ; from which branched off short 
courses in training for business, and preparation for college in Latin and 
Greek. The departments of instruction included the preparatory, high school 
and scientific, business, languages and music. Besides these, a normal course 
had also been instituted. The Normal Institute was open for six weeks 


during the summer vacation. Botanical analysis, botanical drawing, and 
the collection of herbariums were included as specialties in the curriculum. 
Eugene P. McDaniel, present judge of the superior court of Yuba 
County, was a student in this institution. 

Other Private Schools 

Miss Jane Jones opened a school in 1870 in the Flathman Building, 
southwest corner of D and Sixth Streets, on the site now occupied by the 
residence of J. A. Bilhartz. In the fall of 1876, the school was moved to 
the building formerly occupied by Miss Poston. Miss Jones continued this 
school until chosen city librarian, a position she held until her death. 

Mrs. S. M. Miles, widow of the first mayor of the city; opened a school 
on Eighth Street opposite the Baptist Church in 1874. This was called 
the Marysville Select School. 

Mrs. L,. S. Southworth was another who conducted a private school in 
Marysville. That was in the eighties and nineties. Her home and study- . 
rooms were in a building on the east side of C Street, between Sixth and 
Seventh Streets. 

Mrs. Kate M. Wilkins also conducted a private school for a number of 
years, making a specialty of preparing prospective teachers for their tests. 
Encouraged by her success along this line, Mrs. Wilkins later removed to 
San Francisco, where she still is engaged in teaching. 

The Chinese send their children to the public schools, and also support, 
at intervals, schools in their own section, where the reading and writing of 
the Chinese language are taught. 

Marysville High School 

The Marysville High School was organized by the board of education 
on September 25, 1871. The first Monday in October was set for the open- 
ing of the first term, in the building then located on the southeast corner of 
E and Seventh Streets. This building was razed in recent years to make way 
for the structure now known as the Herzog Apartments. Professor Drake 
was chosen as the instructor. The plan of the school was to furnish a pre- 
paratory course for the University of California, and to complete the studies 
commenced in the grammar department. Twelve pupils entered for the 
course. Of these, five graduated at the end of three years. 

In this graduating class of 1874, the first to take part in high school com- 
mencement exercises in Yuba County, were Corrinne Kimball, who became 
the wife of Norman A. Rideout; Hattie Pratt, who became Mrs. A. J. Bin- 
ney ; Albert Sheehan, who was editor of a Sacramento newspaper at his death 
several years ago ; Charles J. Covillaud, son of one of the founders of Marys- 
ville ; and Fred H. Greely, who has served as State Senator from this dis- 
trict, and as district attorney of Yuba County. Greely, the only surviving 
member of the class of 1874, is the present county auditor and recorder of 
Yuba County. He has also served a term as Grand President of the Native 
Sons of the Golden West. 

During the fourth year, the number enrolled in the high school had in- 
creased to twenty-seven. Only two pupils, young ladies, graduated that 
year. The year 1875-1876 closed with the graduation of four pupils. On 
the 8th of November, 1876, the school, and the community as well, met with a 
severe loss in the death of Professor Drake. In the latter part of that month 
Rev. E. H. AVard was appointed principal. He taught about two months, and 
was then succeeded by Prof. E. K. Hill, a teacher of long experience and 


much ability. At the end of the year 1877-1878, the school graduated three 
young ladies. 

During the fall term of 1878-1879, the school was, to a certain extent, 
broken up by mixing its pupils with the senior classes of both grammar 
schools. The teachers were Professor Hill and Miss R. A. Parshall. This 
plan soon proved impracticable ; and at the beginning of the school term in 
1880, the schools were again segregated and the high school classes were 
placed under the charge of Prof. B. E. Hunt. 

Growth of the City Schools 

The schools of Marysville have since grown by leaps and bounds, due 
to the influx of new people. In 1908 it became apparent that new buildings 
were needed for the departments of both the grammar school and the high 
school. A 1 bond issue of $80,000 was voted, and the present high school and 
grammar school buildings were erected in the block bounded by F, G, Sixth 
and Seventh Streets. The city owned the lots where the grammar- school 
was built. Purchase was made of the site for the present high school. To 
this plant there was added in 1922 a splendid gymnasium, which is daily 
growing in popularity. On certain days the gymnasium is open to business 
and professional men for exercise at basketball, indoor baseball, etc. 

The faculty of the Marysville Union High School, which was established 
as such in 1922, now consists of twenty-one teachers, with Prof. Curtis E. 
Warren as the principal and as secretary of the board. Miss Louise M. AY. 
Mayne is the vice-principal and head of the English department. 

The present trustees of the high school are Dunning Rideout, A. W. 
Lewis, Peter Engel, J. E. Strain, and J. J. Yore. 

The grammar school has at present a force of twenty-two teachers. 

Present Rural Schools 

Outside of Marysville and Wheatland. Yuba County now supports 
thirty-two rural schools in valley and on mountain, as follows : Bald Moun- 
tain, Brophy's, Buckeye, Brown's Valley, Challenge, Clark, Cordua, Dob- 
bins, Elizabeth, Frenchtown, Feather River Union, Goldfields, Greenville, 
Hansonville, Indiana Ranch, Linda, Lone Tree, Long Bar, Marigold, New 
England Union, Oregon House, Prairie, Peoria, Plumas, Rose Bar, Sharon 
Valley, Camptonville, Spring Valley, Strawberry Valley, Sugar Loaf, Vir- 
ginia, and Waldo. Of these, the schools at Dobbins, Rose Bar (Smartsville), 
New England (Arboga), and Camptonville are branches of the Marysville 
Union High School. 

Miss Jennie Malaley is the present county superintendent of schools, 
and is now serving her third term in office. 




The excitement in the East, on the receipt of the mining news from 
California, affected the clergy as well as other people. Many resigned their 
pastorates, joined in the throng, and were as eager as the others to gather a 
goodly amount of the golden sands. There were those in the ministry, how- 
ever, whose aim in seeking the Western land was to lend their talents to 
the service of their Master. These threw aside all opportunities for speedily 
gathering a rich competence, to labor in the best missionary field in the 
world. The stories of their trials and tribulations are exceedingly interest- 
ing, giving an idea of the condition of affairs during that pioneer period, 
and also showing the lasting effect of early Christian culture. 

The first religious exercises in Marysville, with the exception of those 
conducted by the Padres, were held in the spring of 1850 by Rev. Washburne. 
in a flatboat moored opposite the Plaza. He w r as followed by Rev. Joshua 
Wilson, a Methodist clergyman, who succeeded in building a Methodist 
Episcopal church. In the month of May, 1851, Rev. Wilson died, and was 
succeeded by Rev. M. Burrell. 

The bell in the Presbyterian church was rung- for the first time on Sun- 
day, February 8, 1852. Its tones brought back memories of homes and fam- 
ilies in the distant Eastern land, and caused many a tear to fall. 

One of the pioneer ministers of Yuba County was Rev. S. V. Blakeslee, 
mention of whom has already been made in an account of the early schools 
of Marysville. He was ordained a minister of the Congregational denomina- 
tion in Iowa, and left immediately for California pn his own responsibility 
and expense. He arrived at Marysville on April 13, 1850, and the following 
Sabbath commenced regular services in the unfinished upper part of a two- 
story frame building owned by George Beach. The attendance on the first 
morning was about thirty-five ; some were professors of religion, while the 
rest were drawn there by mere curiosity. In the afternoon he held services 
on the Plaza, where a large crowd assembled. All were exceedingly attentive 
and respectful. During the second week, arrangements were made to preach 
weekly in Marysville at eleven o'clock a. m. ; in the anticipative town of 
Eliza, at two p. m. ; and in Yuba City at seven p. m. Services in accordance 
with this program w r ere continued until the failure of the Eliza project, in the 
month of May, after which services were held by Rev. Blakeslee at the Plaza 
regularly every Sunday afternoon until the middle of June, when a local 
Methodist minister took his place. 

Several trips were made into the mountains and mining districts in the 
summer of 1850; and a number of services were held by invitation in saloons 
and gambling rooms. When the preacher was ready to commence, the money 
and stakes lying on the tables were covered with the cloths, and all listened 
attentively and with great respect. The Christian hymns familiar to most in 
their Eastern homes were sung. Many times a generous contribution was 
presented to the worthy preacher. After the benediction the tables were up- 
covered and the play was resumed as lively as ever. 

Another minister visited the field during the early part of Rev. Blakes- 
lee's stay — Rev. F. Hunt, of San Francisco, who preached one Sabbath. 


In September, 1850, Rev. W. W. Brier arrived, and subsequently or- 
ganized a Presbyterian church. He was favorably received and efforts were 
put forth to erect a building; but these proved unsuccessful for some time, 
owing to the great expense and difficulty met in obtaining the lumber and 
material necessary for its construction. 

The attendance at the services increased with the growth of the popu- 
lation. The Sabbath school organized in connection with Rev. Blakeslee's 
labors was small, the attendance being perhaps eight or ten. There were but 
few children, and elderly persons were too busy to attend. The minister 
was the only teacher. Later, Rev. Blakeslee became editor-at-large of the 
Pacific, a weekly religious paper published in San Francisco under the aus- 
pices of the Congregational Church. 

First Presbyterian Church 

The following items in the early history of this church are taken from 
the journal of Rev. W. W. Brier, who was the first Presbyterian minister of 
the place, and who resided here with his young wife from September, 1850, 
to March, 1851. 

"September 7, 1850. — Traveled on the steamer Governor Dana from Sac- 
ramento to Vernon, thirty-five miles, and twenty-eight miles in the stage 
to Marysville. Stayed with Mr. Tay in a wholesale store, a tent on the 
lower side of the Plaza. Tay is a partner of Deacon Leonard, of San Fran- 
cisco ; had a letter to him, and he received me kindly ; is a pleasant young 
fellow. He put up notices of preaching with all the zeal of an old elder. 

"Sunday, September 8. — Preached under the shade of a large white oak 
tree in the morning. All stores open, all the gambling houses in full blast, 
teams of oxen and a train of mules loading goods. Went to the place ad- 
vertised, and found about twenty men sitting on old wagons, ox-yokes and 
logs. One said, as I looked about, 'Sit down; here's the place to hear preach- 
ing.' I stood on a little eminence and commenced to sing a hymn. From 
every direction men gathered with sad and worn faces, which told of 
thoughts of loved ones far away, and remembrances of Sabbaths of rest. 
All listened respectfully. At night I preached in the courthouse. This court- 
house was away out of town on the plains, at the corner of E and Third 
Streets. [Now the very center of Marysville. — Editor.] The only house 
near it was a square, blue tent, six by ten feet, the headquarters of Rev. S. V. 
Blakeslee, who traveled through the mines and preached. It had a bunk in 
one end and some blue blankets. With great dignity and geniality, he 
offered the use of his house free of charge until I could build. I declined, 
as there was no shade." 

The courthouse was a room, 20 by 30 feet, with the Masonic Hall above. 
It had a good frame covered with rough boards a foot wide, no lining, rough 
floor, and a full supply of backless benches. This was the place for all pub- 
lic meetings and courts. Here, on November 24, 1850, was organized the 
Presbyterian Church, consisting of nine members. Adam Farish and C. W. 
McClanahan were chosen elders. Dr. A. H. Wilder was the most active man 
in the church work. George C. Gorham, of political notoriety, took an inter- 
est in the outside matters of the congregation. He was a young man of 
steady habits. Judge Stephen J. Field, first alcalde of the city, was also a 
frequent attendant. Judge E. D. Wheeler, a young lawyer, and his partner, 
Jesse O. Goodwin, later author of the Goodwin Act prescribing prison merits 
for felons, took an active part in the business matters of the church. John 
Parks, the proprietor of the United States Hotel and a chief owner of the 
town, also aided materially in getting up the church building, which was 
erected on the corner of D and Third Streets in the spring of 1851. The sub- 
scription was started on February 12. J. M. Ramirez, who lived in the orig- 


inal adobe ranch house on the banks of the Yuba, made the first donation. 
He was looked upon as a capitalist, and headed the list with $100. Dr. Rice 
and Dr. Winters rendered good service in getting up the subscription. Louis 
Cunningham, who later became a capitalist in San Francisco, had a bank 
in a little zinc house on B Street ; he was a quiet but true friend of the 
church and of the young minister. E. E. Hamilton, who was engaged in 
the undertaking business later, rendered good service in singing. The citi- 
zens, with few exceptions, donated to the building. 

This house of worship was finished and dedicated on August 3, 1851, 
Rev. T. Dwight Hunt of San Francisco preaching the sermon. It was a 
wooden building, lined with cotton cloth and seated with pews, and would 
accommodate 300 people. The cost was nearly $5000, with a debt of $700, 
secured by subscriptions. These subscriptions were mostly lost as a result 
of the first church fire, which occurred a month after the church was dedi- 
cated. The fine bell now on the church, costing $650, was soon secured by 
a special subscription. It was the first church bell ever heard in the upper 
Sacramento Valley, and no event in the early history of that region occa- 
sioned more good feeling than was evidenced on its arrival. This bell was 
placed in a frame outside the church, and was thus saved when the building 
was destroyed by fire. 

The Sabbath school was organized on the 6th of April, 1851, with 
twenty-seven children. The church attendance and membership increased 
constantly by the influx of new families from the East. On February 1, 
1851, Dr. Wilder and Thomas Ireland were ordained elders. In April, bv 
the advice of his physicians, the pastor, Rev. AY. W. Brier, removed to the 
coast near Centerville, Alameda County. Rev. I. H. Brayton succeeded him. 
His health broke down in nine months, and he retired from the field. On 
April 1, 1853, Rev. E. B. Walsworth took charge of the church. 

On May 25, 1854, the church was burned. The trustees then sold the 
lot at the corner of D and Third Streets, it having become valuable for 
business purposes, purchased a lot on the corner of D and Fifth Streets, and 
built a chapel thereon, at a cost of $6500. 

In 1859 the size of the congregation demanded a more commodious audi- 
torium, and the present imposing edifice was erected on the corner of D 
and Fifth Streets. This structure cost $33,000. It was dedicated on October 
14, 1860, the sermon being preached by Rev. E. S. Lacey. 

The first trustees, appointed by Rev. W. W. Brier, were Dr. A. H. 
Wilder, Dr. D. W. C. Rice, A. T. Farish, Thomas Ireland, and E. Hamilton. 
The trustees under whose management the recent church edifice was erected 
were : John A. Paxton, president ; S. W. Selby, vice-president ; H. S. Hob- 
litzell, secretary-treasurer ; and Tohn H. Jewett, F. F. Lowe, Peter Decker, 
W. K. Hudson, A. W. Cutts, and Dr. D. W. C. Rice. 

The pastors who have successively presided over this charge are : Revs. 
W. W. Brier, I. H. Brayton, E. B. Walsworth, J. H. Brodt, W. W. Mac- 
Comber, W. McKaig, James Matthews, P. Lynett Carden, Lamont, Ander- 
son, Lundy, Garver, Wilson, R. C. McAdie, and B. F. Butts. 

The congregation of the church, at the last annual session, elected heads 
as follows : Elders, three-year term, James Morrison and F. L. DeArmond ; 
trustees, H. M. Smythe, Willard Roberts, George Graves, L. L. Freeman, 
W. Morrison, James Thomson, H. Harter, H. Humphreys, and D. Mahan. 

Methodist Episcopal Church 

The first Methodist quarterly conference in this section of the State 
was held in Yuba City, June 15, 1850, by Rev. Isaac Owen, presiding elder 
of the Feather River district. He was superintendent of missions, this dis- 


trict being then under the jurisdiction of the Oregon mission conference. 
In the summer of 1850. the people of this denomination then living in Marys- 
ville united and built a small church on the west side of D Street, between 
Third and Fourth Streets. In this meeting house was held the first quarterly 
conference in Marysville, the third Saturday in September, 1850, at which 
time the Rev. Joshua Wilson was assigned to the pastorate. 

Rev. Wilson died in the spring of 1851, and was succeeded by Rev. 
M. Burrell. The successive pastors from, that date are : Revs. J. W. 
Brier, M. C. Briggs, H. C. Benson, D. A. Dryden, M. C. Briggs, J. A. 
Bruner, J. D. Blaine, William J. McClay, David Deal, William Grove Deal, 
J. B. Hill, C. V. Anthony, J: N. Martin, E. Bannister, J. L. Burchard, C. E. 
Rich, William McPhetters, T. L. Treffern, Martin Miller, S. H. Todd, J. A. 
Vananda, W. M. Woodward, E. R. Willis, J. P. Macauley, C. H. Beechgood, 
Thomas Filben, C. J. Chase, W. M. Woodward, Fred Sheldon, W. C. Rob- 
bins, Thomas H. Nichols, Sylvester J. Buck, R. L. Rowe, and E. H. Mackay. 
The last-named, at the time this volume was being compiled, was in the third 
year of his pastorate. 

The first officers of the church were George M. Hanson, Joel Burlin- 
game, and Benjamin Eandis. The trustees were Hiram Palmer and George 
M. Hanson ; stewards, Arthur C. Barber, Hiram Palmer, Joel Burlingame, 
and Benjamin Landis. In the late seventies the following were trustees and 
stewards : Justus Greely, William Gummow, J. F. Eastman, George Crowell, 
E. E. Meek, Newton Seawell, and S. L. Frost. 

The present church edifice, at the corner of E and Fourth Streets, which 
was badly wrecked in a fire during the summer of 1922, was, when first 
built, a commodious frame structure, with a basement for use by the Sunday 
school. It was erected in 1852-1853, at a cost of about $26,000, the amount 
having been raised by subscriptions among the citizens. The basement of 
this church was one of Marysville's first schoolrooms. Here was held the 
first public school in the city; and here also the Marysville Eclectic Institute 
was conducted by Rev. James H. Bristow and lady, as principals. At the 
present time the trustees are planning to sell the property, which is in 
the line of business progression, the "proceeds, and more, to be used in the 
construction of a modern building on a lot which has been procured at the 
southwest corner, of D and Eighth Streets. Work is expected to commence 
in the spring of 1924. 

St. Joseph's Catholic Church 

"The first missionaries of the Roman Catholic denomination in Marys- 
ville were Fathers Acker, Anderson, and Ingraham, who labored here in 
1851 and 1852. In September, 1852, Father Peter Magganotta, a member 
of the religious, order of Passionists, commenced his labor in the formation 
of a church. Chiefly from his own purse, he erected a frame church, 32 by 
43 feet in size, and of one story. It stood on the north side of Seventh Street, 
between C and D Streets, near the present parochial residence. For his 
piety and genuine goodness, "Father Peter," as he was always called, was 
endeared not only to his own flock, but to all who knew him. 

The church was dedicated on March 20, 1853, and served as a place of 
worship two years, during which time Father Peter was busy in the erection 
of the beautiful cathedral which now stands as a monument to his energy 
and zeal. The corner-stone of the cathedral was laid September 16, 1855, 
by Archbishop J. S. Alemany, assisted by Fathers Magganotta, Dominica 
Blava, and Blasius Raho. Toward the construction of the church many 
young men, recent arrivals from the old countries, such as Ireland and Ger- 
many, contributed free labor, where they had not the funds to give. 


In 1861, the diocese of Grass Valley was formed, with the cathedral at 
Marysville, and Rt. Rev. Eugene O'Connell became bishop. 

In 1865, an addition of forty feet was made to the west end of the 
cathedral, and the tower and interior were finished. The structure covers 
an area nearly a half block in depth, and has a frontage of sixty feet. The 
tower is 100 feet in height. 

Among the pastors who have since served are Revs. Father Thomas 
Grace, who later became bishop of the Sacramento Diocese ; Rev. J. J. Callan, 
who died in December, 1887 ; the late Rev. Matthew Coleman ; and Rev. 
Patrick Guerin, who is the present head. Rev. Matthew Coleman, who was 
pastor for about thirty years, is deserving of special mention for the zeal 
with which he worked, and the popularity which he gained. He took spe- 
cial delight in the upkeep of the property, and had always uppermost in his 
mind the welfare of the College of Notre Dame, at which institution of 
learning many who now are grandfathers and grandmothers were pupils 
when Father Coleman took charge of the parish. 

One of the first moves by Rev. Father Guerin, on taking- up the Marys- 
ville mission in 1917, was to raze the parochial residence that had served 
from pioneer days and erect in its stead a modern home for the priests, at 
a cost of $30,000. This property is a credit to the Catholics of the community 
and a monument to its promoter. The new home was completed in 1921. 

In the center plot of the Marysville Catholic Cemetery consecrated as 
the burying ground of the priests who served this mission in their lifetime, 
either as pastor or as assistant pastor, now rest the remains of the following 
"soggarth aroons" : Rev. J. J. Callan, pastor, who died December 5, 1887; 
Rev. Matthew Coleman, pastor, who died April 11, 1917; and the following 
assistants : Rev. Hugh E. McCabe, Rev. F. Florian, Rev. J. O'Sullivan, 
Rev. T. Crinion, Rev. P. Farrelly, Rev. T. Petit, and Rev. F. Schweninger. 

The basement of the Catholic Church was in early days, before the 
erection of the Boys' School at Seventh and C Streets, used as classrooms 
for the boy students of the parish. A number of the present-day prominent 
citizens of Marysville and Sutter County received the first rudiments of 
their education in the church basement. 

The Baptist Church 

In 1854 the Baptists organized a church in Marysville. Rev. O. B. 
Stone preached in the City Hall in January of that year, thus sowing the first 
seed for the later work of the denomination. An edifice was built in 1864 
on a lot located at the corner of High and Eighth Streets. This church is 
no longer in existence. 

Rev. Charles Satchell took up the work of this denomination in Marys- 
ville in 1856, and the society of the Mt. Olivet Baptist Church was formed 
the same year with Rev. Satchell as pastor. AVilliam Bland, Cupid Blue, 
and Samuel T. Brewster were the trustees and deacons. In 1857 a sub- 
stantial brick church was erected on the corner of Sixth and High Streets, 
which still stands. It cost about $5000. Previous to the occupancy of the 
church, services were held at a house in Maiden Lane, now Oak Street. 

African M. E. Church 

This society was organized in 1854 on California Alley, now Chestnut 
Street, at Fifth. The first pastor was Rev. D. P. Stokes. G. A. Cantine, 
D. W. Sands, and Samuel Ringol were the first trustees. 

The church was built in 1864, and was destroyed by fire on July 2, 1921. 
It is now being rebuilt. 


St. John's Episcopal Church 

Religious services were held in Marysville in November, 1854, by Rt. 
Rev. W. I. Kip, bishop of the diocese of California. Steps were soon taken 
to form a society, which was accomplished on April 30, 1855. The following 
were the first wardens and vestrymen : Stephen J. Field and William P. 
Thompson, wardens; William Hawley, John T. Reins, Charles S. Fairfax, 
Ira A. Eaton, S. W. Van Wyck, W. W. Smith, J. A. Monsell, and Charles 
H. Hedges, vestrymen. The first rector was Rev. E. W. Hager. Services 
were held in the City Hall until the church was ready for occupation. 

The church edifice, built at the corner of Fifth and E Streets, is a brick 
building. It was completed in December, 1855, costing about $7000. The 
successive rectors of the parish were Rev. E. W. Hager, until 1856: Rev. 
F. W. Hatch, to 1857; Rev. E. D. Cooper, to 1858; Rev. George B. Taylor, 
to 1860; Rev. Henry O. G. Smeathman, to 1861; Rev. Hannibal Goodwin, to 
1863; Rev. AVilliam H. Stoy, to 1865; and Rev. A. A. McAllister, to 1872. 
Then for a year the parish was without a rector, the pulpit being supplied 
by Bishops Scott and Kip, and Revs. Dr. Hatch and Dr. Hill. In 1873, 
Rev. E. H. Ward was in charge. Rev. Stoy returned in 1877. Succeeding 
him, have been Rev. Mark Rifenbark and Rev. A. E. Butcher. Since the 
succession of Rev. Butcher to the pastorate, a movement has been started 
to erect a new church edifice at the corner of Eighth and D Streets, the 
residence property of the late A<V. T. Ellis having been secured as a site. 
The church already has secured the building known as Guild Hall, at the 
rear of this property. 

German Methodist Church 

For a time there was a German Methodist Church on the lot at the 
corner of E and Seventh Streets, in the building later occupied as Mary- 
ville's first high school. The congregation was founded in 1864, and the 
church was built at a cost of $2000. The first pastor of the church was 
Rev. G. H. Bolinger, who was succeeded by Rev. Martin Guhl. Upon his 
departure, in 1870, the church was left without a regular pastor until 1874, 
when the conference sent Rev. H. Brueck to the charge. This church has 
since disbanded. 

Church of the Immaculate Conception 

The Catholics of Marysville of German origin maintained a church 
edifice of their own building, for a period of about twenty years, at the 
northwest corner of F and Eighth Streets. They . organized in 1871, and 
dedicated the building, a frame structure, in May, 1874. Its cost was $4000. 

The first priest in charge was Rev. Father Herde. The next was Rev. 
Father John Meilor, whose residence was situated near the church. Father 
Bucholzer served as the last pastor of the church, the Germans deciding to 
change their place of worship to St. Joseph's Church, where they still attend 
devotions and take an active part in church affairs. 

First Christian Church 

The First Christian Church of Marysville was organized in 1879. The 
first meetings were held in the courthouse. The late W. G. Murphy was a 
prime mover in the establishment of this congregation, having been a mem- 
ber in Columbia, Mo., before his trip across the plains to California. 

The congregation has now so far gained in numbers as to tax the 
capacity of the church edifice, which is located at the corner of Fifth and 
Orange Streets. 


First Church of Christ, Scientist 

In recent years, Marysville has seen the organization of the First 
Church of Christ, Scientist. Meetings at present are held in the Odd 
Fellows Hall each Wednesday evening and Sunday forenoon. 

A lot has been purchased by the congregation at the southwest corner 
of F and Seventh Streets, with the intention of building a meeting place 
there when sufficient funds are secured. 


In the palmy and prosperous days of Marysville, the secret and benevo- 
lent orders flourished, and their influence was felt among all classes of 
citizens. The stranger arriving sick, moneyless, and friendless, found among 
the members of his old order hands and hearts ready to alleviate his suffer- 
ings and to relieve his destitution. Multitudes of instances of this kind 
occurred in the early days, and it is no wonder that now, in more quiet 
times, the old pioneer regards his order with almost the reverence and 
devotion due to a parent. In later years new organizations have sprung 
up, and with wonderful rapidity are gaining in membership and importance. 

The Masons 

A Masonic lodge was established in Marysville several months prior 
to the formation of the Grand Lodge of California, under the following 
circumstances : Dr. J. R. Crandall of Peoria, 111., upon deciding to come 
to California in 1849, applied to Most Worshipful Grand Master Lavalle 
of Springfield, 111., for a dispensation by which, as Deputy Grand Master, 
he could work in his journeyings as a traveling ■ lodge, wherever Masons 
enough could be gathered together ; he was finally to locate a lodge at 
some locality that, in his judgment, was able to support it. The dispensa- 
tion was granted in March, 1849, and Crandall proceeded on his journey 
to the far West. In the spring of 1850, being then in Marysville, Crandall 
was desirous of locating a lodge here under the Illinois dispensation, and 
issued a general notice to all Master Masons who were in town, stating his 
intentions. Pursuant to this notice, about thirty Master Masons assembled 
and organized a lodge, constituting J. R. Crandall Worshipful Master; 
A. O. Garrett, Senior Warden, and W. Moffett, Junior Warden. 

Marysville Lodge, No. 9, F. & A. M. 

On May 1, a short time after the formation of the lodge, Crandall 
removed to Trinity River, leaving the lodge in the care of the Senior 
Warden. When the Grand Lodge of California was organized, the lodge 
in Marysville reported its proceedings under the Illinois dispensation, and 
petitioned for a charter, which was granted them on November 27, 1850, 
under the title of Marysville Lodge, No. 9, F. & A. M. Subsequently to this, 
the lodge reported its work under the dispensation to the Grand Lodge 
of Illinois, and transmitted the proper dues. The lodge was held for some 
time in a tent, near the corner of Fourth and E Streets. 

Dr. J. R. Crandall, the father of Masonry in Yuba County, received the 
degrees in 1836 in Pekin Lodge, No. 27, A. F. & A. M., of Illinois. In 1842 he 
was a charter member of Temple Lodge, No. 47, Peoria, 111. In 1850 he 


established Marysville Lodge, No. 9; and in 1851 he was a member of Lafay- 
ette Lodge, No. 13, of Nevada City, Cal. 

On December 13, 1864, the following were installed as officers of Marys- 
ville Lodge, No. 9, F. & A. M.. E. T. Wilkins, W. M. ; George I. Bourne, 
S. W. ; P. W. Winkley, J. W, ; George A. Foulk, treasurer ; M. W. Peyser, 
secretary ; H. H. Rhees, S. D. ; W. L. Williams, J. D. ; and Charles Raish, tyler. 

Marysville Masonic Hall 

The Masonic Hall Association of Marysville was organized on September 
18, 1863, with a capital stock of $25,000, divided into 500 shares of $50 each. 
The affairs of the association were managed by a board of trustees elected by 
the stockholders. The first board of trustees was composed of the following: 
H. H. Rhees, T. W. McCreadv, Peter Decker, C. G. Bockius, D. E. Knight, 
W. H. Hartwell, and W. L. Williams. 

The contract for the present Masonic Building was let October 30, 1863, 
to W. C. Swain, $21,500 being the contract price; and on December 26, 1864, 
the trustees took possession of the structure. The hall ever since has been 
on the third floor, and is used by the Masonic societies as a lodge room. The 
second floor is now used for offices and living apartments, and the ground floor 
is rented for stores. 

It was on New Year's Day, 1864, that the laying of the corner-stone took 
place. The ceremony was of a most imposing and interesting character and 
drew a large audience of interested parties outside of the fraternity member- 
ship. The program announced by the committee as the order of the day was 
executed to the letter, and everything passed off smoothly. The parade was 
in charge of Grand Marshal' E. Hamilton, assisted by Aids L. B. Ayer and 
James Moore. Marysville Commandery, No. 7, Knights Templar, marshaled 
by Charles Raish, formed the escort, followed by the Marysville Brass Band. 
The Blue Lodge was next in line, followed by the Chapter, and finally by 
members of the Grand Lodge. 

At the site, Charles G. Bockius, president of the Marysville Masonic Hall 
Association, invited the Grand Master, Judge William C. Belcher, to proceed 
with the ceremony. The Grand Master then delivered an address on behalf 
of the Grand Lodge of Free and Accepted Masons, following which the stone 
was laid : Assistants in the ceremony were : Charles E. Filkins, Deputy 
Grand Master; Ebenezer Lane, Senior Grand Warden; Dr. S. J. S. Rogers, 
Junior Grand Warden ; E. Hamilton, Grand Marshal ; and Ben E. I. Ely, 
orator of the d.ay. In the evening, beginning at 9:30 o'clock, a grand ball 
was held in the Marysville theater, which was attended by the best people in 
the community. The dedication of the building took place December 27, 1864. 

The DeLong Collection 

A relic of which the Masons of Marysville are proud is an American flag 
brought to this country from Japan by Charles Egbert DeLong, who in 1869 
was appointed minister to Japan by President U. S. Grant. The flag is the 
banner which was carried by DeLong's enibassy during his travels into the 
interior of Japan, and is the first foreign flag ever carried in that country. 

- A full coat of mail, used in the wars of Japan over 700 years before, is 
also in the collection which DeLong presented to the Marysville Masonic 
fraternity, together with several bronze candlesticks. 

DeLong was born in Beekmanville, Dutchess County, N. Y., on August 
13, 1826. He served in the California legislature in 1857 and 1858, and again 
in 1860 and 1862. 

Corinthian Lodge, No. 9, F. & A. M. 

In addition to Marysville Lodge, No. 9, two other subordinate lodges 
were formed — Yuba Lodge, No. 39, and Corinthian Lodge, No. 69. All are 


now merged in Corinthian Lodge, which has preserved the first number given 
a Marysville lodge — No. 9. 

The present officers of Corinthian Lodge, No. 9, are : D. D. Johnston, 
W. M. ; H. T. Hosford. S. W. ; H. R. Hastings, J. AY. ; P. T. Smith, treasurer; 
L. B. Wilcoxon. secretary; E. J. McCready, chaplain; AY. F. Roberts, S. D. ; 
Chester O. Gates, J. D. ; J. R. Murray, marshal ; M. N. Jacobson. S. S. ; Wil- 
liam Simmons, J. S. ; and J. R. Oates, tyler. 

The lodge recently proposed a new asylum on the site of the old one, but 
the movement has not as yet taken definite shape. 

Independent Order of Odd Fellows 

The first lodge in Marysville to inculcate among her citizens the princi- 
ples of Odd Fellowship was established in the early fifties. A meeting of Odd 
Fellows was called on Saturday evening, January 24, 1852, at the recorder's 
office, corner of Second and D Streets, for the purpose of forming a lodge. 

The order grew apace, and the Odd Fellows Hall Association was organ- 
ized on March 24, 1860, by Levi Hite, Charles L. Thomas, A. J. Mason, 
Charles Bockius, William K. Hudson, E. Hamilton, J. AY Winter, George 
Blust. J. M. Matthews, and George Merritt. The first board of directors 
consisted of four members: Levi Hite, president; J. M. Matthews, vice- 
president ; A. J. Mason, treasurer ; and Charles L. Thomas, secretary. The 
building at present standing at Third and D Streets was erected in 1860 at 
an expense of $32,000. 

The lodge library was inaugurated on a small scale about 1858, by con- 
tributions of books from members of two lodges, the first donation being 
made by George Merritt. In 1864 the lodge determined to make it a valuable 
library, and to that end purchased 500 volumes of standard works of history, 
science and fiction. The books were selected with great care. 

In recent years the Odd Fellows Building has undergone various altera- 
tions, among the most important of which are an enlarged banquet-room and 
an addition on the east side. 

Independent Order of B'nai B'rith 

Mirriam Lodge, No. 56, Independent Order of B'nai B'rith, was organ- 
ized on the 5th of May, 1864, with the following charter members : S. 
Rosenthal, M. Marcuse, H. Brown, A. Shreyer, S. Lev}-, J. S. Borman, A. Suss, 
B. Rosenberg. L. Meininger, Louis Goldman, A. Englander, G. Cohn, H. 
AYagner, M. AY. Peyser, A. Joseph, R. Katz, M. Shreyer, H. Shreyer, S. Hoch- 
stadter, and A. Hochstadter. The highest number of members at any time 
was sixty-two. The lodge met at the corner of Third and High Streets twice 
every month. 

Ancient Order of Hibernians 

The objects of this order are fraternity and benevolence. The order has 
been very strong in the United States, and its membership has been confined 
largely to citizens of Hibernian descent. The lodge in Marysville was 
organized in May, 1869, with the following members : Dan Donohoe, Patrick 
Corr, Miles Flynn, Daniel Farrell, Thomas Farrell, Michael Fitzgerald, James 
Clark, John AA'alsh, Thomas C. Martin, Peter Muldoon, J. Coen, John Burns,. 
M. Lavelle, Owen Loftus, Michael O'Connor, John T. Lydon, John Donovan, 
John McGuire. and John Colford. The first officers were: M. Fitzgerald, 
president; John- Colford, vice-president; John AValsh. corresponding sec- 
retary ; Dan Donohoe, financial secretary ; and Patrick Corr, treasurer. 

The local society at one time had 125 members. Marysville no longer 
maintains a branch of this order. 


Benevolent and Protective Order of Elks 

Marysville Lodge, No. 783, B. -P. O. E., is another fraternal organization 
of Marysville owning its own home. The lodge was instituted on June 21, 
1902, with a charter roll of thirty-six members, and for nine years held its 
meetings in Jeffersonian Hall, corner High and Third Streets, on the third 
floor of the J. R. Garrett Company building. 

The organization ceremonies were conducted by Grass Valley Lodge, 
No. 583, and Nevada City Lodge, No. 518, a few residents of Marysville then 
being members of these lodges. The first officers were : Exalted Ruler. 
Dr. J. H. Barr ; Esteemed Leading Knight, R. E. Whitney ; Esteemed Loyal 
Knight, Robert F. Watson ; Lecturing Knight, M. T. Brittan ; secretary, 
W. M. Strief; treasurer, Dr. J. L. Sullivan; tyler, Herman E. Berg; Esquire, 
J. H. Marcuse; Inner Guard, Espie A. AVhite ; chaplain, Wallace Dinsmore ; 
organist, D. L. Sharp ; trustees, Chris C. Rubel ; A. C. Irwin, and G. W. 
Harney. The jurisdiction of this lodge covers Colusa, Arbuckle, Williams, 
Hammonton, Lincoln, Gricllev, and part of Biggs. Its membership now 
(1923) numbers 650. 

The Elks' Home 

It was on Saturday evening, March 4, 1911, that the Elks' Home of 
Marysville was dedicated. In the neighborhood of 1000 visitors flocked to 
the city to attend the ceremonies, which were conducted by Dr. J. S. J. Conlin 
of San Francisco Lodge, assisted by the officers of Chico Lodge. 

Four years before, the home was conceived by the lodge. The first 
step taken toward its realization was the purchase of the lot, 40 by 160 feet, 
from Frank Atkins, for $10,000. In a little over a year the lodge had paid 
the debt; and at a meeting held March 26, 1910, in less than an hour the 
money was subscribed by the members to insure the building. The Marys- 
ville Elks' Home, a corporation, was formed, with the following directors : 
J. K. Kelly, W. T. Ellis, Jr., Richard Belcher, G. AY. Hall, C. C. Hampton, 
M. N. Sheldon, Herman E. Berg, R. E. Bevan, Thomas F. Giblin, Henry 
Berg, Charles Mathews, Frank Atkins, George E. Wapple, A. W. Lewis, 
Matt Arnoldy, and Floyd Seawell. Richard Belcher was made president of 
the board, and W. E. Langdon was made secretary. 

The plans submitted by Parker & Kenyon were adopted, and the con- 
tract was awarded to C. F. Palm, a Marysville contractor of those days. 
The building has practically four stories, with a roof garden. The lower 
floor is leased for stores, and the remainder of the building is retained for 
the exclusive use of the Elks. The second floor is fitted up in an elaborate 
manner, containing a lounging room, a reading room, a lodge room and a 
banquet room. The third floor is devoted entirely to club features, there 
being a splendidly equipped billiard room and cafe, with a dainty grill room, 
all furnished with the same degree of elegance displayed in the rooms of the 
second floor. The roof garden is very popular with the members during the 
summer months. Each floor is served with an electric elevator, while the 
entire building is heated by steam. A modern kitchen, with all the necessary 
equipment, is installed for use of the grill room and banquet quarters. On 
Saturday evening, February 28, 1911, the building' was formally turned over 
to the lodge by the contractor. 

Foresters of America 
On AVednesday, May 7, 1913, during a session of the Grand Court of 
California, Court Pride of Yuba, No. 34, Foresters of America, became the 
fourth lodge organization in Marysville to own its own building, which 
stands on E Street, east side, between Third and Fourth Streets, adjacent 
to the rear of the Masonic Asylum. Theretofore the lodge held its meetings 


in the hall in the Empire Block, corner Second and Oak Streets. Like the 
E-lks, the Foresters formed a corporation for hall purposes. 

The corner-stone of this building was laid by the grand officers of 
California, following a parade and the planting of a tree in Napoleon Square, 
a public park of the city. That night there was a grand ball in Armory 
Hall, a block away. Armory Hall, which has since been razed, stood on the 
lots now used by the Sacramento Northern Railroad for a freight yard. 

Knights of Columbus 

Marysville Council, No. 1869, Knights of Columbus, was organized on 
Sunday, April 22, 1917. Owing to the death, a week previously, of Rev. 
Matthew Coleman, the pastor of St. Joseph's Church, who had been active in 
bringing about the organization of the Council, there was no outward show, 
though many members of the order from a distance were visitors. 

The first officers of the Council were : Grand Knight, Matt Arnoldy ; 
Deputy Grand Knight, James Kenney; Chancellor, Leo A. Smith; recorder, 
Louis F. Albrecht ; financial secretary, Gus T. Arnoldy ; treasurer, Raymond 
J. Flannery ; AVarden, Leo Willett ; Inside Guard, Hugh Grant; Outside 
Guard, James Barrett ; trustees, Frank M. Booth, J. A. Queenan, and Thomas 
Mathews ; chaplain, Rev. William Coen. 

In the first year the Council had three class initiations. Each year since, 
there has been an average of one class initiation. The membership now 
exceeds 200. notwithstanding the organization of a Council at Colusa 
reduced the roll by forty. The present Grand Knight is Dr. R. F. Gilbride. 

Other Fraternal Orders 

The German residents of Marysville supported for many years a Turn- 
verein Society and the Liederkranz. The Turnverein owned their own hall, 
which was situated on the lots now occupied by the Foresters' Hall. 

Other fraternal orders which have branches in Marysville at the present 
time are: The Native Sons of the Golden West, the Native Daughters of 
the Golden West, Companions of the Forest, Red Men, Maccabees, Moose, 
Independent Order of Foresters, Woodmen of the World, Rebekahs, Eastern 
Star, Catholic Women of America, and Sciots. 

Marysville Pioneer Society 

Marysville's Society of Pioneers was established in 1869. Thirty-three 
old residents assembled at the City Hall on February 20, 1869, and organized 
a society by adopting a constitution and by-laws, and electing the following 
officers : G. N. Swezy, president ; James T. Dickey and James G. Dowell, 
vice-presidents; J. B. Leaman, recording secretary; William G. Murphy, 
corresponding secretary ; William H. Hartwell, treasurer ; Dr. S. M. Miles, 
Dr. Eli Teegarden, James Williamson, J. C. Smith, John Keller, A. W. Cutts, 
and J. A. Murray, directors. The society was composed of native Califor- 
nians, foreigners and citizens of the United States resident in California 
prior to the 9th of September, 1850. and their male descendants eighteen 
years of age or over, who were entitled to all the privileges and benefits of 
the society. The society was called the Marysville Pioneer Society; and its 
objects were to cultivate the social virtues of its members, to collect and 
preserve information connected with the early settlement of the country, 
and to perpetuate the memory of those early pioneers whose sagacity, enter- 
prise and love of independence induced them to settle in the wilderness and 
become the germ of a new State. 

Preserved in the archives of the Packard Free Library are the photo- 
graphs of many of these brave Argonauts who builded up Marysville and 


the surrounding' country. The writer recognizes in the collection the faces 
of the men who trod Marysville's streets when he was a boy, and made it 
the busy mart it then was. Here are the names : A. W. Oakley, A. W. 
Cutts, James T. Dickey, Henry F. Hyde, Francis Hamlin, Thomas Dean, 
loseph Lask, Tartan Smith, G. W. Nickleson, J. E. Brown, ]. V. McMurtry, 
E. C. Ross, W. A. McLaughlin, Jackson Arndt, Dr. C. C. Harrington, W. H. 
Perdue, Phil W. Keyser, William T. Blivens. C. Cockrill, G. P. Russell, 
E. Hamilton, A. J. Lucas, Dr. S. T- S. Rogers, Joseph H. Kern, C. T- Covil- 
laud, A. G. Turner, William M. Bell. T. C. Chase, Herndon Barrett, A. S. 
Noyes, Henrv Heitman. Lvman Ackley, O. P. Stidger, J. D. Dow, A. P. 
Willey, L. T. Crane, C. G.' Clark, AY. K. McClintock, H. R. D. Townsend, 
Edward Hooper, Dr. C. E. Stone, C. Darmstadt, W. G. Murphy, L. B. Lea- 
man, J. C. Smith, A. J. Batchelder, E. H. Thurston, Stephen Eaton, G N. 
Swezy, John Keller, J. G. Briggs, Charles Covillaud, Sr., E. W. Mull, A. J. 
Cumberson, Benjamin Bigelow, L. H. Babb, Eli Teegarden, George Merritt, 
L. R. Sellon, S. S. Brewster, J. W. Moore, AY. H. Hartwell, William Rack- 
erby, D. P. Newbert, J. C. Cornell, T- AY. Hunter, C. P. Hunt, AY K. Hudson, 
Dr. S. M. Miles, and G. Katzenstein. 

The society at one time had a membership of 135. Today it is no 
longer in existence, all the members having either passed on or removed 
from this community. 

Marysville Art Club 

The Marysville Art Club, a section of the Bi-County Federation of 
AVomen's Clubs, is now past ten years of age. Mrs. Charles McConnaughy, 
the first president of the organization, once wrote of the society as follows : 

"It causes a smile when one thinks of the first meeting of the Marys- 
ville Art Club and its mushroom growth, a quick development from a group 
of women studying art, into a federated club with its various sections. 

'YVhy did we organize? Marysville was ready for just such a club, but 
it needed the report of the guns before it mobilized. The report came when 
a group of pictures by Rosa Bonheur was being exhibited through the State. 
If Marysville had such an organized club, it would be an easy matter to 
bring the exhibit, as well as others, to our town. AA r e were most fortunate 
in not having to search for a leader. We had with us a most efficient, experi- 
enced and willing one. All we had to do was to get together. AVe did so. 

"A committee called a public meeting of all those interested in the study 
of art, to be held in the Packard Library, January 4, 1913. AA r e expected at 
the most about a dozen who would be interested in this work ; but to our 
delight thirty members were enrolled, and within three months our mem- 
bership increased to 135. This immediately changed the nature of the anti- 
cipated study club into the formal club that it now is. 

"We were too late to have the Rosa Bonheur exhibit ; but we did get 
something infinitely greater and better — a most enthusiastic, ambitious and 
growing club." 

The Art Club brings to Marysville some of the best talent attainable in 
the dramatic line, as also speakers of note and musicians of wide repute. 

The Shakespeare Club 

The oldest literary organization in Yuba County is now the Shakespeare 
Club of Marysville. This honor at one time belonged to the Jeffersonian 
Lyceum, which disbanded several years ago. The club is now nearing its 
thirtieth anniversary. 

The forming of the Shakespeare Club originated with Mrs. Martin 
Sullivan, who now has a country home near Yuba City, Sutter County. 
During the first year of its existence, the club was under the direction of 


Prof. Herbert Miller, then principal of the Marysville High School. Under 
his direction a foundation was laid and further work was carefully planned. 
At first the club accepted the hospitality of each member in turn, as 
many of the local clubs continue to do : but later Mrs. David Powell graci- 
ously invited the membership to meet with her. Thereafter, until Mrs. 
Powell discontinued her residence in Marysville, her heart and home were 
open to the members for the regular Tuesday evening meetings. Friendship 
and loyalty are the only dues in this organization. The club is made up of 
congenial friends whose literary talents are devoted to the earnest study of 
the plays and poems of the peerless Bard of Avon, from whom the club 
takes its name. 



At the present time Yuba County has nothing in the way of militia organ- 
izations save those maintained by the ex-service men of the AA'orld War. In 
the early part of the year 1923. there was a movement instituted by Capt. 
Seth Millington. Jr., captain of the National Guard company in Colusa, and 
head of the American Legion in California, to establish a company of the 
National Guard in Marysville. There were high prospects for the creation of 
the command, when word came one day that the matter must be indefinitely 
deferred because of a lack of State funds caused by a policy of retrenchment 
adopted by Gov. Friend W. Richardson, who was endeavoring to make good 
on his campaign promises to reduce the cost of State government. In the 
spring of 1924 a commission was given for the formation of a National Guird 
company in Yuba City. 

From their earliest days, however, Marysville and Yuba County have 
possessed the military spirit. For twenty years prior to 1880, there were 
only two brief intervals during which there was not a martial organization 
of some kind. During the Civil War. two large and well-drilled companies 
were maintained in the city. These not only were of value at home as a 
safeguard against disorder, but also furnished from their ranks a great many 
disciplined soldiers to fight for the old flag in the field. A pioneer recalls that 
during the Civil AA'ar the mountains of Yuba County provided a military 
company. It was at the Oregon House that this command always rallied. 
They were called the Yuba Mountaineers. Browns Valley, Camptonville 
and Bullard"s Bar also had military organizations about this time. These 
were known as the Hooker Guards, the Bullard's Guards, and the Yuba Light 
Infantry. These four companies are more fully described in the following 
chapter, in connection with the discussion of the towns named. 

In 1851. Brig.-Gen. S. M. Miles was in command of the 1st Brigade, 1st 
Division, California Militia, with his headquarters at Marysville ; C. S. Kasson 
was his assistant adjutant-general. On September 9, 1851. by General Order 
Nil 2. Samuel B. Mulford was appointed judge advocate on the staff of the 
brigadier-general, with rank of major of infantry. E. AY. Roberts was, by the 
same order, appointed assistant surgeon, with the rank of captain of infantry. 

Below is given a brief account of the various military organizations that 
have existed in the county. 


The Yuba Guards 

This company was organized on June 9, 1855, with a membership of sixty- 
five young men, the elite of the city of Marysville. The officers were: M. D. 
Dobbins, captain; John F. Snow, first lieutenant; F. W. Taylor and W. H. 
Wickersham, second lieutenants ; J. H. Cowan, brevet lieutenant ; W. C. 
Burnett, first sergeant; Thomas Seaward, second sergeant; F. W. Shelden, 
third sergeant; D. B. Wolf, fourth sergeant; D. J. AVilkins, fifth sergeant; 
William B. Fatham, Jr., secretary; and J. W. Moore, treasurer. 

During its existence of several years, this company received $520 appro- 
priation from the board of supervisors for armory rent, etc. 

Marysville Rifles 
This company was organized with about forty men, on October 31, 1859, 
and continued in a flourishing condition until the close of the Civil War. 
The company at times numbered as high as eighty men, but was constantly 
being reduced by members going to the front. The first officers were: M. D. 
Dobbins, captain ; Theodore D. Coult, first lieutenant ; and Emil Sutter, 
second lieutenant. The captains who succeeded Dobbins were Hiram W. 
Theal, Henry DeMott, and B. Eilerman. 

Marysville Union Guards 

This was another prosperous company, organized on August 15, 1861. 
The strength of the command was about sixty men, but this quota was hard 
to maintain on account of the great number who enlisted and went to the 
front. The first officers were : F. Hubbard, captain ; A. Woods, first lieu- 
tenant; Henry Parsons, second lieutenant; F. B. Ayer, first sergeant; and 
John Bacon, second sergeant. The captains who succeeded F. Hubbard were 
C. G. Hubbard, W. P. Winkley, and Charles Bacon. 

The company was mustered out on January 16, 1867. In 1863 it had 
been organized as an artillery company. 

Marysville Zouaves 
This was a French Zouave company, organized in 1863. It had a strength 
of fifty or sixty men, and was commanded by Dr. Fasvigne. It was in exist- 
ence about one year. 

Marysville Light Artillery 
When the Union Guards disbanded, some of the members went to work 
on the formation of a new company. This resulted in the organization of an 
artillery company on August 4, 1867. The company had a strength of 116 
men, and had two six-pound and two twelve-pound guns. The officers 
were: A. W. Torrey, captain; Jim B. Leman, first lieutenant; George Ayers, 
second lieutenant; M. Dixhammer, third lieutenant. No change was made 
in its officers during the two years it was in existence. The company was 
mustered out in December, 1869. 

Sherman Guards 
Then followed the Sherman Guards, Company H, 4th Regiment, 4th 
Brigade, N. G. C, organized January 23, 1872. The first officers were : J. 
M. Newhard, captain ; J. A. Hall, first lieutenant ; T. C. Morris, second lieu- 
tenant ; J. M. Taylor, first sergeant; E. W. Sawtelle, second sergeant; H. F. 
Beckman, third sergeant, and R. Sweeney, fourth sergeant. The company 
had a strength of about sixty men. The same captain was retained until 
they disbanded, on February 20, 1875. 

Marysville Guards 
Between that time and the late eighties, military fervor was at low ebb 
in Marysville, the only martial organizations being those formed among 


young men of school age, who had a Zouave company, and later a command 
they called the Marysville Guards. At the head of the latter was Godfrey 
L. Carden, son of the pastor of the Presbyterian Church. Carden is now 
holding a high position in the ordnance department of the United States 
Navy, and is one of Uncle Sam's ordnance experts. He has written a work 
bearing on matters connected with his department. 

The writer of this history, who was a member of Captain Carden's com- 
pany in Marysville. recalls the manner in which the whole command was 
routed one evening while a mutiny was on. The first sergeant of the com- 
pany conceived the idea that he wanted the captaincy, which Captain Carden 
was loath to give up. A meeting was called to settle definitely which of the 
two the majority preferred. The first sergeant had done some preliminary elec- 
tioneering and thought he had the place cinched. When the company "fell in" 
and was regularly turned over. Captain Carden explained that he wished all 
who desired to retain him to step one pace forward. About one-half of those 
present obeyed. Then came a dispute as to who was the winner. From 
words, the two contingents went to blows. AY. T. Ellis, Sr., from whom the 
•armor}" at the southeast corner of D and First Streets was rented at a pit- 
tance by the soldier lads, was told of the ruction. He was then quite active ; 
and before the bus)" combatants were aware of the sturdy pioneer's presence, 
he was at the top of the stairway, shouting out his amazement at the actions 
of his youthful tenants. At sight of him, there was a general scampering 
for the stairway. Ellis, for the nonce, was brigadier-general, major, captain, 
everything. In their rush to leave the building, the young men nearly car- 
ried their landlord with them. They went down the stairs quite without 
ceremony. It was the beginning of the end for that particular command. 

Company C, Champions of the World 

It is not generally known that the militia of the city of Marysville hold 
the enviable title of Champions of the World for rifle shooting, at 200 yards, 
off-hand, fifty men competing on a side. This honor was won by the mem- 
bers of Company C, 8th Infantry Regiment, National Guard of the State of 
California, on May 19, 1895, and has never been equaled. The Marysville 
militiamen won over the members of Company B of the National Guard of 
San Francisco, on that date, by seventy-five points, the score being: Marys- 
ville, 1982; San Francisco, 1907. This was thirty-one points better than any 
showing made before or since in a National Guard match between 100 men. 

The following took part in the contest in behalf of this city : Captain, 
E. A. Forbes ; lieutenant, George H. Yoss ; sergeants, Phil J. Divver, Henry 
Schuler, David Canning and Peter J. Delay ; corporals, Chris Mayer, Chris 
Hovis, Matt Nelson, Joseph Arnoldy, John Giblin, and Warnick Waldron ; 
musicians, Oscar F. Stoodley and Jesse Boulton ; privates, William O'Brien, 
W. F. Lewis, Tom E. Bevan. Peter J. Arnoldy, George Devoe, Mark Eckart, 
John Selinger, Henry Scheussler, Herbert AY. Wills, Richard H. Klempp. 
George Ohleyer. Cornelius Slattery, AA'ill S. Rogers, Dr. A. H. Suggett, Al P. 
Lipp, Byron Divver. Carl Neubold. M. Gomes, Henry Burner. AVilliam A. 
Sutfin, Wyllie Steward, George Burnight, Arthur Brannan, J. AY. Hutchins, 
George Yale. AY. W. Shaffer, Thomas Giblin, George McCov. Steve How- 
ser, Fred H. Greely. C. H. AYoolery. Thomas C. Johnson, Dr. J. H. Barr, J. L. 
Howard, John S. Hutchins, and Thomas Bennett. 

Perusal of the old records of the now extinct Company C shows that no 
less than fifteen of the marksmen who took part in this memorable and 
exciting match have answered "taps." These include Capt. E. A. Forbes; 
Lieut. George H. A'oss, who afterward became sheriff of Yuba County ; and 
Sergeant Phil J. Divver, who later became supervisor and county clerk. 



All arrangements for the match were made by Captain Forbes of the 
locals and Captain Cook of San Francisco. Representatives from the fol- 
lowing National Guard contingents of this section of the State witnessed the 
contest : Company A of Chico, Company B of Colusa, Company F of Oro- 
ville, and Company G of Willows. The city presented a gay appearance that 
night, as the visitors drowned their defeat in wheelbarrow races, foot races, 
and other improvised athletic contests. 

By the year 1898, when volunteers were called for the Spanish-American 
War, Company C had become known as Company D. As such it proved the 
machine through which a volunteer company of 105 men, including the offi- 
cers, entered that war. The brave lads did not see service, however, the war 
being too short-lived. They were first ordered into training at Camp Bar- 
rett, at Fruitvale, Alameda County, under Capt. George H. Voss, where they 
remained three weeks before being mustered into the regulars. A few weeks 
later a portion of the company was sent into barracks at Mare Island, the 
other detachment going to Vancouver, B. C. 

World's Championship Record 
200 Yards. Fifty men to side. May 19, 1895. Marysville, California 

Company B. 1st Infantry Regiment. San Francisco, Captain Cook's "City 

Guards": 1907 points; average per man, 38.14. 
Company C, 8th Infantry Regiment, Marysville, "Hayseed Eighth" : 1982 

points ; average per man, 39.64. 

Key to Plate 

First Row (Read down) 

Private George Yale. 

Private Carl Neubold. 

Private Thomas P. Bennett. 

Private A. P. Lipp. 

Private M. A. Eckart. 

Sergeant Peter J. Delay. 

Private Henry Burner. 
Second Row (Read down) 

Private H. Scheussler. 

Private George Ohleyer, Jr. 

Private John Selinger. 

Private M. F. Gomes. 

Corporal Joseph P. Arnold}-. 

Musician O. F. Stoodley. 
Third Row (Read down) 

Private W. A. Sutfin. ' 

Private Con Slattery. 

Private Byron B. Divver. 

Private W. L. Steward. 

Private Tom E. Bevan. 

Private W. F. Lewis. 
Fourth Row (Read down) 

Sergeant Phil J. Divver. 

Corporal W. C. Waldron. 

Musician J. W. Boulton. 

Second Lieutenant George H. A^oss. 

Private George Burnight. 

Private Fred H. Greely. 

Fifth Row (Read down) 

Corporal Chris Mayer. 

Private W. S. Rogers. 

Private William O'Brien. 

Captain E. A. Forbes. 

Private Richard Klempp. 

Private A. H. Brannan. 
Sixth Row (Read down) 

Private A. H. Suggett. 

Private P. J. Arnoldy. 

Private J. H. Barr. 

Private C. H. Woolery. 

Private Thomas F. Giblin. 

Private Steve Howser. ■ 
Seventh Row (Read down) 

Private J. W. Hutchins. 

Private W. W. Shaffer. 

Private George W. McCoy. 

Private J. S. Hutchins. 

Private H. W. Wills. 

Private J. L. Howard. 
Eighth Row (Read down) 

Sergeant D. Canning. 

Corporal Matt Nelson. 

Sergeant H. C. Schuler. 

Private George A. Devoe. 

Corporal John W. Giblin. 

Private T. C. Johnson. 

Corporal C. C. Hovis. 

pi «pp§ f*t >MM HN 

c^ a^f c 5 ^ lH| ii^S Hj 

tn$ HI H! HI r4 «tHf 

c^ &$- i?^ ts§ 1 ^ <r$l 

€^f*4 £*$ t*$ fc*f t^ i?| 


Yuba-Sutter Post, American Legion 

On the evening of August 2, 1919, fifteen veterans of the World War 
met in the Yuba County Courthouse in Marysville to consider the organiza- 
tion of a post of the American Legion. It being the unanimous wish of 
those present that a charter be applied for, the following signed the petition : 
Garth H. Ottney, Allen B. Cunningham, Howard H. Harter, Walter M. 
Langdon, Abel McCabe, Lawrence H. Sargent, Otto J. Bassman, Omar H. 
Martin, Raymond H. Corona, Homer B. Meek, Theodore F. Engstrom, A. M. 
Bundy, Waldo S. Johnson, A. H. Harrison, and H. W. L. Niemeyer. 

At the next meeting, held on September 19, 1919, it was announced by 
the temporary chairman that the charter had been granted by the National 
Committee of the American Legion, and that the name conferred upon the 
new post was "Yuba-Sutter Post, No. 42, American Legion." 

Following the adoption of a constitution along lines suggested from 
national headquarters, the election of officers took place, resulting as follows : 
Commander, Donnell Greely ; vice-commander, A. H. Harrison; adjutant, 
Henry Niebling; treasurer, Garth Ottney; executive committee, H. W. L. 
Niemeyer, O. C. Harter, J. E. Holbrook, E. L. McCune, and John H. Sprad- 
ling ; sergeant-at-arms, Edward Wilson. 

The post soon began to make its influence felt in the community. An 
active interest was taken in the claims of service men, and many claims were 
brought to a successful termination through the work of the post. 

The first real thrill came when word was received by the post, one day. 
that a certain salesman connected with a carpet-bagging concern that had 
opened a store on D Street for the purpose of selling left-over government 
goods from the war, had insulted a Red Cross girl who visited the place. A 
squad was not long in forming. Working with military precision, they soon 
had the stock of goods on the sidewalk and the manager and clerks under 
orders to shake the dust of, Marysville from their feet, and take their stock 
with them. They went, without a protest. 

Later, the attention of the post was' called to certain billboard matter in 
which the face of the Kaiser was conspicuously shown as an appeal from a 
certain San Francisco newspaper to have the public read a story which the 
war lord was about to contribute to it for publication. Again the boys 
worked in keeping with their military training — this time by night. When 
the residents of the city awoke next morning, they found the Kaiser's physi- 
ognomy peeking through lines that represented prison bars. Above or below 
the Kaiser's head were inscriptions deriding him for his war record and his 
treatment of innocent women and children. The posters were never restored, 
nor were any similar ones substituted. 

The post annually observes Armistice Day with a big celebration. At 
the death of a comrade, military honors are shown and the grave of the 
deceased properly marked. 

Bishop-Langenbach Post, Veterans of Foreign Wars 

Bishop-Langenbach Post, Veterans of Foreign Wars of the United 
States, was organized in Marysville on June 2, 1922, at a meeting held in the 
City Hall. This meeting was arranged by Tom Harney, an ex-service man 
en route north, who had mustered the members in a tent placed by him at 
Third and D Streets. The post adopted its name in honor of two Yuba 
County young men who made the "supreme sacrifice" in the World War of 
1914-1918. They were Private Lester Bishop and Lieut. Paul J. Langenbach. 

Private Lester Bishop, Company L, 30th Infantry, American Expedition- 
ary Forces, was wounded August 10, 1918, at Chateau Thierry; he died on 


October 17, 1918, at base hospital No: 34 at Nantes, France, and was buried 
at Marysville on October 3, 1919, with high military honors. 

Lieut. Paul J. Langenbach enlisted as a private with the 160th Infantry, 
California National Guard. He left for "over there" in June, 1918. When 
he arrived in France, he was transferred to Company I, 102nd Infantry, 26th 
Yankee Division. He was killed in the Meuse-Argonne offensive, October 
27 , 1918. His remains were later brought to this country and laid to their 
final rest in Marysville, where his father and other members of his family 
had their place of residence. 

Other after-war organizations of the county are the Women's Auxiliary 
to the American Legion, and "40 and 8." 



Agriculture and mining, which always have been dependable resources 
of Yuba County, are accountable for the advent of many sister settlements 
since the birth of Marysville. For the most part these places have looked 
to Marysville as the marketing place, as all, save Wheatland, are distant 
from the line of the railroad. Wheatland ranks next in importance to 
Marysville. Smartsville, Browns Valley, Dobbins, Indiana Ranch, Browns- 
ville, Challenge, Strawberry, Woodleaf and Clipper all have been in close 
touch with the county-seat since their birth. 


Wheatland, located at the four corners of Yuba, Sutter, Nevada and 
Placer Counties, was- laid out in lots- in 1866 by George Holland, under the 
management of C. L. AYilson. The chain of title to the town lots begins 
with the year 1844, when Don Pablo Gutierrez received a grant of five Span- 
ish leagues of land on the north bank of the Bear River. He was killed in 
1845, and the grant was sold at auction on April 28, 1845, by John A. Sutter, 
as magistrate, to William Johnson, from whom the section gets the name 
Johnson Rancho. Sebastian Kyser owned a one-half interest in Johnson's 
purchase. On November 10, 1849, Kyser sold to Eugene Gillespie and Henry 
E. Robinson. March 24, 1849, Johnson sold to James Kyle, Jonathan B. 
Truesdale, James Emory, and William Cleveland. Truesdale deeded his 
interest to Cleveland, Kyle, and James Imbrie. August 13, 1849, Cleveland, 
Kyle, and Imbrie deeded to Gillespie and Robinson, thus giving the title to 
the whole grant to these men. September 28, 1854, Robinson deeded a one- 
half interest to Elihu Woodruff. By a partition deed, March 28, 1856, John 
W. Bray was deeded, among other tracts, the east half of Section 12 of 
Johnson's Ranch. August 3, 1857, the United States confirmed the Mexican 
grant in the name of William Johnson, thus perfecting the title. November 
14, 1857, Bray sold the southeast quarter of Section 12 to Eli A. Harper. 
November 20, 1863, Harper deeded the tract to A. W. Holloman and C. 
Cauthron. On October 26, 1865, the property was conveyed by Holloman 
and Cauthron to George S. Wright. 

The Central Pacific Railroad was completed to AYheatland in 1866, and 
a post-office established. One of the first buildings was erected by Ziegeb- 


bien & Company for a store ; this was a wooden structure on the corner of 
Main and Front Streets. The first residence was built the same year by 
C. Holland, at the corner of Main and D Streets. E. W. Sheets built a 
blacksmith shop on the corner of Main and C Streets ; and Asa Raymond 
built a hotel on Main Street, near the east end of the town. These were 
all the buildings erected during the first year of the town's existence. Not 
until the year 1871-1872 did the sale of lots become very brisk. 

On account of the inability of the town to protect itself against fire, 
and provide sanitary regulations, etc., the citizens decided to have the town 
incorporated, which was accordingly done by act of the legislature, March 
13, 1874. The first board of trustees was composed of D. P. Durst, president; 
H. C. Niemeyer, clerk; H. Lohse, C. Holland, and S. Wolf; the first treasurer 
was David Irwin ; assessor, Cyrus Stoddard ; marshal, Joseph Trimmer ; city 
justices of the peace, A. M. Bragg and W. L. Campbell. Wheatland has 
twice been razed by fire, but is now well protected against that element. 

The hop industry, followed in recent years by Durst Brothers, E. C. 
Horst, and others, has caused the place to be known as the "Hop Center." 
■ Frequent slumps in this commodit)' have caused the landowners and growers 
to turn in recent years to fruit and vegetables, with marked success. The 
land about AVheatland is the richest in the county, particularly the bottom 
lands along the Bear River. At the present time a movement is on foot to 
provide a bridge across Bear River to connect this section with the rich Rio 
Oso section in Sutter County. G. E. Nutt is the supervisor representing the 
section on the board at present. 

The town derived its name from the vast amount of wheat grown in the 
vicinity in its early history, and shipped by rail from that point. 

Farmers Bank of Wheatland 
The Farmers Bank of AVheatland was incorporated October 22, 1874, 
with a capital stock of $125,000, divided into 1250 shares of $100 each. The 
officers of the bank at that time were Crawford Holland, president ; A. W. 
Oakley, secretary; and W. W. Holland, cashier. On March 16, 1875. the 
capital stock was increased to $250,000, divided into 2500 shares. 

Organizations of the Town 

AA'heatland has a prosperous lodge of Odd Fellows, which bod}- owns its 
own hall. Here all lodges of the place meet, including a Masonic lodge 
and a parlor of Native Sons. At one time the town supported a branch of the 
Good Templars and a branch of the Patrons of Husbandry. 

The Wheatland AA'omen's Civic Improvement Club is a valuable asset 
to the place. Recently the women aided the Chamber of Commerce of 
AA'heatland in the planting of trees along the State Highway between AVheat- 
land and Marysville. 

The churches of AA'heatland are a credit to the community, being well 
attended, and well constructed and preserved as to architecture. The Metho- 
dists, Episcopalians, Christians and Baptists each have large congregations 
contributing to the support of pastors. Besides engaging in church work, 
the women folks of all denominations are organized into an improvement 
club, which looks well to the physical as well as the moral welfare of the 

The Weekly Newspaper 

From the early seventies AA'heatland has continuously supported a news- 
paper. The AA'heatland Enterprise was the name of the first journal, started 
by A. C. Pratt, who was editor and publisher. In 1874, AA". L. Campbell 
and F. M. AA r alsh bought the plant and changed the name to the AA'heatland 
Free Press. Campbell soon sold his interest to his partner, and in 1875 the 


owners were Walsh & Larrabee. When Frank F. Carndufr, former Marys- 
ville attorney, took over the paper, he called it the Recorder. In later years 
the paper was conducted by Jonathan Durst. He sold his interest to John 
Cleek, who added a linotype to the plant's equipment. Cleek is the present 
owner of the paper, which is now known as the Wheatland Herald. 

Men Who Made Wheatland 

Names synonymous with Wheatland's steady growth, sturdy pioneers 
who knew no such word as failure, are : W. O. Armstead, D. W. Berry, 
William A. Creps, B. F. Dam, C. K. Dam, W. T. Foster, A. N. Garrison, 
C. P. Gillette, William Harding, T. B. Hopkins, P. L. Hutchinson, J. M. C. 
Jasper, F. Kirshner, Samuel Kuster, Frank R. Lofton, John H. Major, A. W. 
Oakley, Hugh Roddan. J. W. Sowed, A. J. AVebster, O. Whiteside, and S. D. 
Wood, all farmers and stock-raisers. Others, in various callings, are Charles 
Justis, merchant and butcher; A. M. Neustadt, hotel-keeper; J. F. Baun, 
blacksmith and wagon-maker ; F. J. Calmes, saddlery and harness ; Frank F. 
Carnduff, newspaper man ; E. P. Duplex, barber ; David Irwin, superintend- 
ent lumber company ; D. O. Little, blacksmith ; W. M. Neustadt, hotel ; E. W. 
Sheets, blacksmith ; John A. Stewart, wagon-maker ; A. J. Swift, blacksmith 
and wagon-maker; and Matthew A. Scott, drugs. Descendants of this brave 
band are now to be found in many sections of Yuba and Sutter Counties. 


Mines and Mining Claims 

Browns Valley, situated twelve miles northeast of Marysville, received 
its name from an early settler named Brown, who in 1850 accidentally dis- 
covered gold upon the present site of the place. Brown made his strike 
near a huge boulder adjoining his temporary camp. It is said he took out 
$12,000 in quartz, and was satisfied to retire on that amount. 

Joe Brockman, brother of William Brockman, who now lives near the 
Sutter Buttes, tried mining with sluice-boxes shortly after. He was working 
near a rich vein, which to him appeared to be "petered out." He did not 
know how near he had come to fabulous wealth until after he sold his claim 
to four Frenchmen, who knew more about mining ground than Brockman. 
They were not long in locating the vein that made the Jefferson Mine 
famous. It is said they took out enough to warrant their retirement in a 
few years. One of the number was the founder of the resort that thrived at 
B and Third Streets in Marysville for many years, remembered by the older 
residents as "Wideman's Corner." 

The Flag Mine followed the Jefferson, giving employment to a large 
number of men. Then the Donnebrouge Mine was located ; and this was 
followed by the opening of the Pennsylvania Mine. 

In connection with the early history of the Pennsylvania Mine, it is told 
that one of the early-day superintendents, conniving with the underground 
boss, made it impossible for a miner to obtain employment in the claim 
unless a royalty of five dollars a month was forthcoming. This system they 
worked for years, giving them a competency over their salary to justify 
their retiring to the East. 

The Sweet Vengeance Mine was also a big producer in the palmy days 
of Browns Valley. This mine was first owned by Spaniards, who carried 
the ore to Little Creek and ground the gold from it with arrastres. A 
French company bought out the Spaniards and put in a stamp mill, one of 
the first to be used in California. 

Other claims that were worked at Browns Valley in the early days were : 
The Daniel Webster, Pacific, Burnside, Paragon, Ophir, Rattlesnake, Bay- 


erque, and Anderson. The ruins of the old mills and buildings are still 
standing over several of the once rich mines. 

Water in the lower levels always disturbed operations in the larger 
mines — those that were sunk deepest. It is this condition that today dis- 
courages capital from reviving such mines as the Pennsylvania and Jefferson. 

Surface diggings paid in early days in the foothills surrounding Browns 
Valley. Traces of this species of mining may still be seen here. 

Hotels, Stores and Stopping Places 

Browns Valley at one time had five hotels and twenty-four saloons. 
This statement is made on the authority of Joseph Bruce, who still lives 
there, and who is a member of one of the pioneer families in the lively burg. 
While none of the hotels were pretentious, one sold in the sixties for $9000. 

Matt Woods, who later became sheriff of Yuba County, was the owner 
of a store in the mining camp, as was also Charles E. Sexey, who later 
became a prominent resident of Marysville, and filled the office of levee com- 
missioner there. 

Public houses or stopping places along the stage line in the same region 
' as Browns Valley, in early days, were the Sixteen-mile House, Comstock 
Place, Galena House, Peoria House, Zinc House, Stanfield House, and 
Bowers' Place. 

Prairie Diggings, a little way above Browns Valley, was once a great 
surface-mining locality. Mining commenced there in 1854, and attracted 
many who later became residents of Marysville. Toward the end of its 
career the Chinese were the only ones to persist there. 

When Long Bar was worked out, many of the miners who worked there 
moved to Browns Valley. 

The Hooker Guards 

The Hooker Guards was the name of a military company Browns Valley 
once boasted. It was organized in June, 1863, during the exciting times of 
the Civil War. The officers were. h. D. Webb, captain ; George H. Iceland 
(who owned a hotel boarding 500 men), first lieutenant; R. P. Riddle, second 
lieutenant ; C. Sheldon, third lieutenant ; and Thomas Cook, first sergeant. 


Indiana Ranch, still regarded as a mining section of Yuba County with 
prospects, was first settled in 1851 by Page Brothers and A. P. Labadie, 
who opened a hotel. John Tolles also kept a hotel about the same time. 
Gold was discovered along the ravine and creek in 1851, and the diggings 
were called "Indiana Creek" or "Tolles" New Diggings." One hundred feet 
square was a mining claim, and an ounce per day the average yield. In 1851 
and 1852 there were between 400 and 500 miners at work along Indiana and 
Keystone Creeks, making a very lively camp. The place received the name 
from Page Brothers, who came from the State of Indiana. Among the other 
early settlers were M. G. Mory, L,. S. Camper, Reuben Reed, A. J. Reed, 
Reuben Reed, Jr., Owens Owens, and Edward Medlock. A. Weaver was 
the first justice of the peace. 

A private school was kept in 1855 by Miss Phillips, a daughter of Cap- 
tain Phillips of the Peoria House. It was held in a private dwelling until 
1856, when a subscription was raised for the construction of a schoolhouse. 
The school district was formed in 1857. In that year, the creek and ravine 
having been worked out, there was a great decrease in the population, conse- 
quent upon the departure of the miners for other localities. In recent years 
some rich pockets have been found here, but none has proved lasting. 



William M. Dobbins and his brother, Mark D. Dobbins, settled on the 
creek that bears their name in 1849. William Dobbins, when quite young, 
participated in Commodore Perry's memorable engagement on Lake Erie, 
and at the time of his death, in 1876, was the last surviving witness of that 
historic contest. He was elected justice of the region in 1849 and was later 
county clerk. In 1856 he went East as a delegate to the national convention 
that nominated Buchanan for the Presidency. He never returned. 

After passing through the hands of several parties, the ranch came into 
the possession of Joseph Merriam in 1862. It was in 1867 that Slingsby & 
Gettins opened a store in Dobbins, supplying the surrounding country, and 
keeping a pack train upon the road continually. William Slingsby was at 
one time chairman of the board of supervisors. Daniel Gettins, his partner, 
though very popular, never dabbled in politics, being content to labor among 
and befriend the miners. Both Slingsby and Gettins died at the scene of 
their life activities, honored by all. 

Religious services were held by the Catholic clergy from Marysville 
every two weeks, at the residence of James McMenamin. 


Greenville, once a lively camp for its size, is now a quiet settlement 
of the county's mountain district. It is situated in a small basin on Oregon 
Creek, and was once called Oregon Hill. This place was first worked in 1850, 
but did not become well developed until the construction of the Nine-horse 
Ditch. The company that constructed this ditch was composed of nine 
members ; and in order to let it be known that it was no "one-horse affair" 
they named it the "Nine-horse Ditch." 

The first school was opened in 1861, and was taught by Miss Henley. 
A schoolhouse was erected in 1860 at a cost of $2000, and the Greenville 
district was formed. About fifty people now receive their mail at Greenville. 


Many Marysville people now find in Strawberry Valley, near the line of 
Butte County, an inviting resort to which they can motor for the week-end 
and enjoy fishing, hunting and camping. Strawberry Valley, familiarly 
known as Strawberry, is situated in a beautiful valley, in a large mining 
district, forty-three miles northeast from Marysville. At one time it was the 
most thriving locality in Northeast Township. 

Name and Early History 
The old Indian name of the place was "Pomingo," the Indians' name 
for a plant that grew there." Why the name of Strawberry was applied to 
this locality has been the subject of considerable inquiry. One story, and 
probably the correct one, is to the effect that when the first settlers arrived 
there, in the year 1848, they found quantities of delicious wild strawberries, 
and from that circumstance gave it the name which it still retains. In keep- 
ing with this explanation, it is stated that the place was so named early in 
1851 by Capt. William Mock, the name being suggested by the large number 
of wild strawberry vines found around the head of the valley. Another 
account states that the first two settlers were named respectively Straw and 
Berry, and each vied with the other in the attempt to have the place honored 
by being called after him. Considerable jealousy was occasioned thereby, 
which was happily alleviated by the suggestion of the other residents that, 
as it could not be called Straw appropriately, and as Berry was not signifi- 
cant, they should join Straw with Berry and Berry to Straw, thus forming 


the word Strawberry, which was readily assented to, and all past grievances 
by this means settled. 

In 1851 a few miners came and commenced prospecting in the ravines, 
and some rich diggings were found on Deadwood Creek. The places were 
called Kentucky Gulch, Rich Gulch, and Whiskey Gulch. 

In the fall of 1858 the first public school was kept, Miss Wyman being 
chosen as the teacher. 

The Town at Present 

The present town of Strawberry consists of a hotel, one store, the post- 
office, a school and a number of dwelling houses. For many years the late 
Joel Bean was mine host at the Strawberry Hotel. On account of his 
hospitality and that of the members of his family, once a guest meant a 
longing to return. Joel Bean made welcome the birds of spring as well as 
members of the human family. In front of the hotel he raised a staff fifty 
feet high, at the top of which he placed a home for the robins. Almost 
to the day each spring these birds would return to this cote, and Mr. Bean 
then knew that spring had really arrived. 

Without the members of the Bean family, the voting strength of Straw- 
berry Valley would now be greatly reduced. During the lifetime of Joel 
Bean the family had fourteen of the thirty-four votes cast in the precinct. 
Those of the family who still use the right of franchise there are : Mrs. 
Anna R. Bean, Abraham Lincoln Bean, Francis L. Bean, John A. Bean, Miss 
Laura B. Bean, Mrs. Mabel C. Bean, Mrs. Mary Ann Bean, Morgan George 
Bean, Mrs. Nellie Orr Bean, Paris G. Bean, Vernon J. Bean, and Walter 
Paris Bean. 

The inhabitants of the place are intelligent and hospitable, and take a 
live interest in the advancement of the village. Strange as it may appear, 
the main and only street, at one time, was the dividing line between Yuba 
and Butte Counties, the business places on opposite sides being in different 
counties. An act of the legislature, however, changed this state of affairs, 
and the town that was once divided against itself is now united. 

There are various sawmills in the vicinity, of large capacity, the lumber 
from which is shipped to Marysville. A most excellent dirt road affords 
ingress and egress to and from the place. 


This once flourishing town was situated on the Hansonville branch of 
the Honcut, twenty-eight miles from Marysville. It was first settled in 1851, 
by James H. Hanson, after whom the town was named. A number of miners 
commenced to work along the creek in the spring of 1851, and more soon 
followed. R. M. Johnson settled with Hanson, and together they built a 
house in which they kept the first store and hotel. William Denton, later 
of Marysville, and Henry Critcher both opened stores in 1851. In 1852 
there were seven stores, eight hotels and a population of 1000 people in 
the town of Hansonville, of which only a trace now remains. Every store 
had a bar. There was also a bowling alley in the town. Gambling was 
very generally indulged in. 

In 1852 religious services were held in the barrooms and private houses, 
by Rev. Merchant. One day he was preaching back of a saloon, the gamblers 
having ceased operations in order to hear the sermon. One of them opened 
a faro game and won about $50, which he presented to the minister at the 
conclusion of the services. The minister said he would take it, as it had 
been in bad use long enough. From 1864 to 1876 the Methodists held 
regular services in the Hansonville schoolhouse. The schoolhouse was built 
in 1864 at an expense of $500. 



Brownsville is on the Marysville-La Porte road thirty-three miles from 
Marysville. I. E. Brown built a sawmill there in August, 1851, at a cost 
of $8000. In November, 1852, Martin Knox, after whom the Knox turnpike 
was named, and P. E. Weeks bought the mill under the firm name of Weeks 
& Knox. The mill was abandoned about 1857. In addition to the mili, 
Brown and his partner, John Hoyt. kept hotel in a log house. When Weeks 
& Knox bought them out, they named the place Brownsville, in honor 
of Brown. In 1853, a store was started in connection with this hotel. In 
1855, Weeks & Knox built a large hotel. The first blacksmith came in 1855, 
a man named Sheets. In 1861, the store was given up. The hotel was 
burned in 1866, and another was built the same year. 

Quite early the town supported a lodge of Odd Fellows, and later a 
lodge of Good Templars existed for a time. 

The first religious services were held by a minister of the Methodist 
Episcopal denomination at the residence of Mrs. Foss. A church was built 
by subscription, at a cost of $500, and was dedicated on October 20, 1866. 
The pastor in charge was Rev. C. A. Leaman. 

Later Growth 

In 1878. there was quite an impetus given to the town. A large addition 
was made to the hotel, an educational institution was opened, a hall asso- 
ciation was formed, a store was started, and some $15,000 were spent in 
improvements. From 1861 to 1878, the town had been without a store, but 
in the latter year Hawkins & Hawley opened one with an excellent assort- 
ment of goods. The Knoxdale Institute was founded by Mr. and Mrs. 
Martin Knox, and the school opened on September 9, 1878, with Prof. E. K. 
Hill as principal. There were but five scholars when the school was opened, 
but this number was increased the second term to seventeen. This school, 
which is described more fully in the chapter on schools, continued in exist- 
ence as an educational institution for about seven years. 


The present town of Challenge, the home of Supervisor AV. J. Mellon, 
derived its name from a lumber mill built on the site in 1856 by Cook and 
Malory. The Union Lumber Company bought the mill, and sold it in 1874 
to A. M. Leach. Lumbering and some mining supports the town. 

Foster's Bar, famous in its palmy days, was situated on the bank of the 
north Yuba River, between the mouths of Willow and Mill Creeks. It was 
named after William Foster, one of the original proprietors, who lived in 
Marysville, and. who mined at the bar early in 1849. 

Bullard's Bar was another large mining bar, three-fourths of a mile 
below Foster's Bar. AYork was commenced here in 1849, and the bar soon 
became a populous one. It was named after Dr. Bullard of Brooklyn, N. Y., 
who was one of the pioneer miners. Dr. Bullard was lost in a shipwreck 
while on his way to the Sandwich Islands. Among the early settlers at 
the bar were Charles E. DeLong, afterwards minister to Japan ; C. E. Lip- 
pincott, editor of the Sierra Citizen in 1855 and later auditor of the State 
of Illinois; Daniel Gettins, later of the firm of Slingsby & Gettins of Dob- 
bins Ranch ; and Roger McMenamin, whose daughter was married to Will- 
iam Slingsby later on. 


The first lady to make an appearance at the bar was Mrs. Colonel 
Ewing. She came in 1850 and assisted her husband in mining. He carried 
the dirt in buckets to water, and she rocked the cradle, an occupation usually 
considered the portion of the better half, at least in its domestic sense. 

A company of sixteen shareholders was formed in January, 1850, for the 
purpose of turning the river, so as to mine the river bed. They worked 
until September and made a failure of the project, after having expended 
$47,000. The river was afterward turned by a flume, and the bed was then 
found to be worthless. 

The first bridge in the township was erected in 1850 by E. S. Gifford. 
It was the custom to erect a light structure in the summer, so that if the 
high water of the winter season should carry it away, the loss would be 
comparatively light. After passing through several hands, it came into the 
possession of George Mix, who in 1858 erected the first permanent structure, 
at a cost of $7000. He also constructed wagon roads to the bar. The great 
flood of 1862 carried the bridge away, and another was constructed further 
up the stream, which was afterward sold to John Ramm and made a toll 
bridge. In the flood of 1875 this bridge also was destroyed. Ramm later 
built a bridge at an expense of $15,000. 

In 1852 a military company called the Bullard's Guards was organized. 
The uniforms consisted of blue shirts, with a sash around the waist. 

Other bars in the vicinity in early days were : Stony Bar, Poverty Bar, 
Horse Bar, Condemned Bar, Frenchman's Bar, Missouri Bar, Negro Bar, 
Clingman's Point, English Bar, Winslow Bar, Kanaka Bar, Long Bar No. 2, 
Oregon Bar, Pittsburg Bar, Rock Island Bar, Elbow Bar, Missouri Bar No. 2. 

Bullard's Bar Dam 

Bullard's Bar at present is attracting the eyes of California, for at that 
point is to be built a dam at a cost of $24,000,000 for the purpose of per- 
mitting the resumption of hydraulic mining in Sierra and Yuba Counties 
under government regulations, which require the restraining dam. The 
work is the plan of the Yuba River Power Company, which concern bought 
out the Marysville and Nevada Power and Water Company. Back of the 
company are a number of wealthy men. The immense dam will hold back 
water sufficient to supply irrigation for a vast acreage in the foothills below 
it, and it also will provide electrical energy for power concerns of the State. 
The project of which this dam is a part is more fully discussed in the chapter 
on Gold Mining in Yuba County. 


The traveler over the ridge between Dobbins Ranch and Sierra County 
encounters the town of Camptonville. This thriving mountain town nestles 
in a typical California glen and originally covered 159 acres of ground. The 
old trail to Downieville led through this place; and as early as 1851, and 
perhaps 1850, J. M. and J. Campbell built a small mountain hotel here, called 
the Nevada House. Early in the spring of 1852, a company from Nevada, 
Samuel Whiteside, J. Compton, William Cowan, William R. Dixon, Hiram 
Buster, Charles O'Hara, and Jeff Vanmetre, came here prospecting, and at 
the instance of AVhiteside a shaft was sunk on the hill, where gold was struck 
in paying quantities. This was the opening of a series of rich hill diggings 
through this region. The hill was named Gold Ridge. 

The Campbell brothers built a store in 1852, which was placed in charge 
of a man named Fuller. In the spring of 1853 the place had grown to con- 
siderable size, and a large number of miners commenced work on Gold 
Ridge, which extended for several miles. That year the Campbells built a 
large three-story hotel. It was called the National Hotel. In 1861 the 


ground on which it was built was sold for mining purposes, and the building 
was torn down. In 1853 Ed Brooks built a store, and in 1856 erected a 
large brick building, at a cost of $12,000. J. R. Meek, father of the present 
county surveyor and of William B. Meek, who resides in Camptonville, 
later became the owner of this structure. William B. Meek is interested in 
the leading store in Camptonville. To him is left the handling of whatever 
Camptonville arranges in the line of celebrations. An expert driver, Meek- 
takes delight in giving the visitors thrilling rides over the mountain roads 
'as a feature of such gatherings. 

Robert Campton came in 1852 and opened a blacksmith shop. He was 
a general favorite, and in 1854 the town was named Camptonville, in honoi 
of the sturdy artisan. 

The first dramatic entertainment ever given in the town was presented 
by Miss Goodwin on the upper floor of a saloon building, in 1854. 

A bowling alley was built in 1853 by William Green. The alley was 
made from one-half of a tree trunk, cut by a whipsaw. At a miners' meeting 
held in the bowling alley in the spring of 1854, it was decided that mining 
claims should be 75 by 75 feet and town lots 75 by 150 feet. 

In the fall of 1854, the wagon road was finished to Camptonville, and 
in 1855 the California Stage Company began to run stages to the town. 
Previous to this, pack trains were the only means of transportation. Isaac 
Green started an opposition line, and finally compelled the other to abandon 
the route. Warren Green succeeded his brother in the stage business. 

The first school in Camptonville was a private one opened in 1854, 
taught by Mrs. A. Brooks at her residence. The same year a public school 
was opened. Miss Budden was the teacher. 

Early Water Companies 

The necessity of having good water in Camptonville was early recog- 
nized by Sanford Hall, and in 1857 he undertook the task of supplying it. 
From a large spring, two and one-half miles east of the town, he constructed 
a flume, through which water was brought to a reservoir within the town 
limits. This reservoir had a capacity of 12,000 gallons, and was built of 
planks at a cost of $200. Another flume ran from the reservoir over the 
tops of the houses, from which water was drawn off in supply pipes for use 
by the citizens. In 1858, he laid down 700 feet of four-inch pipe, at a cost of 
$1500. In 1859 he sold the property to J. D. Andrews. 

In 1860, Everett, McClellan, & Elwell built a flume from a spring on 
Oregon Creek, two and three-fourths miles distant, and brought water into 
two reservoirs, 16 by 24 feet in size and 10 feet deep. They laid 1200 feet 
of six-inch main pipe in the town, and 800 feet of supply pipe. They also 
furnished four fire plugs. These improvements cost $6500. In 1861 these 
men bought out Andrews, and consolidated the water business. At one 
time the property was all owned by J. P. Brown. 

Yuba Light Infantry 

Company E, 1st Battalion, 4th Brigade, N. G. C, was organized in 
Camptonville, November 7, 1863, with eighty members. The first officers 
were J. P. Brown, captain; J. G. McClellan, first lieutenant; S. W. Wardner, 
second lieutenant; and Charles Gray, Jr., second lieutenant. The company 
was supplied with the regulation Springfield breech-loading muskets. 

The armory was enlarged from time to time, and was used as a dance 
hall and theater. Two balls were given by the company each year, in May 
and September. The company had a military band of nine pieces that was 
organized in 1878 as the Camptonville Brass Band. The first troupe to play 
on the new armory stage was the Wilbur & Mills Minstrel Troupe. 



Smartsville obtained its name from a man named Smart, who built the 
first hotel there in the spring of 1856. This was the first building, except 
a cabin here and there occupied by the miners. The only large settlements 
at that time in the township were Timbuctoo and Sucker Flat. L. B. Clark 
bought the hotel in 1857 and kept a store. Rich mines were developed, the 
remains of which are still to be seen, as also the traces of the days of the 
hydraulic miner. Prominently identified with the history of the place were 
the late James O'Brien, Sr., Daniel McGanney, Thomas Conlin, John H. Mc- 
Quaid and John Cramsie. Descendants of these pioneers are to be found in 
the once thriving mining camp, having taken up the burdens of their ances- 
tors where they laid them down. 

Union Church 

A union church was built in Smartsville in 1863 by subscriptions from 
the citizens of the town, costing about $1500. The Presbyterians, Methodists 
and Episcopalians held services here, though none were then strong enough 
to supply a regular pastor. The Presbyterians had a resident pastor two or 
three years. The Methodists were supplied by the circuit minister. Episco- 
oalian clergymen occasionally came from Marysville and elsewhere and held 
services. A union Sunday school and a library of 300 volumes were main- 
tained. The late John T. Vineyard was the superintendent. 

Church of the Immaculate Conception 

The first services of the Catholic denomination in the vicinity were held 
by Rev. Father Peter Magganotta at Rose Bar in 1852, at which time the 
church was organized. The first church edifice was erected in 1861 and 
was called St. Rose's Church. It was burned in 1870, and another was 
built in the following year. The successive pastors were Rev. Maurice 
Hickey, Rev. Daniel O'Sullivan, Rev. Matthew Coleman, Rev. Father Two- 
mey, Rev. J. J. Hines, Father Dermody, and Father Enright. At present 
the parish is visited by a priest from Grass Valley. 

Catharine Johnson Berry* 

A history of Yuba County would be incomplete without mention of 
its valiant pioneer women. There comes before my mind the picture of one 
of these noble women who left a life of ease and social distinction, to follow 
the fortunes of her husband in the far West. 

Catharine Johnson Berry, the subject of this sketch, was born of Irish 
parentage in Baltimore, Md., August 25, 1817. She received her education at 
the even then famous convent of Emmitsburg, and was graduated later from a 
French school in Philadelphia. She mingled for years in Southern society, 
and in the early forties went to Dubuque, Iowa, where, in 1843, she married 
John Van Antwerp Berry. The latter was born in Montgomery County, 
N. Y., in 1810, and was descended from the hardy Dutch burgomasters. 
He studied law and was admitted to the bar in 1834 by Chief Justice Savage, 
and moved to Iowa in 1838. 

When the news of the discovery of gold reached Dubuque, Mr. Berry 
decided to leave a promising future and try his fortune in the land of gold. 

*The author wishes to acknowledge, with thanks, the following sketch of Mrs. 
Berry's life as the contribution of Miss Agnes M. O'Brien of Smartsville, daughter of 
the late James O'Brien, honored and dependable pioneer of Yuba County, whose name 
is inseparable from the story of the agricultural and mining development of this section. 
The story of Mrs. Berry's trials and noble sacrifices in the West is that of many another 
noble woman. It is regrettable that space cannot be given to all the pioneer women 
who so handsomely assisted in the building of the great commonwealth in which the 
present generation flourishes as a result of their labors. 


With his wife and two small sons, he joined an emigrant train which left 
Galena, 111., on the 17th of March, 1849. Mr. Berry's diary contains the fol- 
lowing list of purchases made for that long journey. Two wagons, $200 
six yoke of oxen, $300; four barrels of flour, $16; two barrels of pork, $15 
two barrels of crackers, $8; one keg of lard, $15; one keg of butter, $10 
cheese, $5; one barrel of sugar, $15; and numerous other articles of various 
kinds, including tools. 

The long, tedious trip was not marked by any misfortunes ; but in after 
years Mrs. Berry often spoke of the discomforts and anxiety endured in 
crossing the plains. During their journey they joined a New Jersey train ; 
and after the last mountain' had been passed, they abandoned one wagon 
and used all the oxen on the remaining one, thus reaching their destination 
more quickly. Part of their itinerary reads as follows : Fort Laramie, June 
12; City of Salt Lake, July 14; Steeple Rocks, July 25; Summit of the Sierra 
Nevadas, September 2 ; Valley of the Sacramento, September 20. Arriving at 
Long Bar on the 10th of October, they established their camp on the south 
bank of the Yuba River on Hayes Flat, a little below the Parks Bar bridge. 

Mrs. Berry was the first white woman to venture this far, and the miners 
journeyed from long distances to get a glimpse of her. ' According to her 
chronicle of those exciting times, the letter carrier charged the modest sum 
of $1 a letter to and from Marysville. A letter written by Mrs. Berry in the 
spring of 1850 describes the winter as unusual in its severity. She speaks 
of the inexhaustible wealth of the mines, but deplores the hardships of pioneer 
life. "One thing alone, in this modern Eldorado," according to Mrs. Berry, 
"has not been exaggerated. It is emphatically the land of flowers; the 
whole surface of the earth is a gay pasture ; every hill, every vale speaks in 
the language of flowers." 

Here I must digress from the subject of this sketch and devote some 
space to Mr. Berry. At this period he joined a company known as "The 
Canal Company," organized for the purpose of draining Yuba River at this 
point, and mining the river bed. The list of stockholders in the company 
reads like a roster of Yuba's prominent pioneer settlers. They were : A. F. 
Benedict, AY. H. Peck, J. B. Henderson, S. F. Daggett, George Boyd, C. 
Hampton, S. M. Royen, C. E. Stone (afterward a Marysville physician), 
D. H. Ferguson, J. F. Bigelow, and William Torrance.' 

In the fall of 1850, Mr. Berry moved to Marysville and resumed the 
practice of law, and likewise revived his interest in politics. He was a 
member of the first legislature that met in San Jose, and was conceded to 
be one of the most brilliant lawyers in the new State. Among his contem- 
poraries of the bar in Marysville were : H. P. Haun, T. B. Reardon, C. E. 
Filkins, G. N. Swezy, Charles H. Bryan, and Stephen J. Field. Following a 
heated argument, which led to personalities, Mr. Berry challenged Mr. 
Field to a duel, which was the accepted mode of settling difficulties in those 
days. Field's apology was one of Mrs. Berry's cherished possessions. It 
reads as follows: 

"Mr. Field's compliments to Col. Berry, and he regrets that he indulged 
in the remarks which led to the unpleasant occurrences of this morning. Mr. 
Field desires that Col. Berry will likewise withdraw the offensive words used 
by him on this occasion." 

Aided by his scarcely less brilliant wife, Mr. Berrv's future seemed 
most promising, when he was suddenly stricken, and died in Marysville on 
July 2, 1853. The resolutions passed by the County Bar Association be- 
speak the esteem m which he was held. His death left his widow with in- 
sufficient means to raise her young sons and maintain her position in Marys- 
ville's social life. After visiting her husband's people in New. York, she 


returned to Marysville in 1856. At this period Judge Field desired to marc- 
her, but she could never consent to anyone filling- the place of her cherished 
husband. In a letter -written shortly before his death. Judge Field speaks 
of Mrs. Berry as "a woman of great beauty, cultured mind, and varied ac- 
complishments, and one of the most brilliant and charming women of 
those earh r days." 

In 1857, Mrs. Berry was engaged to teach the public schools in Smarts- 
ville, and took up her residence in that then thriving town. An ardent 
Southerner, her sympathies were with her beloved Southland when the Con- 
federate States seceded. In her capacity as teacher, she was obliged to 
teach the iron-clad oath of allegiance to the Union. She looked upon this as 
the bitterest moment of her life. Prompted solely by the necessity of pro- 
viding for her sons, Mrs. Berry proved a wonderful educator ; and even after 
her retirement from the schools, in 1874, she conducted a private school until 
age and physical disability forced her to relinquish such arduous labor. She 
died after a short illness. February 7, 1899; and with her passing closed one 
of the most interesting and eventful lives this section has ever known. A 
charming personality, a mind which was veritably a storehouse of knowledge, 
she was even in her less prosperous days ever the type of the "grand dame." 
Sorrows and trials were often her portion; but she bore them with truly- 
Spartan fortitude, as did all that noble band of pioneer mothers. How little 
we of this later day realize what a debt we owe to our heroic parents who 
braved such dangers and surmounted such difficulties, that we, their chil- 
dren, might bask in the sunshine of this promised land ! 


Timbuctoo, related to the same town in Africa, is a suburb of Smarts- 
ville. Due to the fact that a negro w r as one of the first to work one of the 
ravines near the camp, the ravine was named Timbuctoo, and soon the name 
attached itself to the settlement. The first mining was done in the ravines 
near the town, in 1850. William Monigan, who later had a store in the 
place, was one of the first to try his luck in the ravines. It was Monigan 
and another man named L. B. Clark who were responsible for the christen- 
ing of the place. 

A number of cabins were early built in the vicinity, but the first dwell- 
ing house was erected by AVilliam Gregory, early in 1855. A hotel was built 
in 1855 by Jacob Duffird. It stood across the road from the post-office, and 
was burned by the fire of 1878. Timbuctoo was the largest and most thriv- 
ing locality in Rose Bar Towmship in 1859. At that time there were two 
hotels, six boarding houses, eight saloons in addition to the bars in the hotels 
and boarding houses, one bank, one drug store, two general stores, three 
clothing and dry-goods stores, three shoe shops, one blacksmith shop, two 
carpenter shops, one lumber yard, three bakeries, one livery stable, one bar- 
ber shop, two cigar and tobacco stores, one theater, and a church. 

Of this colony there now remain a few dwellings and the old building 
in which AYells, Fargo & Company did business for years. The latter struc- 
ture, up to a few years ago, was occupied by Chinese as a store and lodgings. 
This brick structure, in the days of the express company, housed millions in 
gold dust shipped from the mines in the vicinity. It is now in a stage of 
dilapidation ; but the Native Sons of the Golden West have plans to restore 
it. as being among the landmarks of the State deserving of preservation. 
More extended description of this building is given in another chapter. 

The vote of the Timbuctoo precinct was at one time as high as 800, 
and the total population about 1200. In 1859 a fine wooden theater with a 
basement was erected. It had a seating capacity of 800 and was frequently 


occupied by traveling companies, which theretofore used an old church 
The first school at Timbuctoo was conducted by a Mr. Potter in 1856. The 
first public schoolhouse was built in 1862. In 1873 it was moved to Smarts- 
ville and made an annex to the one at that place. 1 he cemetery lying just 
west of the place was started in 1855. 


This place got its name, which at first was Gatesville, through the fact 
that one of the early settlers, hailing from Illinois, was named Gates. A 
store was started here in the winter of 1850 by a man named McCall. Rose 
Bar was on the river and Sucker Flat was just back of it, the two places 
beino- practically one. In 1851, the joint population was 300 men and five 
women. The nearest post-office was at Parks Bar, a few miles below, and 
on the opposite side of the Yuba River. 

When Rose Bar and Parks Bar began to be worked out, and the hydrau- 
lic mines were developed, Sucker Flat became quite a town and the other 
bars were abandoned. 


This bar had the honor of being the first where gold was discovered on 
Yuba River. It received its name from John Rose, who came there in 1848, 
from the American River. Accompanying the party was John Ray with his 
wife and several children. This was the first family at the bar. It was 
Jonas Spect, from Colusa, who found gold at this point, on June 2, 1848. 

In the fall of 1848, John Rose and his partner, William J. Reynolds, 
started a store at the bar. Rose did the buying at Sacramento, and in that 
way the place came to be known as Rose Bar. When the miners began 
to arrive from the East, it became a little crowded, and in the spring of 1849 
a meeting was held at which it was decided that a claim should be 100 feet 
square, and that the miner should be confined to his claim. Rose, Reynolds 
and Kinloch, a young man they had taken into partnership, furnished beef 
from their ranch in Linda Township. 

In 1849 a company of fifty men, -among whom was William H. Parks, 
who later represented this district in the legislature, and was a prominent 
resident of Marysville, commenced to dam the river, so as to mine the bed. 
They completed the dam and commenced work early in October. The rain 
set in on the 8th, and in two days the water overflowed the dam and washed 
it away. In the few days' work they had taken out $1000 each. A few days 
before the destruction of the dam. Parks sold out and, with an experienced 
baker,- started a store, bakery and boarding house. 

During the year the bar became very populous, and in 1850 there were 
2000 men working there. At that time there were three stores (one of which 
was kept by Baxter & States), three boarding houses, two saloons, bakeries, 
blacksmith shops, etc. The course of the river was turned seven consecu- 
tive years, cleaning it up as a rich place to mine. It was later covered by 
tailings. When the high water came in 1849, the miners moved back into 
the ravines, where they found very rich surface diggings. Squaw Creek 
was a very rich locality. One of these ravines was worked by the man 
Gates, after whom Sucker Flat was at first named. 


Sicard Flat, still existing as a settlement, is a flat just back of Parks Bar 
and the early-day Sicard Bar. It derived its name from Theodore Sicard, 
who opened the mines. Work was commenced here in 1860, in the ravine, 
where rich surface diggings were found. When the gravel mines were dis- 
covered, Sicard Flat became a great hydraulic-mining point. 



This bar derived its name from the fact that it was the longest bar on 
the river. It was developed about the first of October, 1849, by a company 
of gold-seekers who were directed to the place by Major Cooper, of Benicia, 
who was the pioneer of Parks Bar, in 1848. There were three girls in the 
party, members of a family named Nash. They were the first females to 
appear at the bar, and were recipients of the attentions of many young 
miners, who oftentimes came miles to see them. 

An amusing story is told of one young man who sought to make an 
impression on the girls in the Nash family. At Sawmill Bar this young man, 
a lawyer from Tennessee, named Wiley H. Peck — a handsome man, six feet 
five inches tall — decided to make a call at the Nash home. In the rough 
camp life of the mines, fine clothes were scarce, and facilities for making an 
elegant toilet were few indeed. One Sunday morning Peck asked a lady 
acquaintance to lend him a white towel that was hanging on the line at her 
camp at Sawmill Bar. She readily assented, thinking he desired it to use 
in making his toilet. After a little while he presented himself before the 
astonished lady for her approval of his tout ensemble, as he was about to 
pay a state visit to the Nash girls. He was faultlessly arrayed in a suit of 
broadcloth that he had brought across the plains. The lady, commencing at 
his carefully combed locks, could detect not a flaw in his "get-up" until she 
came to his feet, when — lo ! what a sight! Having nothing with which to 
encase his pedal extremities except heavy miner's boots, and being ashamed 
to make a call with those unsightly things on his feet, he decorated his bare 
feet with blacking to represent boots ! Also, the towel, instead of being 
used in making his toilet, had been placed in his pocket, with the end pro- 
truding to represent a white handkerchief. Thus arrayed, he had sallied 
forth to "conquer or die." 

Claims on Long Bar were taken tip so rapidly that by the spring of 
1850 there were 1000 people there. Work here continued later than at many 
other of the mining camps, although the place was not so rich as its two 
great rivals, Parks and Rose Bars. 


Oregon House, situated twenty-four miles from Marysville, on the 
Camptonville road, is one of the landmarks of Yuba County. It was first 
settled in 1850 by Larry Young, who built a log cabin in the valley at the 
head of which the present house stands. The Oregon House was built in 
1852. In January, 1853, on the anniversary of the battle of New Orleans, a 
grand party was given at the Oregon House. This was the first party in 
the hills. Two hundred fifty tickets were sold. There were eighteen ladies 
present, which was a good showing for those days. 

The Yuba Mountaineers 

There was a military company organized in this locality during the 
Civil War, and the Oregon House was the rallying point. They were called 
the Yuba Mountaineers. The officers of this company in 1863 were: John 
Brown, captain ; H. Camper, first lieutenant ; J. A. Clay, second lieutenant ; 
J. A. Barnhart, third lieutenant; and W. Moon, first sergeant. 


This point on the northeast side of Yuba River, fifteen miles above 
Marysville, was one of the first spots where gold was found on that stream, 
and was probably the richest of all the many bars so thickly spread along 
its banks. David Parks, from whom the bar derived its name, came here on 
September 8, 1848. He, with his family, consisting of his wife and several 


children, was on his way overland when he was met by a train of Mormons 
who informed him of the discovery of gold here. He at once altered his 
course, and came to this place. Mrs. Parks was the first white woman to 
arrive in the township. 

Parks mined and kept a trading post and store, his customers being the 
Indians and the many miners that now began to cluster about this spot. 
Goods brought enormously high prices, especially among the Indians, who 
knew little of the worth of gold dust and set great value upon beads and sugar, 
which they used to buy from Mrs. Parks. They would give a tin cup even 
full of gold dust for the same quantity of beads, and would buy sugar, 
weight for weight. 

The Parks family, with the exception of the sons David and John, re- 
mained only about six months, and then returned to the States by way of 
the Isthmus of Panama. They landed in New Orleans in the summer of 
1849, being among the first, if not the first, to return to the East from the 
gold region. The excitement was great at that time, and hundreds were 
leaving on every steamer. When Parks went to the bank and exchanged 
$85,000 in dust for coin, the excitement knew no bounds, and he was looked 
upon as a living evidence of the reality of the gold discovery. So little was 
known of the value of this dust, that he could obtain but $12 an ounce. His 
sons, David and John Parks, remained in California and for some time were 
prominent men of Marysville. 

Early in 1849, the miners began to gather rapidly at this point, and the 
bar soon became a populous and thriving town. It was very rich, and many 
a hard-working miner returned from the bar to his Eastern home with a 
golden belt. Dr. C. E. Stone, prominent physician in later days in Marys- 
ville, was among the early settlers at Parks Bar. The place began to decline 
in 1854, and each successive year thereafter saw it becoming more and more 
deserted. Nothing now remains on the site of the once flourishing place. 


Early-day settlements of comparatively short existence, some of which 
have been mentioned in the foregoing, but are repeated here for convenience 
of reference, were as follows : 

In East and West Bear River Townships : Barham's Crossing, Trimble's 
Crossing, Kempton's Crossing, Johnson's Crossing, Kearney, Camp Far 
West, Wire Bridge (also known as McDonald's Mills), McCourtney's, Gra- 
ham's, Melon's Hotel, Round Tent, Plumas Landing, Eldorado City (some- 
times known as Messick Ranch), Reed's Station, McDonald's Distillery, and 
Von Schmidt's Mill. 

In Rose Bar Township: Spect's Camp, Cape Horn, Cordua Bar, Saw- 
mill Bar, Lander's Bar, Kennebec Bar, and Sand Hill. 

In Long Bar Township : Long Bar, Swiss Bar, Prairie Diggings, Six- 
teen-mile House, Comstock Place, Galena House, Peoria House, Zinc House, 
and Bowers' House. 

In Parks Bar Township : Parks Bar, Sicard Bar, Sicard Flat, Barton's Bar, 
Malay Camp, Union Bar, Clark Valley Ranch, Frenchtown, McQueen's Saw- 
mill, Garden Ranch, Dry Creek Mill, Virginia Ranch, Bell Vallev, Enterprise 
Mill, Martin Ranch, Golden Ball, Willow Glen House, and California House. 

In New York Township : Natchez, New York House, New York Ranch 
(or Flat), Ohio and Garden Ranch Flats, Mount Hope, Sharon Valley Mill, 
Washington Mill, American Mill, Columbia Mill, Gnaggy Mill, Beaver 
Ranch, Sawmill Cottage, Ross Ranch, Hansonville, Paige's Mill, Union Mill, 
Jefferson House, White Sulphur Spring House (called sometimes Stewart), 
New York Point, Clayton's Ranch, Washington Mill Huse, Jack's Ranch, 


Union Hotel, Paulineville, Pike County House, Ohio Mill, Switzer's (or 
Monitor Mill), Willow Glen, Pennsylvania House, Hedge's House, Plaskett's 
Mill, and Woodville Mill. 

In Foster's Bar Township : Foster's Bar, Bullard's Bar, Stony Bar, 
Poverty Bar, Horse Bar, Rice's Crossing, Condemned Bar, Frenchman's 
Bar, Missouri Bar, Negro Bar, Clingman's Point, English Bar, Vance Wing- 
dam, Winslow Bar, Kanaka Bar, Long Bar No. 2, Oregon Bar, Pittsburg 
Bar, Rock Island Bar, Elbow Bar, Missouri Bar No. 2, Mountain Cottage, 
Keystone Hotel, Maple Springs House, Eagle Bird Hotel, Fountain House, 
Riverside Hotel, McCrutch Place, Binninger's Ranch, and Labadie's. 

In Northeast Township: Woodville House, Missouri Bar No. 1, Buck- 
eye House, Eagleville, Willow Bar, New York Bar, Alabama Bar, Hamp- 
shire Mill, Eagle Mill, Deadwood Mill, and Independence Mill. 

In Slate Range Township : Garden Valley Ranch, Ferry Bar, Wisconsin 
House, Junction House, Dad's Gulch, Young's Hill, Railroad Hill, Freeman's 
Crossing, Galena Hill, Moonshine Creek, Oak Valley, Celestial Valley, Pitts- 
burg Hill, Slate Range, and AVeed's Point. 


When Marysville's jail was a small one-story adobe structure at the 
loot of D Street? 

When there was no street-railway connection between Marysville and 
Yuba City, and the mode of conveyance was horse-drawn busses, the drivers 
of which announced the time of departure by blowing a fish-horn, and were 
so accommodating that they would, by appointment, stop for you in front 
of your home, or at some designated shopping place, and toot the horn to 
summon you to get aboard? 

When "the Slough" required foot-bridges on Fifth Street, F to G; E 
Street, Eighth to Tenth ; and Eighth Street, E to F ; and how those bridges 
were trysting places for you and your girl on fair evenings? 

When the faithful old colored man, named Watkins, announced auction 
sales from the principal corners in the business and residence sections by 
loudly and solemnly ringing a huge hand-bell, following with "Hear ye ! 
hear ye !" and then as solemnly chanting the time and location of the auction, 
the auctioneer's name, and the nature of the goods to go "under the hammer," 
with an emphatic assurance that the time of opportunity had arrived for 
those who sought bargains? 

When Marysville had her "Father Wie Gehts" (William Landis), so 
named for his persistency in greeting his friends in German? He invariably 
appeared in a soft shirt, collar cut low, and roomy pantaloons tucked away in 
great, heavy boots. Solidly built, he carried a cane which was allowed to 
strike the sidewalk with a rhythm as he jogged along. When he did not 
carry a cane it was his trusty shotgun that occupied his hands. For his exer- 
cise, the procuring of which seemed to be his principal occupation, he walked 
the levees about the city, or went far into the country to hunt wild game. 
He knew where the birds abounded, and always came back with a well- 
filled bag. When the vote on the first set of levee commissioners was can- 


vassed, it was found that "Father Wie Gehts" had been chosen as one of three 
to serve the city. He declined the office and refused to qualify. He didn't 
have the time. The "call of the wild" for him. 

When the city had another character — -"Blind Chandon," who, though 
totally deprived of sight, made his way about the streets aided by his cane? 
He knew every nook and cranny of the town, and never failed to recognize 
the voice of a greeting friend, or acquaintance. In a horse trade (he followed 
farming north of the city on the "Chandon Ranch") he was not to be de- 
frauded. If any one lost out on the deal, it was the other fellow. Among 
Chandon's friends and admirers was J. "Riley" Garrett, founder of the J. R. 
Garrett Company of the present day. Garrett would drop a business deal 
any time to perpetrate a joke. Noting that Jacob Tomb, a friend of both 
Chandon and Garrett, was minus a button from his pantaloons front, Garrett 
called Chandon and told him of Tomb's whereabouts and of the missing but- 
ton. Chandon made his way at once to Tomb's position on the main corner 
of the city and, before a crowd of Tomb's friends, derided him for his negli- 
gence in dress. Fver after that it was difficult to convince Tomb that Chan- 
don did not have at least a partial use of his eyes. 

When, for many years, a wooden Indian was the sign for a Marysville 
cigar store? This wooden Indian is now to be seen on Powell Street in 
San Francisco, engaged in the same pursuit. During his stay in Marysville 
he was the property of M. and M. A. Marcuse, who conducted a cigar store 
on the "Western House corner." 

When Cortez Square was surrounded with a low brick wall, surmounted 
by a picket fence, and had turnstiles at its corners as entrances and exits? 

When this same square was used as the show grounds for circuses, and 
for amateur baseball and old-style football games? 

When this same square, now a beautiful park, contained, in its center, 
a building where State fairs were held? 

When, sometimes, the vacant lot upon which now stands the Peffer 
planing mill and the two dwellings to the north, now owned by the Peffer 
heirs, was used for smaller circuses and small medicine shows? 

When St. Joseph's Boys' School, at Seventh and C Streets, was a one- 
story frame structure and had on both sides sidewalks desirable for games 
of marbles, purg and mumbly-peg? 

When the present site of the Peri Building on D Street was occupied 
by the leading livery stable, with a board walk in front, over which the 
clatter of the horses' hoofs, leaving and entering, could be heard for blocks? 

When the present sites of the C. C. Hampton and Samuel Ewell resi- 
dences on Sixth Street, D and Oak, were occupied as a Christian Brothers' 
school, and when the. lot upon which now stands the Dr. J. L. Sullivan home, 
and lots to the north thereof, were occupied by Miss Poston's private school? 

When the Southern Pacific passenger depot was located in a one-story 
brick building at the southwest corner of Sixth and A Streets, wdrere the 
Southern Pacific Park now is, and how "Billy" Ward was "mine host" to 
the hungry passengers on a "hurry up" schedule, said passengers being 
summoned to the table by a bell rung by "Chub" Casey, as soon as the 
trains came to a stop ? 

When there were but two passenger trains into Marysville each day — 
one from the north and one from the south — and the hotel busses met each 
with drivers who so strenuously fought for the alighting passengers that 
the police frequently had to take a hand? 

When Owen Cunningham, who signed "R. O. C," was both freight 
platform boss and baggage master for the Southern Pacific, and how we 


kids had to "look out" that he didn't catch us digging into the sacks of nuts 
and dried fruits left with him for consignment? 

"When the ice for city consumption arrived each Friday evening from 
Boca or Truckee in a box car dripping wet : how that dripping car was a 
signal for the kids to assemble underneath it while it was being unloaded, 
and there fight for the pieces that broke from the blocks ; and how the huski- 
est lad always got enough of the broken pieces to turn into pocket money 
at the nearest saloon ? 

"When the ponds outside the Browns Valley grade were the favorite 
swimming pools, where many a kid learned the art, and in the vicinity of 
which were vineyards and orchards where the boys always could get their 
fill of the fruit any day in fruit season? 

When "Cass' Point," a projection into Ellis Lake about at Ninth and 
D Streets, was "a good place to swim" ; and when the "Chinese Rafts" on 
Feather River, west of the county hospital, proved a magnet for the boys 
bent on swimming on a warm day? 

"When the lot upon which the police station and city prison now stand 
was occupied by a residence owned by a man named Carr, in front of which 
images of two large dogs were kept ; and how Carr, when he removed to San 
Francisco, took the dogs with him and planted them in front of a home 
which he built in the metropolis? 

When "old man Hatch" was janitor of the B Street grammar school, 
and how, for years, he had as a faithful companion a brown dog which splen- 
didly matched his complexion, and for which all the pupils always evinced 
'.he greatest respect? 

T. J. (Tom) Powers, who kept a saloon and billiard parlor on Second 
Street, opposite the W T estern Hotel, and who daily displayed the flag of the 
United States, or of some other country, as a reminder of some nation's 
holiday, or the anniversary of some great battle, or other event of the past? 

Harry Adkins, for years and years pressman in the office of the Marys- 
ville Appeal, and Frank and Ed Cunningham, who were hand-set printers on 
that paper for forty years? 

George Harris ("Six-shooter George"), watchman and stage hand at the 
old Marysville Theater for most of his life? 

John Flattery, who kept a candy and notion stand in the Odd Fellows 
Building, and who, seated in his one-hoss shay, attended every funeral, 
always bringing up the rear? 

When Walter E. Langdon, present police judge of Marysville, was 
delivery clerk for "Jim" Rich, grocer of Wheatland ; and how he sought to 
reform by becoming a news-gatherer for a Marysville paper, and then ad- 
vanced along the line of reformation by becoming secretary for Marysville 
Lodge of Elks and finally a police court magistrate? 

Maurice J. Collis, son of Erin, who became the star reporter on the 
Marysville Appeal, holding the position many years, until his death? 

When the outlet for teams and wagons from Marysville to the east was 
Simpson's Lane, an extension of Seventh Street at Yuba, and the bridge that 
crossed the river in that lane, before the crossing was moved to its location 
at the foot of E Street? 

"Tennessee Bill" (AYilliam Goforth), who made frequent visits to both 
Yuba City and Marysville, and raised his monstrous fog-horn voice to the 
four points of the compass in support of his favored political candidate, and 
generally landed in jail for disturbing the peace? 

The annual picnic of St Joseph's Society and the trip by river steamer 
down Feather River to Hock Farm, where the lads and lassies danced their 
fill and the families of the two counties renewed friendships around the 


lunches spread upon the grass, and where there were always several couples 
to dance Irish jigs and Scotch hornpipes? 

When Fifth Street, in the grain season, presented a long line of wagons 
carrying Sutter County wheat and barley to the warehouses of the Buckeye 
Mills Company for storage? 

When A. Peri, founder of the Peri Dancing Academy in the Peri Build- 
■ ing on D Street, Third and Fourth, thought three or "four months in the 
summer season was the limit for selling' ice cream and ice cream sodas, and 
closed that branch of his business for the remaining months of the year? 

When "Uncle Obe" Sawtelle was collector of tolls on the D Street 
bridge, and how deftly he manipulated the swinging gates on the Marysville 
end of the bridge at the approach of a runaway team, thus avoiding damage 
to the bridge and, at the same time, protecting rigs and drivers who were 
already on the structure ? 

When "Uncle Obe" Sawteile issued a pronunciamento that white cows 
need not pay toll to cross the bridge, and then explained that the owners 
of course would pay, and not the cows? 

The old town pump and the watering-trough that stood so many years 
at the corner of Bridge and Second Streets in Yuba City ; and "Uncle Cale" 
Wilcoxon, who, with others, conducted the store on this corner, where old 
cronies gathered to enjoy "Uncle Cale's" jokes and sallies? 

When the boys switched the needle on "Uncle Cale" in the box that 
looked so tempting as a seat to the weary? 

When Yuba City's water-works comprised a 5000-gallon tank supported 
by rough beams, and located on a lot on Second Street next to Jim Orr's 
blacksmith shop ? 

The history of that early landmark of Marysville, the huge iron ball 
standing at the curb, at the intersection of Sixth and Elm Streets? This 
ball was shipped from San Francisco in the early fifties by way of Marysville, 
consigned to the mines. It was part of an arrastre to be used in crushing 
gold ore. By the time it reached Marysville it was found to be damaged 
and useless for the purpose for which it was intended. The teamsters de- 
cided not to haul it further, and left if near its present location, in the stable 
from which they started. The ball was shifted about, and finally was taken 
charge of by the city authorities, who later substituted it for a corner post. 

The year Jacob Guenther had the mail route between the railroad depot 
and the Marysville post-office, and the spirited pony he drove attached to 
his spring wagon, and how every other vehicle had to make way for "Jake" 
when, in his haste, he turned the corner on two wheels? 

Harry Keetly, express driver for Wells, Fargo & Company in Marys- 
ville. who died after years spent in the company's service in the business 
and residence districts? 

Photo by courtesy of Thomas A. McKenna, of San Francisco, formerly a 

Y"uba County 

ddent of Marysville 



No more striking relic of the times when Yuba and Sutter Counties were 
in the swaddling-clothes age is to be found anywhere than a gun owned by 
Dr. J. H. Barr, of Yuba City, physician of Marysville and Yuba City and 
collector of ancient and modern firearms. At first sight, this immense firearm 
appears more a cannon than a gun. Six feet three inches in length and weigh- 
ing thirty-five pounds, the weapon was used as a cannon by Gen. John A. Sut- 
ter, after whom Sutter County was named. Mounted on a swivel, it many 
times served to repel attacks made by the Indians in the very early days of 
Sutter County, when General Sutter maintained his fort at Hock Farm, 
nine miles south of Yuba City on the west bank of Feather River. 

The immense gun was added to Dr. Barr's collection of firearms and 
curios in September, 1895. The doctor has ever since steadfastly refused to 
part with it. At one time the officers of the Grand Parlor of Native Sons of 
the Golden West offered him $1000 for the relic, realizing its worth as a 
souvenir of the days the memory of which the order seeks to perpetuate in 
California's history. 

Better than any story that can be written of the gun as to its authentic- 
ity and record, is an affidavit which Dr. Barr always keeps attached to the 
relic. This affidavit reads as follows : 

"This gun being a most valued historical relic,, its authenticity is hereby 
preserved by the following affidavit : 

" 'David J. Kertchem being duly sworn says that the large gun with 
swivel attachment and the words and figures "Moore, 1770" on barrel and lock 
was originally the property of General John A. Sutter, and that it was one of 
the guns that were mounted for defense and used for several years prior to 
1868 in the fort at General Sutter's ranch on the Feather River, nine miles 
south of Marysville, known as Hock Farm ; that the said gun became, in the 
year 1870, the property of deponent's father, D. J. Kertchem, Sr., who in that 
year, being the lessee of Hock Farm, received said gun as a present from the 
son of General Sutter ; that the said gun remained in the possession of depon- 
ent's family until the year 1895, when deponent presented it to Dr. J. H. 
Barr. Signed, D. J. Kertchem, Jr.' 

"Subscribed and sworn to before me this 30th day of September, A. D. 
1898. G. W. Harney, Notary Public, Marysville, Yuba County, California." 

Dr. Barr has another gun, a relic of General Sutter's days. It is an odd- 
looking air rifle made in Vienna, Austria, and brought to this country by Gen- 
eral Sutter from Switzerland. The barrel of this weapon, which carries a 
small-caliber bullet, is of brass, and is covered with reed. The stock is taper- 
ing, with a chamber of similar shape, into which air was pumped at a pressure 
of 200 pounds to the square inch. It is of the type of gun that since has been 
held to be unlawful to possess, on account of the absence of a report. 

As the large gun represents the activities of early days in Sutter County, 
the diminutive form alongside of it represents pioneer days in Yuba County. 
The Lilliputian is Benny Lynch, Yuba's shortest male resident, who, when 


asked his height, invariably replies: "The length of a cord stick and two 
inches added," indicating that he is four feet two inches tall. Lynch, who 
long has been a character on Marysville's streets, was born in Kentucky in 
1848, and never grew much. He came to California in 1852, arriving in 
Marysville with his parents on the same boat that brought to this city Col. 
John O. Packard, who gave to Marysville the site and building known as the 
Packard Free Library, situate at the northwest corner of Fourth and C 
Streets. As a young man, he engaged with his brother, Hugh Lynch, in the 
live-stock business. In his prime, which included many palmy days, he 
could ride broncos "with any of 'em" ; and though not much for height, he 
always held his own with the rough characters with which his business 
brought him in contact. 



Sutter County was one of the original counties into which the State was 
divided in 1850. At that time it included the southwestern portion of the 
later created Placer County and a piece of territory along the west that now 
belongs to Colusa County. Territorial changes — subtractions or additions — 
were made in 1851, 1852, 1854, 1856 and 1866, before the boundaries were 
finally fixed in their present location. 


The law creating the county located the county seat at Oro, but that 
place had no suitable building, so the Court of Sessions at its first meeting 
decreed that the seat of government should be at Nicolaus until proper build- 
ings were available at Oro. Early in 1851 the county seat was moved to Au- 
burn, but in that year Auburn became the county seat of the newly created 
county of Placer. Vernon then became the seat of government for Sutter 
County, and so continued for about a year, when Nicolaus again attained the 
coveted prize and retained it for two years. In the fall of 1854 a contested 
election seems — the records are very obscure — to have given the county seat 
to Yuba City for a few months, but later, on a final decision, to have returned 
it to Nicolaus. In 1856, however, an election was held, under authorization of 
the legislature, in which Yuba City was selected by a large majority as the 
seat of government for the county; and it has so continued to the present clay. 

Judge Keyser's Review 

Perhaps in no way can a better description of the difficulties attending the 
selection of the first county seat of Sutter County be given than by quoting 
from a sketch written and delivered by Judge Phil W. Keyser, on the occa- 
sion of the centennial celebration of the country's independence in 1876: 

"The first county seat was Oro, which was a noble city of broad streets, 
imposing buildings, and splendid public squares — on paper — but in fact a 
tract of land fronting on the south bank of Bear Creek, and distant about two 
miles from the then and present site of the good old town of Nicolaus. The 
tract had been purchased from General Sutter by Thomas Jefferson Green, 
who, with others who had become interested with him in the enterprise, had 
had the land surveyed and laid off into streets, and squares, and lots ; and who, 


as State Senator from the Senatorial district of which Sutter County formed 
a part, caused this paper city to be declared by the legislature the county 
seat of Sutter County. Green was a shrewd, energetic man, of a fine, impos- 
ing presence, jolly, good-natured, frank, bluff-mannered, with pleasant coun- 
tenance and persuasive tongue. It was necessary for him to bring all these 
advantages into play, in order to carry his point. Auburn, Nicolaus, Vernon 
and Yuba City were all aspirants for the honor, and expected benefits of the 
county-seatship, while each was not only better fitted for it than Oro — which 
was utterly unfitted — but was well entitled, by situation, improvements, and 
its apparent future, to claim the distinction. Each, therefore, made the best 
fight it could in the legislature against Oro and for itself ; but the active, 
talkative, and merry-mannered Senator for the district won the day, and Oro 
became the first county seat. 

"A pleasant story, illustrative of the Senator's modus operandi, is told 
in connection with the history of that contest. Bear Creek — or River, as it 
was sometimes called — was in those days a small but pretty stream, quietly 
and lazily wandering through the foothills down to the plains, where it me- 
andered between well-defined and well-wooded banks, its calm flow disturbed 
and impeded by trees and underbrush growing thickly in the midst of its 
clear waters, to Feather River, with which it formed a junction at a point 
a mile or two above Nicolaus. Of course it was unnavigable to all but small 
oar-boats, while the large river steamers, of which the largest and finest at 
that time was named the 'Senator,' could even at the highest waters scarcely 
enter its mouth. Green, however, in describing, during the discussion of 
the county-seat question, the advantages of his town of Oro, spoke of the 
splendid river on which it was situated, the waters of which (he asserted), 
when at the lowest stage of a long and dry summer, could be easily navigated. 
A brother Senator, who knew Green's weakness for hyperbole, interrupted by 
asking him if he meant to say that the river steamers could navigate Bear 
River at its lowest stage of water. 'I mean to say,' replied Green, 'that the 
Senator can navigate it at any time of the year.' After adjournment one ac- 
cused him of having — to put it mildly — stretched the truth in saying that a 
steamer like the 'Senator' could navigate Bear River. T never said,' answered 
Green, 'that the steamer "Senator" could; I said the Senator could, but I 
meant the Senator who had asked the impertinent question.' 

"Oro, however, enjoyed the honor — if it enjoyed it at all — but a short 
time. There was not a house or a building in the town for any purpose, much 
less for holding court, the transaction of county business, and the preserva- 
tion of public records. Some preparation must be made by the owners of the 
town to enable the first term, at least, of court to be held at the county seat ; 
and to this end they erected, or rather placed upon the ground, a zinc build- 
ing, about twenty by twenty feet in size, with a floor of rough boards, a roof 
of zinc — if I remember correctly — and holes cut for the Court, the litigants, 
the witnesses, the jurors, and the air, but without glass or shutters for the 
windows, or doors for the entrances. Not a tree, or bush, or shrub, grew near 
enough to give its shade to the building. A May sun poured its rays upon 
that zinc building, until outside and inside it became almost as hot as the 
furnace of Shadrach, Meshech, and Abednego. Law and equity, lawyers and 
litigants, jurors and witnesses, with a spontaneity of action that would 
astonish nothing but a salamander, rushed out of and fled that building, 
never again to return." 

County Courthouse 

The first permanent courthouse in Yuba City was erected in 1858 and 
continued in use until 1871, when it was destroyed by fire. A new and better 
building was completed in 1872. This also was almost completely destroyed 


by fire in. 1899. It was rebuilt, however, and is still in use, with alterations 
made to it in 1922-1923, when a room was added for jurors on the upper floor 
at the rear of the court room, the county treasurer's quarters were enlarged, 
and the jail made more secure. 

The building has brick walls, but the floors and much of the interior 
finish are of wood, and it cannot be considered fireproof. All of the county 
offices, except those of the clerk, auditor-recorder, and district attorney, are 
in this building. The offices of the first-named two are in the Hall of Records, 
on the north side of the Courthouse, while the district attorney, in April, 1923, 
was given more spacious quarters in the then newly constructed Von Geldern 
Building on Second Street, south of the Courthouse. 

Hall of Records 

The Hall of Records, completed in 1892, is constructed of brick and stone, 
with a concrete floor and iron doors. It consists of a main office, where the 
records are kept, and two smaller offices on either side of the entrance. The 
fixtures are of metal, and of the type usually found in such buildings. 

The Courthouse and Hall of Records are well isolated from other build- 
ings, occupying half of a large block, and being surrounded upon all sides 
by extensive lawns. 

Nicolaus, Auburn and Vernon as County Seat 

Reverting to the days when Nicolaus, Auburn and Vernon were playing 
the "on again, off again" game on the county-seat question, it should be ex- 
plained that when court was first held in Nicolaus a private residence was 
used. At Auburn a place was provided by citizens. 

June 2, 1851, when the county seat was settled at Vernon, the following 
appears on the record of the Court of Sessions: "William B. Olds appeared 
in behalf of E. O. Crosby, and made a tender of two buildings in the town 
of Vernon for the use of the county, free of charge." Court was, however, 
held in the hotel owned by Captain Savage. Only one prisoner was confined 
there, and he was made secure by putting him in one of the rooms with a 
chain around his leg, the other end of the chain being passed through a hole in 
the wall and made fast by a clog. 

After the return of the county seat to Nicolaus, the American Hotel 
served as a place for holding court, and for the offices of the county officers, 
until 1855. From that time until the county seat. was removed to Yuba City, 
Frederick Vahle's house was used for these county purposes. Sutter County 
had as yet no jail, and prisoners had to be conveyed to Marysville, and con- 
fined in the Yuba County jail, entailing considerable additional expense. 

The Courthouse Fire of 1871 

We have referred to the destruction of the Courthouse at Yuba City by 
fire in 1871. An account of this fire is given in the Sutter County Banner, 
under the date of December 23, 1871, as follows : 

"Between three and four o'clock, Wednesday morning, December 20, the 
Courthouse was discovered to be on fire, and was soon entirely consumed. 
Some of the officers succeeded in saving the valuable contents of their offices. 
The safes in the various offices and the vault preserved their contents, though 
in some cases somewhat injured. The treasurer's safe contained $38,000, 
which was recovered. All the documents that had been filed for record since 
October were burned, and many old books of the county and some court rec- 
ords were destroyed. The district attorney lost nearly everything in his office 
while the contents of the sheriff's office were saved. The building was insured 
for $5000. By some; the fire was supposed to have been an incendiary one, 
while others believed it to be accidental. It originated in the county clerk's 


office, where work had been suspended at eight o'clock the evening before, 
and the generally accepted version is that the fire was caused by mice gnaw- 
ing the heads of matches that had been left in the office." 

Details of the Fire of 1899 

An insane prisoner detained for commitment in a padded cell on the 
lower floor of the Courthouse started the fire that destroyed that building in 
April, 1899. The Sutter County Farmer of April 28, 1899, records the fol- 
lowing details of the conflagration : 

"By the acts of an insane man the Sutter County Courthouse was de- 
stroyed by fire last Friday night, leaving nothing but brick walls and black- 
ened ruins representing the $25,000 building which has been the headquarters 
for county business for the past twenty-seven years. About two o'clock in 
the morning, Deputy Sheriff C. B. Fields, who slept in the room adjoining 
the sheriff's office, was awakened by stifling smoke. Running into the main 
corridor, Fields saw flames shooting out of a small grated window of the in- 
sane ward, in which was confined Richard Wills, a Cornishman, who was in 
custody awaiting commitment to the Stockton asylum. Fields gave the alarm 
and dashed a number of buckets of water through the window. The night 
watchman 'and J. L. Wilcoxon soon arrived on the scene, also W. H. Camp- 
bell, H. P. Fulton, Thomas Giblin and others. An effort was made to get the 
Cornishman out. The outer door of his cell was unlocked and the door to 
the padded cell broken down. For a moment nothing, but flames and stifling 
smoke could be seen ; but by throwing a lot of water into the interior, the un- 
fortunate man's body was found lying in the corner of the cell on its back, 
burned and charred in a horrible manner. It was impossible at that stage to 
recover the remains. 

"The fire by this time was creeping to the second story. Hose from the 
water works was secured, and the pumps started ; but the fire could not be 
reached by the inadequate stream. All the county officers were soon on the 
scene. All bent their efforts to get out the records from their offices, assisted 
by citizens in large number. The offices of the district attorney, sheriff, as- 
sessor, treasurer, and surveyor, being on the first floor, were easy of access, 
and with few exceptions the books, papers, records, etc., were carried out. 
On the second floor, it was not so easy. A ladder was raised to a window of 
the school superintendent's office, and Superintendent Kline succeeded in sav- 
ing his ledger, account books, minute book and other papers. He, however, 
lost his maps and a number of reports. From the Superior Court room noth- 
ing was saved. The furnishings of the supervisors' room and the desk and 
papers of the board of directors of Eevee District No. 1, including old vouch- 
ers and record books, were also burned. During the fire the big safe in the 
office of Assessor McRae went through the floor into the basement. Not, 
however, before McRae had emptied it of its contents. A stream of water 
poured on the safe in the treasurer's office saved the papers and records that 
were not taken out of it earlier. The sheriff also recovered his papers intact. 
The jail on the west side of the building was not destroyed,- but the bedding 
was partially burned. Coroner P. W. Rowe, assisted by Coroner Hopkins 
of Yuba County, recovered the remains of Wills when the ruins of the build- 
ing had cooled off. Acting on the coroner's jury were W. E. Tucker, foreman, 
H. C. Clark, C. J. White, S. D. Jones, Edwin White, and R. C. Kells." 

The county officers were forced to take temporary quarters in the Hall 
of Records. The necessity of fire-plugs for Yuba City, and reels of hose on 
both floors of the Courthouse, from then on became apparent. 



The Buttes that form such a prominent feature in the landscape of 
Sutter have been known by various names since they came to the 
knowledge of white men. They were spoken of by Fremont in 1843 as "The 
Three Buttes." In the grants made to Captain Sutter, they are called 
"los tres picos." Later they were called "Sutter's Buttes" and "Marysville 
Buttes," but are now generally spoken of as the "Sutter County Buttes." 

The County of Butte, which adjoins Sutter County on the north, re- 
ceived its name from these noted peaks, although at that time they were in 
Sutter County. In 1852, the boundary between these two counties was 
changed so as to include the Buttes in Butte County ; but tw r o years later 
they were restored, and have ever since been a part of Sutter County. 

They are undoubtedly of volcanic origin, and form but one link in a 
chain of volcanic peaks, being distinguished, however, from the others by 
rising abruptly from the plain, apparently disconnected from the others, and 
standing like ever wakeful sentinels to guard the slumbering valley. That 
they are of no recent formation is evident ; they bear the same marks, fossils, 
etc., as are found on Mt. Diablo and the Coast Range. A scientist who 
recently surveyed them, in connection with borings being made for oil, 
declared that the Buttes are older by a million years than the Coast Range. 
In his opinion they at one time were part of an island projecting from 
the surface of the ocean. 

The Buttes consist of three principal peaks, called North Butte, South 
Butte, and East Butte — the highest with an altitude of about 1800 feet — 
and a great number of lesser peaks lying between and around them. From 
different points of observation they present various forms — three peaks, 
however, always appearing as the characteristic feature — the alteration in 
their aspect being caused by the difference in the contour of their several 
sides, and the appearance of the smaller hills. 

A narrow valley running through the Buttes from east to west is known 
as the South Pass. This is a portion of the old stage road running from 
Marysville to Colusa. In another chapter is described a monument dedi- 
cated on April 15, 1923, to the memory of John C. Fremont, the "Pathfinder," 
and placed in the pass on the spot where Fremont camped in 1846. 

We find the following remarks in Volume 3, page 486, of Hutchings' 
California Magazine : "This mountain towers boldly out like a large island 
above the plain upon which it stands, to the height of 1800 feet, and is 
almost as grand a landmark to the residents of this latitude as Mt. Diablo 
is to those of San Francisco." 

Mineral Deposits 

The Marysville Herald, in its issue of July 24, 1851, said that "Butte 
Hill," near the big butte, was yielding to miners from $6 to $20 per day, 
that the number of miners was increasing daily, and that a company of three 
took out a pound and a quarter of gold in one day. 

In 1867 three small veins of coal were found on the west side of the 
Buttes, and later more was discovered on the east side on the farm of S. 
Moody. Only small quantities were taken out, and the idea of finding coal 
there in commercial quantities has long ago been abandoned. 


While the high yield of every crop grown in Sutter County can be 
very largely attributed to the superior soil and abundant water supply that 
are among the county's prominent advantages, the superior quality of its 
present-day agricultural products is in large measure due to still another 
factor, California's sun-kissed climate, the magical wonder-worker that is 


responsible for 'the marvelous advancement in the State's agricultural and 
horticultural interests. To the dry, warm, rainless and fogless days, are due 
the flavor, and the blush upon the cheek, of Sutter County's deciduous and 
citrus fruits. During the winter the thermometer seldom goes below thirty 
degrees above zero, and a trace of snow once in twelve or fifteen years is 
about the average. The rainy season is expected to last from October to 
April, with an average rainfall of about twenty-three inches. A storm with 
a precipitation of from one to three inches is usually followed by a few days 
of warm, sunshiny weather, even in midwinter. 


While practically every crop can be grown without irrigation in Sutter 
County, experience of years has demonstrated beyond all question that irri- 
gation pays handsomely. The tendency is constantly in the direction of 
more irrigation ; and the artificial application of water to field crops, as 
well as to orchards and vineyards, is increasing rapidly, because there is no 
doubt that yields have been considerably increased and the quality of prod- 
ucts materially improved through irrigation. 

In speaking of this section of California in 1922, Prof. Elwood Meade, 
recognized as the foremost authority on irrigation in this State, said : "The 
available water supply of this valley ought to make it the Egypt of the 
Western Hemisphere." 

At comparatively small expense, an abundance of water for irrigation 
purposes seems ahead for Sutter County. Both the Sacramento and Feather 
Rivers furnish an inexhaustible supply to those living along their banks ; 
and a pumping plant easily and cheaply lifts the water into the distributing 
ditches. Hundreds of landowners already have sunk wells and are irrigating 
with pumps driven by electricity, as power lines reach to about every nook 
and corner of Sutter County. 


Reclamation projects, past and present, have worked wonders for Sutter 
County. Of reclamation districts the county, at the present time, has nine, 
besides being subject to assessments under the great flood-control plan of 
the State known as the Sacramento and San Joaquin Assessment No. 1, 
and Sutter-Butte By-pass Assessment No. 6. 

Names and Locations of Districts 

The names and locations of the reclamation districts are as follows : 
District No. 70, near Meridian ; District No. 777 , in the Live Oak section ; 
District No. 803, on the old Rideout ranch and between Marcuse and the 
tules; District No. 1000, partly in Sutter County and partly in Sacramento 
County; District No. 1001, located partly in Placer County, and along Bear 
River south to Vernon; District No. 1500, being the Sutter Basin Project; 
District No. 1660, located north of District No. 1500; District No. 2054, located 
in the northern portion of the county in the old Snake River and Morrison 
Slough section, being partly in Butte County ; and District No. 2056, which 
adjoins District No. 2054. 

Besides the reclamation districts, there are two levee districts, No. 1 
and No. 9. District No. 1 extends from Yuba City south to the Marcuse 
levee, and westward. District No. 9 lies to the north of Yuba City and 
extends westerly. Its levee joins that of District No. 1 near Franklin Corners. 

The Sutter Basin Project 

Of the reclamation districts in Sutter County, District No. 1500 is the 
largest, covering 66,200 acres, of which the Sutter Basin Company owns 


approximately 45,000 acres, giving it the generally accepted name of "Sutter 
Basin Project." 

Prior to its purchase by the present owners, Sutter Basin was an over- 
flow basin of the Sacramento and Feather Rivers, covered by a sea of tules. 
It was like several other large areas of bottom land of the Sacramento Valley, 
which have since been reclaimed and are now reckoned among the richest 
soils in the State. 

The Sutter Basin Company had a careful survey of this area made by 
experts, and decided that the natural richness of the soil would well repay 
for its reclamation. Accordingly, development work was started. Today the 
district (created by the California legislature of 1913) is entirely surrounded 
by substantial levees, averaging 250 feet at the base. Provision for the 
carrying away of flood water that formerly filled the Basin was made by 
the construction of the Sutter By-pass in conformity to the general flood con- 
trol plan adopted by the Federal government and the State of California. 
All reclamation works were carried out on plans approved by the California 
State Reclamation Board. 

To carry off water that fell within the district, and seepage water, a 
complete drainage system was built. It includes a main canal of 18 miles, 
54 T /2 miles of lateral canals, and 190 miles of sub-lateral canals, with a gigan- 
tic pumping plant consisting of six 50-inch pumps, each operated by a 
800-horse-power motor, at the lower end of the district, with a capacity of 
480,000 gallons per minute, so that every acre of land within the district is 
amply drained at all seasons of the year. 

It was the policy of the company to crop the land from the beginning 
for the twofold purpose of helping to pay development expenses and to 
prove the soil. In fact, the first year the pumping plant was completed, even 
before the levees had been finished, the company's lands were cropped. That 
year the Basin filled up as usual, but the pumping plant was able to empty 
it in twenty-one days. Pumps were started on the 25th day of May, and. 
by the 15th of June planting of beans was begun. That year the Basin pro- 
duced a large crop of beans, and each year thereafter. 

In addition to carrying through a safe reclamation plan, the Sutter Basin 
Company pioneered in providing a thorough system of irrigation for its river- 
bottom lands. The owners became convinced from investigation and obser- 
vation, that while river-bottom lands will give good returns without surface 
irrigation, the application of water would pay. Accordingly, an irrigation 
as complete as the drainage system was built. It was used for the first time 
in the season of 1919. This system includes a pumping plant at the upper 
end of the district, consisting of three 42-inch pumps, each operated by a 
250-horse-power motor, capable of delivering 48,000 gallons of water per 
minute, and three 42-inch pumps, each operated by a 300-horse-power motor, 
capable of delivering 56,000 gallons of water per minute, the total capacity 
of the plant being 312,000 gallons per minute. 

In addition to the main pumping plant, there is an auxiliary plant at 
State Ranch Bend with one 24-inch pump operated by a 200-horse-power 
motor, with a capacity of 20,000 gallons per minute ; also a pumping plant 
at Portuguese Bend with two 24-inch pumps, each operated by a 200-horse- 
power motor and having a total capacity of 40,000 gallons per minute. 

All irrigation water is pumped from the Sacramento River. The main 
irrigation canal is sufficiently large, and carries enough water, to float a 
river steamer. Laterals and sub-laterals carry gravity water to every acre 
•of land owned by the company. The entire west edge of the district lies 
along the Sacramento River, which provides transportation by boat and 
barge. In addition, however, the Southern Pacific Railway has built a line 


through the heart of the district, eighteen miles north and south, and there 
are several grain warehouses and vegetable packing houses built along this 
line. Roads from all parts of the district afford ample connection between 
the farming lands and the railroad. 

The soil is an alluvial deposit, commonly known as river bottom, the 
result of ages of silt-wash from the Sacramento and Feather Rivers. The 
crops that have been grown there are indicated in the preceding paragraph. 
The climate is the good growing climate, with a long growing season, which 
characterizes the Sacramento Valley. 


A list of Sutter County's crops would read like an index to a nursery 
catalogue, with a few extras thrown in for good measure. Experience seems 
to show that peaches, prunes, cherries, almonds, grapes (seedless for drying 
and for the table), plums, figs, beans, grain, and rice hold the most important 
places in public favor. 

Other products, of lesser prominence, are pears, oranges, lemons, pome- 
granates, apples, walnuts, olives, corn, and vegetables of all kinds. 

Dairying and poultry-raising are conducted on an extensive scale and 
yield large returns. Dairy cows, poultry and hogs run on green feed the entire 
year, the mild and snowless winters being ideal for stock of all kinds. When 
the ground is too wet, during the rainy season, to permit stock to be pas- 
tured on alfalfa, they are fed from open racks in the corrals. 

Creameries are within easy reach of the dairymen. Auto trucks are sent 
out to the principal dairy sections to pick up the cream and milk right at 
the dairyman's door. Large quantities of cream are also shipped by fast 
electric trains and steam trains to creameries at Marysville, Sacramento, and 
other near-by cities. Sutter County offers unusual opportunities to dairymen, 
and because of this opportunity this industry has increased several-fold dur- 
ing the last few years. 


Frequent, rapid and convenient transportation is a live issue in any 
progressive and hustling community. Here, again — and literally speaking — 
Sutter County "delivers the goods." Exceptional land and water transporta- 
tion facilities keep every corner of the county in intimate touch with the 
world and its markets. Two steam railroads, the Southern Pacific and 
Western Pacific, pass through the county; one electric railway, the Sacra- 
mento Northern, connects with boats and another electric line at Sacramento 
for San Francisco ; and the Sacramento River, which bounds Sutter County 
on one side for some fifty miles, while having practically no passenger busi- 
ness, yet conveys millions of dollars' worth of farm products to Sacramento 
and San Francisco. Street-car service between Yuba City, the county seat 
of Sutter County, and Marysville, the county seat of Yuba County, a mile 
away, across the Feather River, is maintained by the Sacramento Northern 
Railroad. In order to convey an idea of the present splendid transportation 
facilities of the county, it is only necessary to say that there are about 
forty steam and electric trains passing through the county daily. 

In addition to its present road system, the county has been engaged, 
since 1922, in building a complete system of concrete highways, such as will 
give to every part of the county the best roads that money and engineering 
skill are able to produce. 

Early Ferries and Toll Bridges 
As a contrast to modern-day methods of transit, an account of across- 
river transportation in the early days may be of interest here. The first 
ferry in Sutter County was established in 1843 by Captain Sutter and Nico- 


laus Allgeier, at the crossing of the Feather River, near the town of Nicolaus. 
This ferry was on the route from Sutter Fort to Hock Farm. In 1849 All- 
geier had' a man named Ljntner to operate the ferry, during which year a 
new and large boat was .constructed. 

The first ferry license was granted by the Court of Sessions, on June 11, 
1850. It was a license granting Samuel S. Bayless and Sarshel Woods the 
privilege for one year of keeping a ferry across Feather River, immediately 
above the mouth of the Yuba, and establishing the following rates of toll: 
For one wagon, empty, $2; freight, per cwt., 12^4 cents; mules, cattle and 
horses, per head, 50 cents ; foot passengers, 25 cents ; man and horse, 75 cents. 

The same day, a license was granted to F. Hereford and J. P. Jones 
to operate a ferry for one year across Sacramento River between the towns 
of Vernon and Freemont, with the same rates. 

On November 19, 1850, the license to S. S. Bayless and S. Woods for a 
ferry at Yuba City was cancelled, and a new one was issued to Elias Bay- 
less and James Irving. 

On June 18, 1851, the licenses for ferries at Nicolaus, Vernon and Yuba 
City were renewed, with a change in the rates of toll. There appears to 
have been no settled rate for all places, as these three, all granted the same 
day, varied considerably, with the difference chiefly in favor of Vernon. 

On April 12, 1852, James G. Morehead was granted a license to operate 
a ferry across Sacramento River opposite Knight's Landing ; and on June 7, 
C. D. Semple was given a license for one across Sacramento River from 
the town of Colusa to a point in Sutter County. 

On December 6, 1852, J. L. Burtis and Claude Chana were granted a 
license for the construction and operation of a ferry across Bear River at the 
place known as Burtis, or Chana's Ranch. 

Stephen H. Winter received a license, August 1, 1853, for a ferry across 
Sacramento River, at a point two miles below Butte Creek. He had run it 
without a license since the previous October, for which he was fined $30. 

Before the county was able to go into the bridge-building business, a 
dozen other ferries were established by private parties, including one to 
accommodate the Marysville-Colusa stage line. 

Toll bridges were the next means used for crossing the streams. These 
took the place of the ferry boats, except where they would be an obstruc- 
tion to navigation, until they in turn gave way to free bridges built at the 
expense of the county. The first license for a toll bridge was granted on 
August 1, 1851, to John Barham at Barham's Crossing. The rates of toll 
were fixed as follows: Six-horse, -ox or -mule team, $1.50; ditto, empty, $1.00; 
four-horse, -ox or -mule team, $1.00; ditto, empty, 75 cents; two-horse, -ox or 
-mule team, 75 cents; same, empty, 50 cents; horse and buggy, 50 cents; 
pack animal, 25 cents; foot passenger, \2y 2 cents ; loose stock, per head, \2y 2 - 
cents ; hogs, sheep and goats, per head, 6j4 cents. 

On October 6, 1851, J. L. Burtis and W. B. Campbell received a license 
to keep a bridge across Bear River at the town of Kearney, or Johnson's 

On December 9, 1854, Samuel Crawford was granted a license to keep 
a toll bridge across Bear River at Kempton's Crossing. The bridge was built 
the year before. 

The only chartered toll bridge across Feather River was erected by 
George M. Hanson from Yuba City to Marysville in 1853, being completed 
in September. It was a cheap truss bridge, about 350 feet in length, and cost 
$20,000. In 1854, one span broke down under the weight of a drove of cattle, 
but was soon repaired. At this time John C. Fall became one of the proprie- 
tors. The next year W. S. Webb, proprietor of an opposition ferry line, be- 


came a part-owner of the bridge. It was reconstructed in 1859. During the 
flood of 1861, the bridge was carried away while two teams were crossing, 
injuring one man slightly. 

For many years thereafter, Marysville and Yuba City people were accom- 
modated by a strongly built covered bridge across Feather River, which struc- 
ture was removed in the year 1905 to make way for the combination wagon 
and railroad bridge erected by the Northern Electric Company in conjunc- 
tion with the counties of Yuba and Sutter. 


Sutter County has the honor of having been the first "no-saloon" county 
in the State of California ; and its communities are correspondingly law- 
abiding. It has fewer criminal cases than any other county in the State. It 
is the home and nursery of the famous Thompson Seedless Grape industry. It 
is likewise the home and nursery of the famous Phillips Cling Peach, and 
the largest cling-peach-growing section in the State. It is the county where 
oranges and lemons ripen six weeks earlier than hundreds of miles farther 
south ; the county where from four to six crops of alfalfa are produced annu- 
ally ; and the county where the soil responds more readily to your efforts, 
and returns larger profits for the money expended. 

Fish, and Wild Game 

Aside from the purely commercial side of the Sacramento and Feather 
Rivers, these two great waterways give ample opportunity for hunting, 
fishing and boating. Salmon, catfish and carp are plentiful in these streams, 
and furnish sport, in season, for those who are devoted to the rod and reel. 
The sloughs, running off from the main rivers, are famed for their excellent 
bass-fishing ; and not far away are the mountain streams and lakes, which 
are among the finest trout-fishing spots in all the world. These same moun- 
tains abound in all manner of wild game, ranging from doves, quail and 
rabbits in the lower foothills, to deer in the higher altitudes. 

Wild ducks and geese make the rivers and sloughs their winter feeding 
grounds. In the fall great flocks of these migratory birds sail down from 
the North and feed upon the abundant growth in the waterways. As the time 
approaches when the law will permit the shooting of these birds, hunters 
come from hundreds of miles, and take part in one of the greatest sporting 
events of the year. Many hunting clubs own their own grounds at West 
Butte and other points in the county. 




Before the founding of Yuba City by the white man, the very earth upon 
which stand today some of the town's most beautiful residences, and its busi- 
ness houses and civic buildings, was the setting for an Indian village. The 
Indians who had their habitation where Yuba City now stands were known 
as the Yubas. Remains of their homes, and of their personal adornments and 
weapons, have been unearthed by workmen while they were excavating for 
modern buildings in Yuba City. 

Like all the aborigines of California, the Yubas have melted away at 
the advent of civilization, until now the sight of one of their race on the 
streets of the towns and cities that have risen where their villages were, is a 
rarity, and indeed a curiosity. 

The Yubas at the site of Yuba City consisted of about 125 Indians. Lo- 
cated in Shanghai Bend, on the Feather River between Yuba City and Hock 
Farm, was another Indian village, that of the Seshums. The largest village 
in what is now Sutter County was that of the Hocks, near John Sutter's resi- 
dence. From this tribe has been derived the name Hock Farm. The com- 
munity of Yokulemnes was three miles south of Hock Farm, while the 
Olashes lived one mile above Nicolaus. 

On the site of Marysville were the Memals, who moved to the east bank 
of the Yuba River when Cordua settled near their village. North of the pres- 
ent city of Marysville were the Tomchats. 

The ruins of an iron structure, known as Sutter's Fort, now lie on Hock 
Farm. It was originally built by Sutter as a workhouse, but was used as a 
fortification at times against Indian' attacks upon the white settlers. 

One of the first white men to travel the Sacramento Valley, in an account 
of his journey, told how, in the early part of the year 1833, the banks of the 
Sacramento River and the contiguous territory swarmed with Indian life. 
On his return, late in the year, the villages were found deserted. A plague, 
which was thought by the traveler to be smallpox, had attacked the natives, 
and their bodies and skeletons lay on the ground in great numbers. An inter- 
mittent fever that the "medicine man" could not combat also claimed many of 
the Indians, the ancestors of whom can be traced back to 1832 and 1833. 

Ethnologists have written and theorized with reference to the California 
Indians, but have as yet come to no satisfactory conclusion regarding either 
the place whence they immigrated or the date of their actual settlement on 
the Pacific Coast. It is perhaps sufficient to know that when the first white 
man passed through the Sacramento Valley, he found the Indian villages 
swarming with the rude barbarians. 

Bancroft, in his "Native Races of the Pacific States," divides the Indians 
of the Coast into seven, distinct groups. The Californians comprised one of 
the important branches, occupying the territory between latitudes 43 degrees 
and 32 degrees 30 minutes north, and extending east into the Rocky Moun- 
tains. This group is subdivided into geographical divisions ; namely : the 
Northern Californians, the Central Californians, and the Southern Califor- 
nians. The early inhabitants of this region belonged to the central division, 
which occupied all of California and extended from about latitude 35 degrees 
to latitude 40 degrees 30 minutes north. The races in this region were sepa- 


rated into numerous small tribes, whose system of nomenclature was exceed- 
ingly primitive. The segregation of these Indians was not properly a segrega- 
tion into tribes, but into villages, each having its own name and head. Some- 
times one chief would be more powerful than other neighboring chiefs in 
physical strength, number of warriors, or hereditary influence, and hence had 
authority over villages near his, as in the case of the ruler of the Hocks. 

From the report of Adam Johnson, Indian sub-agent, to the Department 
of the Interior in 1850, we cull the following: "I could discover no distinction 
in their customs, habits of life, or their general language, which could induce 
me to think they were not originally the same people. Indeed, their customs 
and manners of living are, in many respects, almost identical." 

Johnson's List of the Tribes 

From June to the middle of September, 1850, Johnson, as the govern- 
ment's agent, traveled more than 800 miles through the Sacramento Valley, 
and along the banks of the rivers. He visited ten distinct tribes of Indians, 
besides meeting many wandering families or communities. The following is 
a list of the tribes visited in the valley and the neighboring mountains : 

The Hocks : Located upon Hock Farm, near the old residence of Captain 
Sutter, numbering from eighty to 100. 

The Yubas : At or near the junction of the Yuba and Feather Rivers, 
numbering about 180. 

The O-Lip-Pas : On Feather River, about thirty-two miles above its 
mouth, comprising about ninety or 100 people. 

The Bogas : A short distance above the O-Lip-Pas, on the opposite side 
of the river, including about seventy persons. 

The Ho-Lil-Li-Pahs : . At the base of the mountains near the Feather 
River, about 150 in number. 

The Erskins : On Butte Creek, near Neal's Rancho, comprising about 
eighty Indians. 

The Ma-Chuck-Nas : In the valley near Potter's Rancho, including about 
ninety people. 

The Cush-Nas : Dwelling in the mountains on the south Yuba, and 
numbering about 600 Indians. 

The Tagus : Also in the mountains, above the headwaters of Butte 
Creek, the number being unknown. 

The Nim-Sus : Also living in the mountains, in the vicinity of the Tagus 
tribe; number unknown. 

Locations of Tribes According to Bidwell 

General Bidwell located the villages of the native tribes in what is now 
Sutter County, as follows : 

Yubas: Where Yuba City is now situated, numbering from 100 to 125. 

The Seshums: Located in Shanghai Bend, on the Feather River, be- 
tween Yuba City and Hock Farm. 

The Hocks: Located near Sutter's residence; this was the largest vil- 
lage in what is now Sutter County. 

The Yokulemnes : Situated three miles below Hock Farm. 

The Olashes : Located about one mile above Nicolaus, on the west bank. 

No permanent villages were located on the eastern bank of the Sacra- 
mento River, on account of the lands being subject to overflow. There were 
no other tribes in Sutter County, although the Colusi, Coptis, Willys and 
Kymatins ranged through the country around the Buttes. 
Location and Description of Other Tribes 

In Yuba County, on the site of Marysville, was a village of Indians called 
the Memals. It was of good size, being populated by about 100 Indians. 


When Cordua settled there, some of these Indians located on the south side 
of the Yuba (in 1843). 

The Tomchats were located a little above, on the east side of the Feather 
River, but not immediately upon the banks. The distance from the mouth of 
the Yuba River was about two miles, and from the banks of Feather River 
about a half mile ; they numbered about fifty souls. 

The Honcuts were located on the east bank of Feather River, just below 
the mouth of Honcut Creek, and comprised about 150 persons. On the south 
branch of the Honcut, and scattered through the Browns Valley region, in 
little villages and one principal village, were a large number of Indians with 
no particular tribal name. 

There were several small tribes of Indians living between the Bear and 
Yuba Rivers, and one large tribe who occupied the country from the foothills 
to Nevada. These Indians spoke a different language from the Marysville In- 
dians, and were more warlike. Their chief stole some of General Sutter's 
cattle in 1841. Sutter pursued him and retook them after a fight in which no 
one was killed. The scene of the bloodless conflict was on the bank of the 
Yuba River, a few miles above Marysville. 

A historian named Taylor, in referring to the Cush-Nas on the south 
bank of the Yuba, and their fellow tribesmen, says : "The physique of these 
natives did not correspond at all with that of the 'noble' warriors east of the 
mountains. Strongly, though not symmetrically built, their height rarely ex- 
ceeded five feet and eight inches. A low, retreating forehead ; black, deep-set 
eyes ; thick, bushy eyebrows ; salient cheekbones ; a nose depressed at the 
roots, and somewhat wide-spreading at the nostrils ; a large mouth ; thick, 
prominent lips ; teeth large and white, but not always regular ; and rather 
large ears, is a prevailing type." 

It was only in winter that a dwelling was needed, and this was by no 
means pretentious. The general method was to dig a hole in the ground three 
or four feet in depth, with a diameter of from ten to thirty feet. The ends of 
pliable willow poles were sunk into the ground around the excavation, and 
the tops were brought together, the same poles serving for walls and roof. 
If the poles were sufficiently long, the two ends were driven into the ground 
on opposite sides of the hole, the curve of the willow forming the roof. Mud 
or sod was then placed over the frame. The more pretentious residences had 
bushes interwoven between the willow poles, and an outside covering of tule 
grass. The smoke from the fire in the hut found an outlet through a hole 
in the roof. The doorway consisted of a small hole in the side, barely large 
enough for a person to crawl through. 


Sutter County was not without its Indian troubles in the early days. So 
unreliable became the roving bands of reds, that Major-General Thomas J. 
Green, First Division, California Militia, was sent into this section to protect 
the whites. These early troubles, and measures taken for their settlement, 
are thus described in the Placer Times of May 20, 1850: 

"Brigadier-General A. M. Winn has received a letter from Major-Gen- 
eral Thomas J. Green, First Division, California Militia, forwarded by Brig- 
adier-General Eastland, and enclosing one to His Excellency, Peter H. Bur- 
nett, Governor of California. The letters are dated at Oro, the headquarters 
at present of General Green. Serious Indian troubles are announcd on that 
frontier. A volunteer company, under the command of Capt. Nicolaus All- 
geier, had prepared to march against the savages, and other parties were being 
formed. The Indians are reported to number several hundred and to be 
headed by white men and some Chilians. An engagement is said to have taken 
place on Deer Creek, a few days before, in which four whites and fifteen In- 


dians were killed. General Green has very wisely determined to take the 
field, both for the protection of the citizens and to prevent excesses on their 
part. He recommends that the Adjutant-General should be ordered to his 
headquarters, with instructions and authority to make a further call upon the 
militia, and U. S. troops, should the emergencies require it. 

"We are further advised that some two hundred Indians were seen near 
Johnson's ranch, on Friday. A party of thirty went out from Nicolaus, and 
killed four of them, one of the party being slightly wounded in the forehead. 
A teamster from Nicolaus was found dead in the neighborhood, with four- 
teen arrows in him. His wagon and merchandise had been burnt up and four 
pair of- oxen killed. The repeated outrages in every direction will induce a 
more general militia organization throughout this part of the State. We learn 
that a volunteer company of young men is being now formed in Sacramento. 
They will be the first to tender their aid, should future developments require 
a further call upon the militia, which is anticipated in the above corre- 

General Green's Report 
General Green arrived in Sacramento Tuesday, May 28, 1850, and was 
to leave immediately for Washington to represent the state of Indian affairs 
to the President. He made the following report to the Governor : 

"Oro, May 25, 1850. 
"To His Excellency, Peter H. Burnett, 

"Governor and Commander in Chief, California Militia : 
"Sir : After my despatch to you on the 16th instant, I moved with Cap- 
tain Allgeier's and Capt. Charles Hoyt's mounted volunteers, on the 17th, 
upon Bear River. On the afternoon of the same day, Lieutenant Bell of Cap- 
tain Allgeier's company, with ten men, being out upon a scout, encountered 
a large number of Indians, killing five and bringing in six prisoners. 

"On the 18th, I moved in the direction, of Deer Creek, and scoured the 
country, for a number of Indian depredations had been committed. We found 
the Indian villages newly deserted, and their trails leading south, in the direc- 
tion of Bear River. 

"On the 19th, pursued said trails in the direction of Wolf Creek, to where 
Colonel Hoyt was murdered and burned in his mill ; found the Indian villages 
in this neighborhood deserted, and the white settlements abandoned ; 
trails still leading south, which we followed to Bear River, and encamped 
upon the same. 

"On the 20th, leaving a camp guard with the horses, we crossed the river 
on foot to visit a large village on the south of said river, which we found 
deserted, and the trail recrossing the river. Upon our return I was informed 
that a large number of Indians, between two and three hundred, had assem- 
bled upon an elevated conical hill within two miles, a position evidently 
taken to give battle. 

"After examining their position, I ordered Captain Hoyt, with twenty 
men, to take station at the foot of the hill upon the left, and with Captain 
Allgeier, Lieutenant Bell and the balance of the men, in all thirty, I charged 
up the most accessible side of the hill upon their right into the camp, and 
drove the Indians upon Captain Hoyt's position, where a smart skirmish en- 
sued. We pursued them for several miles in the hills and ravines, killing and 
wounding a number, and took eight prisoners. Their Chiefs report eleven of 
their men killed, besides wounded. We had none killed. Wounded, Captain 
Hoyt, Lieutenant Lewis and private Russell. My Aid, Major Frederick Em- 
ory, was accidentally shot through the thigh by the accidental discharge of a 
rifle. All doing well. 


"The day previous, in attempting to capture one of their spies, his de- 
termined resistance caused him to be shot, and in camp we found his remains 
upon a funeral pyre, nearly consumed. Here we found a large amount of sup- 
plies, consisting of beef, sugar, tea and other articles robbed from the wagons, 
and the clothes of the murdered teamster, Matty. On the afternoon of the 
same day I sent the following note, with a flag of truce to the Chiefs, by an 
old woman who had been taken prisoner : 

" 'Wolf Creek Camp, May 12, 1850. 
" 'To the Indian Chiefs, Weima, Buckler, Poolel, and others : 

" 'Your people, have been murdering ours, robbing their wagons, and 
burning their houses. We have made war upon you, killed your men and 
taken prisoners your women and children. We send you this plain talk by 
one of your grandmothers. When you cease to rob and murder our people, 
we will cease to make war upon you, and then you can come in and get your 
women and children, who will be taken care of in the meantime. If 
you wish peace, come down to Johnson's old ranch, on Bear River, and 
report yourselves to Captain Charles Hoyt, who will protect you until your 
Great Father shall speak. 

" 'Thomas J. Green, 
" 'Major-General, First Division, California Militia.' 

"Today the Chiefs, with a number of men, met me at Kearney, and en- 
tered into the following treaty. It is my opinion, as well as the opinion of oth- 
ers better acquainted with these Indians, that they will observe the treaty in 
good faith. It is to be hoped that no acts of aggression will be commenced up- 
on them by the whites. These Indians can be made very useful to the miners 
if they have even a small portion of justice extended to them. Heretofore a 
few persons have monopolized much of their labor, by giving them a calico 
shirt per week and the most indifferent food. This is not only wrong, but 
highly disgraceful, when they would be content with the pay of one-fourth 
of the wages of the white men. 

"I have sent these Chiefs over on the north fork of the American River 
to bring others, now hostile, to Brigadier-General Eastland, on Bear River, 
who will, in the absence of other instructions from your Excellency, endeavor 
to bring them to terms. I have the honor to be, 
"Very respectfully, 

"Your obedient servant, 

"Signed : Thomas J. Green, 
"Major-General, First Division, California Militia." 

Copy of the Treaty 

"Whereas, numerous depredations and murders have been committed 
upon the persons and property of the American citizens in this vicinity by 
native Indians belonging to tribes of the undersigned Chiefs ; and whereas, 
it became the duty of the undersigned Thomas J. Green, Major-General of the 
First Division of the California Militia, to pursue and punish said depredators 
and murderers; now, therefore, in the absence of higher authority, I, Thomas 
J. Green, as aforesaid, on behalf of the People of California and the govern- 
ment of the United States, on one part, and the head Indian Chiefs, Weima 
and Buckler, and sub-chief, Poolel, on the other part, representing fully and 
completely their several tribes, do enter into the following solemn treaty of 
peace and friendship, to wit : 

"Article 1. — Henceforth and forever the American citizens and the Amer- 
ican tribes aforementioned shall live in peace and friendship. 

"Article 2. — Should any Indian belonging to either of the before-men- 
tioned tribes commit any murder, robbery or other offense against the persons 


or property of the American citizens, the offender, or offenders, shall be 
promptly delivered up to the proper authorities for punishment. 

"Article 3.- — Should any American citizen or foreigner commit any wrong 
upon the persons or property of the before-mentioned tribes, they shall be 
punished therefor as the law directs. 

"Article 4. — To prevent any hostile feeling arising between the whites 
and Indians, as well as to prevent the friendly Indians from being mistaken 
for those unfriendly, it is hereby stipulated, that the people of the before- 
mentioned tribes shall not carry arms while in the settlements of the whites. 

"Article 5. — To cultivate warmer friendship and acquaintance between 
the white people and the Indians, the latter are guaranteed the free use of 
the gold mines, and a full value of their labor in working the same, without 
charge or hindrance ; and any contract made between the Indians and whites, 
before competent witnesses, shall be recoverable before any court of compe- 
tent jurisdiction. 

"Article 6. — The Indian prisoners shall be delivered up with the signing 
of this treaty. 

"Article 7. — The government of the United States shall have six months 
from this date to confirm, amend, or annul the treaty ; and should said gov- 
ernment of the United States confirm the same, it is hereby stipulated that 
each of the before-mentioned tribes shall receive a semiannual annuity 
of $1000, to be paid to them respectively for the term of ten years from 
the date hereof. 

"In witness whereof, the undersigned parties before-mentioned have 
signed, sealed and delivered this treaty, each to the other, in the presence of 
Captain Nicolaus Allgeier, Captain Charles H. Hoyt, Colonel James 
Bell, J. S. Christy, Edwin P. Linck, J. B. Fairchild, Joseph Foster, 
subscribing witnesses. 

"May 25, 1850. "Thos. J. Green, Maj.-General. 

"Weima, his X mark. 
"Buckler, his X mark. 
"Poolel, his X mark." 




Proverbially peaceful and law-abiding, Sutter County has been the scene 
in all the years of but few of the exciting incidents that have characterized 
the history of surrounding counties, especially in the earlier period. A few 
murders have been committed in its history, the details of which it is not 
necessary to recite. Only two persons suffered the extreme penalty of the 
law at the hands of the public executioner in the days when it was the custom 
to hang in the county jail yard. An Italian was hanged in October, 1857, by 
Sheriff S. E. Kennard ; and John Wright was hanged in March, 1873, by 
Sheriff Samuel McClure. 

Early-Day Appeals to Mob Law 

During the unorganized period of the early days, appeal was made to mob 
law on a few occasions by otherwise law-abiding citizens. An account of these 
lynchings follows here. 

'And now comes the mob, being impatient of delay (the jury not having 
as yet agreed upon their verdict), being led by one E. W. High, and seized 
and forcibly took from the custody of the Sheriff the said prisoner, Washing- 
ton Rideout, and having dragged him out of the Court House, escorted him 
to the first convenient tree, and hanged him by the neck until he was dead." 

The above is from the record of the Court of Sessions of June 12, 1852, 
upon which day that body met at Nicolaus to try Washington Rideout, a 
negro. In May, 1852, Rideout stopped .at the Bellevue House, kept by New- 
bald & Hufius, five miles south of Nicolaus. Discovering Hufius to be alone, 
the negro grew abusive because Hufius did not have the kind of liquor he de- 
manded. Hufius ordered him to leave the place, whereupon the negro drew 
his revolver and shot him to death. The murderer was quickly captured and 
conveyed to Nicolaus, then the county seat, where a mob took possession and 
were about to hang Rideout, when they were persuaded by cooler heads to 
permit the law to take its course. The murderer was placed aboard a govern- 
ment vessel lying in the river and confined there pending trial. A grand 
jury was summoned, an indictment returned, and the case proceeded to 
trial within a few days of the commission of the act. The records of the 
court in lull follow : 

"Saturday, June 12, 1851, 2 p. m. 

"The Grand Jury returns into Court and presents the following: 
State of California "1 

vs. >■ Indictment for Murder. 

Washington RideoutJ 

"Whereupon, the defendant was brought into Court, and for trying the 
same, came the following jury, to wit: Ira Bradshaw, C. S. Tessue, Joseph 
P. Dillon, J. Lee, E. W. Riker, Nathaniel Eaton, John Holloway, Thomas 
Morrison, J. Gibson, A. L- Chandler, H. Chandler, and James Riker, and were 
sworn and empanelled. The defendant was then arraigned, and having an- 
swered to his name, as set forth in the indictment, pleads that he is 'not 
guilty' of the charge alleged therein. W. B. Johnson, G. B. Upham, S. B. 
Smith, and Dr. Golder were called and sworn on the part of the State, and 


Hugh McDuffy' was sworn on the part of the defendant. The jury, after 
having heard the evidence and the arguments of the counsel, retired to con- 
sider of their verdict. 

"And now comes the mob, being impatient of delay (the jury not having 
as yet agreed upon their verdict), being led by one E. W. High, and seized 
and forcibly took from the custody of the Sheriff the said prisoner, Washing- 
ton Rideout, and having dragged him out of the Court House, escorted him 
to the first convenient tree, and hanged him by the neck until he was dead." 

It had been the watchword of the mob, "Hang him while the sun shines," 
and the jury had been out so long that the sun began to decline in the west. 
They went to the court room, then in the American Hotel, and High stepped 
up to the prisoner as he was seated between two deputies, and told him that 
his time had come. No resistance was made, and High took him by the collar 
and led him from the room. Rideout was taken to a large tree in front of Jacob 
Vahle's residence, a rope was thrown over a limb, one end fastened around 
the prisoner's neck, and the other end seized by about fifty men, who, as the 
last rays of the setting sun shed their light upon the scene, ran the murderer 
up and fastened him there. The whole court, including the jury, adjourned to 
witness the execution. Rideout had a Spanish wife. She was clinging to his 
neck when through her arms the body of her husband was jerked aloft. Thus 
did they hang him "while the sun was shining." 

Only a few days after the murder of Hufius. and before the execution of 
Rideout, a cruel murder was committed by John Jackson, a Norwegian, the 
victim being Mrs. Martin Bader, who lived with her husband on the west side 
of Feather River, in Sutter Township. This crime, and the hanging of Jack- 
son by a mob, have already been described in detail in a chapter on Crimes 
and Criminals, which will be found in the section of this volume devoted to 
the History of Yuba County. 

These exhibitions of mob law, coming so closely together, were very 
severely commented upon by the newspapers at the time ; but although it 
would have been better to have the law take its course, yet there is no doubt 
that the two wretches richly deserved their fate. 

An early historian, in explaining the necessity for occasional activities 
by the mob in an effort to discourage crime while it was gaining foothold in 
the early days, had this to say : 

"The natural tendency of society, when left uncurbed by legal regula- 
tions, is towards lawlessness. So it was in the early days of California. The 
population in the year 1848 and the greater part of 1849 was composed of a 
fine set of men, comprised of the honest and intelligent element of the Eastern 
cities and States. But the next tide that flowed in threw upon our shores the 
refuse material from the larger cities on the Atlantic side of the continent, 
and a horde of discharged convicts from the Australian colonies. The change 
in society was apparent immediately ; murder, robberies, highway robberies 
and crimes of every description became every-day occurrences. Before this, 
the miner placed no protection over his earnings, and could walk through 
the dark streets, or over the lonely plains and hills, feeling perfectly safe 
in his solitude ; now his gold dust must be hidden or placed in some secure 
retreat, and his pilgrimage must be made in the light of day, or in the 
company of others. Eegal proceedings were carried on under the old Mexican 
laws, and with the insufficient force of officers it was difficult to apprehend 
and convict a man of crime. The miners, realizing that fact, and knowing 
the consequences of leniency toward the criminal class, took the law into 
their own hands." 


Joaquin Murietta and Tom Bell 

The two most noted highwaymen that infested this region were Joaquin 
Murietta and Tom Bell. We have already referred to the depredations and 
final disposal of Bell in a chapter similar to this in the section devoted to 
Yuba County's history. 

Joaquin Murietta, who for a long time was the terror of travelers, and 
lonely settlers, never operated to any extent in this vicinity. He had a sister 
living in Marysville, whom he frequently visited. He was there for a con- 
siderable time, in 1850 and 1851, and was known as" a notorious character. 
After the killing of Joaquin, considerable doubt existed as to the identity of 
the dead robber. His head was amputated and, with the hand of "Three- 
fingered Jack," was exhibited throughout the State. While in Marysville, 
Joaquin's sister visited the exhibition and, after gazing upon the head, 
remarked in Spanish to a gentleman, within the hearing of Judge O. P. Stid- 
ger, "That's not my brother." AVhen asked who it was, she smilingly replied, 
"It is Joaquin Gonzales." This would seem to lend some credence to the 
rumor that the real Joaquin Murietta had escaped. 

William Wells 

On the night of July 26, 1860, three men escorting an escaped murderer 
from Nicolaus to Sacramento were killed in cold blood by their prisoner in 
an unusual manner. One of the victims was William C. Stoddard, farmer of 
the Nicolaus section and father of W. S. Stoddard, now employed in a Red 
Bluff bank. The other two were officers, one a friend of Stoddard. 

Stoddard had started on horseback from his farm near Nicolaus for Sac- 
ramento, on the morning of July 26, 1860. Having to proceed by way of Nico- 
laus in order to cross the river, he met Tim Wharton, deputy sheriff of Sutter 
County, and his personal friend. 

Here is where the story of William Wells,. the desperado, comes in. AVells 
had murdered a man in Sacramento, and was apprehended in Virginia City, 
Nev., and brought in the stage as far as Nicolaus, where rumor said a mob 
had gathered outside Sacramento to lynch him. In order to thwart the plan, 
William Armstrong, who had Wells in custody, hired a spring wagon at Nico- 
laus, with which he and Wharton were to take the murderer into Sacramento 
under cover. Stoddard, riding into Nicolaus about the time they were to start 
on the trip, was invited by Wharton to join the party. When the party arrived 
at the American River crossing, late in the night, all three were murdered by 
Wells, who was never apprehended. 

As to how AVells did the deed, different theories were advanced. The pre- 
vailing one was that Armstrong, being worn out by travel, fell asleep while 
in the back portion of the wagon guarding Wells, and that in some manner 
AVells secured his pistol and shot all three in a flash. Another theory was that 
AVells was given help by outsiders. 

Stoddard had practiced law as a young man at Yreka, Siskiyou County. 
He later served as district attorney in that county and also in Sutter County. 
Still later he returned to Ogle County, 111., where he was made sheriff. At the 
expiration of his term in that office he returned to his ranch five miles below 
Nicolaus, crossing the plains as captain of a wagon train. 



Seemingly destined at the present writing to become one great orchard 
and vineyard, Sutter County was at one time, not so long ago, purely an agri- 
cultural section, with horticulture and viticulture only in embryonic stage. 
Its present development as a fruit and grape district is almost unbelievable, 
so rapid is the stride. The story of the early tilling of the soil, when told, cov- 
ers all the earlier activities in that line in Yuba and Sutter Counties. 

The first crops raised in this locality were a small field of wheat put in 
.by Cordua in 1845, between Marysville and Yuba City, and one by Sicard on 
his ranch on the south bank of Bear River. Gutierrez, Johnson, Kyser and 
Smith were simply herding cattle on the plains, as was also Roether. This 
was the state of agriculture in 1846. Sicard had a field of wheat of about fif- 
teen acres, which yielded about sixty bushels to the acre on the average. 
Grain was raised by Nicolaus Allgeier near Nicolaus, but none was raised 
this year at Hock Farm. 

Primitive Methods of Farming 

The method of cultivation at that time was exceedingly primitive. No 
agricultural implements having been brought by the foreign emigrants or by 
the American settlers, they were obliged to use the kind of tools and resort 
to the same practices that obtained among the native Calif ornians. The 
enterprising farmer who desired to raise a field of wheat had first to manu- 
facture a plow. He went into the forest and examined the trees carefully ; 
and when one was found that had the proper-shaped limbs, it was cut down, 
its branches hewn off, and the remaining limbs trimmed to the proper length 
and size. A triangular piece of iron about eight inches broad at the base was 
then fastened to the lower branch, with the apex of the triangle downward. 
The other branch was used as a pole for the animal, and the main stem served 
as a handle. To this were hitched two oxen, attached to the plow by ropes 
fastened around their horns, no yoke being used. An Indian boy walked 
ahead of the oxen, which were trained to follow him ; and a man came behind 
to guide the plow. The furrow cut was eight inches wide and quite shal- 
low ; the dirt was not turned over, but fell back into its old place when the 
plow passed, being merely loosened by the operation. After the field had been 
prepared in this manner, the grain was scattered by hand and a brush was 
drawn over the field to harrow it and cover the seed. 

When the grain was ripe, then the services of the Indians were called into 
requisition to assist in the harvest. They were provided with sickles and 
butcher-knives, with which they cut the yellow stalks. A large force of these 
assistants was employed. In 1847 Captain Sutter had over 250 in his large 
field near Sacramento, diligently employing the sickle and butcher-knife. 

The grain was then bound and carried to the place where the threshing 
was done. It was there laid in a ring, and horses and cattle were driven over 
it to shell the wheat from the head. The straw was next removed ; and then 
the grain was thrown up into the air, that the wind might carry away the chaff 
and leave the grain free. Home-made wooden forks and shovels were used for 
handling the straw and grain. 


The grain, besides the little needed for home consumption, was sold to 
John A. Sutter, who had a contract to supply the Russian colony in Alaska. 
To convey this supply, the Russians sent a vessel from Sitka to Sacramento, 
where it received Sutter's large crop. Launches were sent up the river as far 
as Nicolaus, to which point the grain raised in this vicinity was carried for 
shipping. Sutter supplied the Russians with wheat for several years. 

Introduction of Modern Methods 

The primitive methods at first employed were gradually superseded by 
the implements brought by the American pioneers, who came here to settle 
and so came prepared. The first innovation made was some American plows, 
brought in 1846 by Claude Chana and others in his party. The last thing to 
change was the manner of threshing, the first machine for that purpose mak- 
ing its appearance in the early fifties, as related in a subsequent paragraph. 

In 1847, Rouelle, who settled near Sutter's orchard, opposite Marysville 
on the south bank of the Yuba River, raised some vegetables — among other 
things some huge watermelons. Most of the settlers raised crops of wheat 
this year. The plowing for the crops of 1847 was done chiefly with American 
plows that the emigrants of 1846 had brought. These emigrants had also 
brought grain cradles, and a large portion of the wheat was cut with these. 
Sutter had several white men reaping with cradles in his large field at the 
same time that the 250 Indians were at work with sickles and butcher-knives. 
Johnson and Sicard used sickles. As for several years previously, the Rus- 
sians came for the wheat this year also, but it was the last they could get. 

We have referred to the introduction of the plow and cradle. The first 
threshing machine used was one of home manufacture, and was employed to 
thresh grain raised by Allgeier and Higgins, in the Nicolaus section, in 1851. 
The maker was Major Frothingham, a mechanic, who was living with Hig- 
gins. Frothingham worked for a long time on a perpetual-motion machine 
that was to be run by weights, but quite naturally met with no success.. Mow- 
ers and reapers were introduced in 1854, and headers in 1856. Threshers, 
reapers and mowers were soon used by all the farmers, giving employment 
in season to many men who made their headquarters in Marysville and Yuba 
City. Not a few of these men later became owners of tracts in either Yuba 
or Sutter County. The results of their investments are now apparent, being 
enjoyed by either themselves or their children. 

Floyd, Ingraham, and McMurtry made an iron harrow in 1852, from 
about fifty picks abandoned at French Crossing by a party of Frenchmen. 
It was probably the first implement of the kind in this part of the country. 

Other Crops and Further Development 

During the winter of 1847-1848, Nye put in his first crop. He raised peas, 
barley, wheat, watermelons, muskmelons, corn and lentils. The barley was 
prepared and used for coffee. The wheat was ground into flour by means of 
small handmills. Most of the settlers had put in crops of grain in 1848 ; but 
crops, stock, orchards, etc., were all abandoned, and every one went to the 
mines. Sicard was the only man in this locality near Bear River who har- 
vested his wheat. 

In 1849 more attention was given to agriculture, Charles Covillaud har- 
vesting 160 acres east of Marysville ; while Ramirez, on the Quintay, put in 
100 acres, and Sampson about the same. In 1850 Claude Chana experimented 
with a small crop of Russian barley. 

After the rush and excitement of 1849 and 1850, caused by the gold dis- 
covery, agriculture took a new start. In the latter year a few people had set- 
tled on the bottom lands, with the intention of making- this their future home. 


At that time, a fine growth of oak and sycamore timber skirted the river 
banks, and in some places extended back upon the plains. The first 
industry engaged in was the cutting of wood, great quantities of which were 
used by the steamers and by the residents of the city. Another was the cut- 
ting of hay, which grew wild on the bottom land in great luxuriance. Hay was 
in great demand in the mines and cities ; and the immense number of pack 
and stage animals required to transact business, and transport goods and 
passengers, made the price of hay reach a high figure. Little had been cut or 
used in 1849 ; but the following year a great many people located hay claims 
on which they remained long enough to gather the abundant crop, and then 
abandoned them until the next season. These, with a few settlers who made 
permanent locations, cut thousands of tons, the demand being even then too 
great to be fully supplied. The wild grass was a species of timothy and clover 
that grew without any cutivation, and made a most excellent quality of hay. 
Hundreds of cords of wood were cut and piled on the river banks for future 
use, the dry, dead timber being used while the other was seasoning. Even 
as late as 1858, the cutting of wood and wild hay was the leading industry 
among the ranchers along the river. 

The first broom corn was raised in Sutter County in 1855 by one Mr. 
Ryan on his farm north of Yuba City, now Lomo. The next year several 
others planted it, and in a few years it had become one of the leading crops on 
the bottom lands of the county. 

At one time particular attention was paid to sugar cane and castor beans ; 
but these were soon abandoned for products that made better returns. 

The earliest orchards in Sutter County, so far as is known, were those 
planted by Claude Chana and General Sutter at Hock Farm. In 1880 the 
orchard of John Briggs near Yuba City was well advanced and was con- 
sidered one of the largest orchards in the State. Briggs' Early May peaches 
gained a State-wide reputation for lusciousness. At the same time Yuba 
County had several orchards bearing peaches in the bottom lands east of 
Marysville. These were owned by Michael McAdams, Grass Brothers, 
Tremblay Brothers and others, all of whom engaged in grape-growing and 
wine-making later. Further mention of the early orchards of Sutter County 
is made in the chapter on Horticulture and Viticulture. 

Importation and Exportation of Wheat 

Until the fact was demonstrated that wheat could be raised in sufficient 
quantities and of satisfactory quality, flour was brought from Chile, Aus- 
tralia, and the celebrated Gallego and Haxhall mills of Virginia. Even after 
mills were built, wheat was imported, both because a sufficient quantity was 
not raised at home, and because that raised was not believed to be of good 
quality. By about 1856, however, enough wheat was produced to supply the 
demand, and the mills ceased to import wheat, and the merchants, flour. 

Having accomplished this, the farmers and grain dealers could see noth- 
ing further ahead, and agricultural progress was for a time at a standstill. 
The idea of exporting did not enter their minds, for they thought the attempt 
would be futile. The wheat, they reasoned, would not stand the journey East 
or to Liverpool, twice through the tropics and around Cape/ Horn. The ex- 
tremes of heat and cold would cause "sweating" and destruction. Conse- 
quently no attempt was made to export until about 1861, when astute dealers 
sent a cargo to Liverpool, taking the chances of losing, but determined to try 
the experiment. The cargo arrived safely and in excellent condition ; a sec- 
ond was sent, and that also arrived in the best of order. This established the 
fact that wheat could be shipped from California ; and as a result an immedi- 
ate impetus was given to grain-exportation, and also to its production. 


The Farmers' Cooperative Union of Sutter County 

As early as 1869, the farmers throughout the State began to complain of 
the hardships wrought by the rings and speculators who dealt in agricultural 
products. Combinations of speculators had been formed that kept down the 
price of grain at home, so that the farmer, notwithstanding a good market 
abroad, could obtain but little for his produce. Combinations also kept trans- 
portation rates at a high figure, and rings kept the price of bags far above 
their legitimate value. After a few years of complaining, the farmers set 
themselves to work to rectify their grievances. In 1872 a great many "Farm- 
ers' Clubs" were formed, where the farmers meti together to discuss the situ- 
ation and ascertain what was best to be done. One of these clubs was formed 
in Yuba City. After much futile discussion, the members began to realize 
the need of some legal organization, and a committee was appointed to inves- 
tigate the matter. The club decided to incorporate, and didi so on March 29, 
1873. The name given the organization was "The Farmers' Cooperative Union 
of Sutter County." The capital stock was fixed at $50,000, divided into 1000 
shares of $50 each. The life of the concern was placed at fifty years, and 
Yuba City was made the principal place of business. The first board of 
directors comprised the following: S. E. Wilson, president; B. F, Walton, 
secretary ; George Ohleyer, treasurer ; A. L. Chandler, Francis Hamlin, 
George E. Brittan, and Henry Elmer. In 1873 the union purchased 128,000 
grain bags at wholesale rates, on credit, and sold them to stockholders at cost 
price ; and thus the farmers began at once to derive an actual benefit from the 
union. In 1874 a large brick warehouse was built in Yuba City. It had a stor- 
age capacity of 5000 tons, the building at the start being 80 by 200 feet, with 
a shed its whole length 27 feet wide. The building was not completed until 
September, and but 2200 tons were stored that year, only enough to pay ex- 
penses. I,n 1875 there were 5300 tons stored, and in 1876, 5100 tons. In 
1877 there was a bumper crop of grain, and the warehouse was full by the 
4th of July. Evidently more storage room was required. The directors had 
previously purchased four acres of land on an Indian mound on the river bank 
for $6000; and they now proceeded to erect a frame warehouse, 60 by 108 feet, 
with a shed 21 by 108 feet; capacity, "2500 tons. Grain was received there on 
August 1, and the building was soon full. 

On March 31, 1879, a cash dividend of $10 per share was declared. The 
report of the directors showed a plant worth $30,000 belonging to the union. 
George Ohleyer was the business manager in the years when he and his as- 
sociates reaped the benefits. In 1874 there was a change in the directorship, 
George W. Carpenter taking the place of George E. Brittan, who resigned. 
George Ohleyer became secretary in 1876, and George W. Carpenter, treas- 
urer. B. F. Walton was elected treasurer in 1878. By the quantity of its 
freight, the union materially assisted in maintaining the line of steamers 
owned by the Marysville Steamboat Company, and thus indirectly was a 
benefit to all classes of shippers, by keeping the rates of transportation low. 

AVhen the river channel became clogged with debris and prevented the 
river steamers from reaching the two warehouses built on the bank of the 
stream, the organization erected on the line of the railroad near the Yuba 
City Flour Mill a large corrugated-iron warehouse, which at once was in 
demand. This building was sold about 1912 to the Northern Electric Rail- 
road Company, now the Sacramento Northern Railroad Company. It is now 
owned by the Prune and Apricot Growers' Association. 

Farmers' Union Bank 

The Farmers' Union Bank, now the First National Bank of Yuba City 
and Savings Bank of Sutter County, was the financial branch of the Farmers' 


Cooperative Union during all the years it was in existence. Charles R. Boyd, 
now president of this bank, was first connected with the association as a 
weigher in the warehouses. He has now been with the concern for over forty- 
two years. In 1908 he succeeded the late George W. Carpenter as its head. 
The bank now occupies its own building on Bridge Street. It was 
formerly located in the quarters now occupied by the Van Arsdale Mer- 
cantile Company, next door. 

Producers' Bank of Yuba City 

In March, 1924, there was organized by interests in Yuba and Sutter 
Counties closely allied with the Bank of Italy the Producers' Bank of Yuba 
City. The first meeting of stockholders was held Saturday, March 15, for 
the purpose of electing officers and discussing business matters. Alvin Weis, 
Marysville attorney, was chosen president. Other officers elected were: 
Trusten P. Coats, Jr., secretary and cashier ; Dunning Rideout, Marysville 
manager of the Bank of Italy, first vice-president ; and C. B. Harter, second 
vice-president. A week later an offer by Schneider Brothers of Marysville 
of a free site was accepted by the directors ; and decision was made next day 
to erect a building, at a cost of at least $10,000, on the east side of Plumas 
Street, near the intersection of Scott Street, in Yuba City. 

The following were the stockholders of the new bank at its establish- 
ment: A. W. Graves, F. W. Cooper, Alvin Weis, C. B. Harter, Albert 
Andross, Kenyon T. Gregg, George F. Otis, Dunning Rideout, George Wal- 
ton, Gerald F. Raub, N. J. Weber, Jr., Howard H. Harter, A. W. Gluckman, 
H. H. Wolfskill, Charles Beaver, Glen Onstott, E. E. Bryan, C. J. Harter, 
Orlin C. Harter, L. J. Harter, Harry E. Meyers, P. A. Reische, Josephine 
Steiner, J. H. Backus, V. H. Triplett, Frank Brandstatt, C. H. Stohlman, 
Samuel H. Hogeboom, Wallace Williams, Rollin Williams, Cyrus Graffis, 
R. G. Smith, Fred H. Heiken, Carayl Kenyon, Eva K. Gregg, Thomas Brad)', 
Howard F. Brady, E. H. Meyer, John Pohle, L. C. Stohlman, Lillie Stohlman, 
Clara Stohlman, S. E. Reische, John Joaquin, Hazel Hoke, Thomas T. Joaquin, 
Dalton Z. Look, C. E. Sullivan, Frank R. Close, E. W. Hixson, J. R. Howlett, 
William H. Street, George N. Schneider, Seymour N. Schneider, Stockholders' 
Auxiliary Corporation. 

Nicolaus Farmers' Grain Warehouse 

In the southern part of the county farmers also united to protect their 
interests. The Nicolaus Farmers' Grain Warehouse was formed in 1873, with 
a paid-up capital of $4900, in shares of $100. A frame warehouse with a 
capacity of 2500 tons was built the same year. It was erected on the river 
bank at Nicolaus in the shape of a trapezoid. The shipment of grain the 
first year was 4000 tons. The officers, from its organization, were : A. L. 
Chandler, president ; J. D. Barbee, secretary ; and John Peters, treasurer. 

Early-Day Growers of Grain 

Among those who pioneered in the days when grain was the chief prod- 
uct of Sutter County's vast acreage, and whose descendants are now reap- 
ing the benefits of the splendid commonwealth they created in this wonderful 
section, are : W. W. Ashford, A. F. Abbott, Richard Barnett, Thomas 
Brophy, W. Y. Blevin, I. N. Brock, Stephen Bokman, W. H. Boulware, Cyrus 
Briggs, Henry Best, M. C. Barney, J. S. Boyd, Thomas Boyd, Robert 
Boyd, Francis Berk, J. H. Brockman, C. P. Berry, R. C. Berry, John Burns, 
George E. Brittan, Boyd & Wilcoxon, M. T. Buchanan, Z. Best, M. Boul- 
ware, Henry Berg and brothers, Boyd & Cockerill, P. L. Bunce, C. G. 
Bockius, J. W. Carpenter, S. R. Chandler, Thomas Christopherson, Y. S. 
Clyma, Otis Clark, Patrick Corcoran, J. M. Cope, Frank Clyma, W. A. 


Coats, John Carroll, J. C. Donohoe, Fred Dahling, Eli Davis, J. F. C. DeAYitt, 
William G. DeWitt, M. C. Ellis, J. H. Erich, S. R. Fortna, D. C. Fortna, John 
Fortna, E. P. Farmer, B. F. Frisbie, Charles A. Glidden, Maragaret Giblin, 
J. Guidery, Timothy Guidery, George W. Gray, B. C. Gray, Joseph Girdner, 
Moore Getty, Evan Griffith, Konrad Gottwals, John Gelzhauser, Jesse O. 
Goodwin, John Haugh, Daniel Hogan, Barney Hippert, G. Heidoting, B. F. 
Henderson, E. J. Howard, C. D. Herrick, Francis Hamlin, F. Hoke, T. B. 
Hull, Suel Harris, Henry Johnson, Robert Keck, Michael Kerns, T. D. Kirk, 
Barney Krehe, Peter Kerrigan, Henry Krehe, Caspar Euckehe, A. H. Lamme, 
Fred Lauber, AY. P. Lipp, William McMurtry, Charles Myers, Adam Michel, 
T. S. Metteer, C. H. Metteer, William Manaugh, James Murray, Mrs. E. E. 
Moore, A. C. and G. A. Morehead, N. D. Monger, J. Monger, William Moore, 
Marcuse Brothers, R. McRae, J. T. McMurtry, John McNamara, Peter 
McAuslan, T. F. McVey, Phil McCune, R. W. McLaughlin, John McAlpine, 
W. H. McPherrin, David McAuslan, Samuel McClure, Martha McPhetridge, 
J. C. Newkom, A. S. Noyes, Matthew Nail, Frank Nau, P. M. Neisen, Eric 
Nelson, Peter Nelson, J. Y. Newman, D. A. Ostrom, D. O'Banion, William 
O'Banion. George Ohleyer, Joseph O'Connor, Michael O'Connor, J. A. 
Onstott, J. P. Onstott Dennis O'Neil, Patrick O'Connor, Eli Porter, J. C. 
Porter, William Peters, Phil Prather, David Powell. Richard Powell, A. J. 
Percy, G. A. Putnam, E. Proper, Peter Peters, Claus Peters, Sumner Paine, 
Packard & Woodruff, William Powell. J. A, Peters, Parks & Brother, W. H. 
Perdue, Parks & AVilcoxon, J. Rackerby, William Rackerby, I. N. Ramsdell, 
Hanora Ryan, Elizabeth Ramey, G. F. Starr, H. Stohlman, J. & M. Schwall, 
C. Stolp, H. Sankey, Toseph Schwall, F. Sankey, Paul Schillig, James Strip- 
lin, B. R. Spillman, W. T. Spillman, W. E. Striplin, F. M. Striplin, J. W. 
Snowball, Mrs. Annie Stewart, Mrs. C. E. Sanborn, William Sanders, S. J. 
Stabler, G. M. Saye, Jackson Simpson, H. H. Scheussler, Adam Scheussler, 
Fred Sulzberger, fohn Spangler, John Soderlund, G. R. Summy, John Schlag, 
B. F. Stoker, R: AY. Tharp, William Trevathan, Fred Tarke, E. F. Thorn- 
brough, Eli Teegarden, John Ury, P. V. Veeder, Fred Vahle. A. Van Arsdale, 
M. P. E. Vivian, Jacob Vahle. J.X. Wilbur, John Wilkie, A. H. Wilbur, Jacob 
Weis, Mary Weber, B. F. Walton, George Walton, W. J. Walton, R. H. 
Walton, H. A. Walton, I. A. Winship, Walter Woodworih, E. K Wilson, 
E. Wilder, Conrad Weigers, Valentine Witt, J. A. Wilkinson, T- E. Whitlock, 
I. Whyler, William Whyler, Edward Whyler, O. A. Wilbur, David Wilkie, 
William Wadsworth, M. C. Woods, J. B. Wadsworth, S. E. Wilson, C. E. 
Wilcoxon, J. W. Woods, AY. AY. Wilbur, Justus A. AA r ilkinson, Jack AVilcoxon, 
Steve AA^eigers, Bethel Way, Conrad Walthers. AY J. Yates, Solomon Zeigler, 
John Zimmerman, and George Zins. 

Rice a New Crop in Sutter County 
No other single crop and related industry have ever developed so rapidly, 
and attained to such tremendous proportions in only a few years, as have 
the rice crop and rice industry in California. It was early found that certain 
lands, known as "goose lands," and lying in different portions of Sutter 
County, were adapted to rice. One of the first crops of rice raised yielded 
to the combined owners over $1,000,000. In that year rice brought from 
six and one-half to eight cents per pound. 

Beans and the Full Dinner Pail 
As many as 30,000 acres of Sutter County land have been planted to 
beans in a single year. This means row upon row, and land following land, 
almost as far as the eye can reach. Small white, large white, pink and bayo 
are the four varieties most generally grown, although the black-eye is in 
some localities grown to a considerable extent. 



Marvelous indeed is the transformation that has come to Sutter County 
since the days described in the previous chapter. From a great and vast 
acreage of grain and hay, with here and there a home, to a panorama of 
orchards and vineyards, each a home-place added to the thickly dotted land- 
scape, is a change scarce dreamed of by the men and women who blazed 
the way to the present stage in the county's agricultural development. 

Sutter County of today is the result of a combination nowhere equalled — 
a combination of soil and water in alliance with a climate that does more 
than any other on the face of old Mother Earth, to make plant life thrive 
and do its best. The fruitful results of this three-fold union of earth's great- 
est riches are everywhere in evidence in Sutter County. 

For countless centuries, what is now Sutter County, like the Valley of 
the Nile, was annually flooded with the waters that flowed down the Sacra- 
mento and Feather Rivers from the Coast Range and Sierra Nevada Moun- 
tains that border, on each side, the great interior valley of California. By 
far the greater portion of the county lies between the Sacramento and Feather 
Rivers, while the remaining portion stretches along the eastern side of the 
Sacramento and south of the Bear. Year after year the mountain silt was 
washed down by these streams and spread out like a blanket over what 
is now Sutter County. This silt-like loam, thus finally brought to the 
level of the adjacent lands, is deeper than the roots of trees or vines ever go, 
and the three rivers furnish ample liquid nourishment for the successful 
carrying on of every kind of agricultural enterprise. 


Away back, somewhere about 1850. the first orchard in Northern Cali- 
fornia was planted at Hock Farm on the Feather River, about nine miles 
south of Yuba City, by Gen. John A. Sutter, one of the West's most con- 
spicuous pioneers. This first orchard soon became famous, and marked the 
simple beginning of an industry that is still a baby in arms in comparison 
with the possibilities of its ultimate development. Sutter County is surely 
destined to become, at no distant day, one great orchard and vineyard. 

County Horticultural Commissioner H. P. Stabler, in 1922, on the occa- 
sion of the first annual Peach Day Celebration, thus wrote of Sutter County's 
claim to the title of "Home of the Cling Peach" : 

"Gen. John A. Sutter, soon after the discovery of gold, left Sut- 
ter's Fort at Sacramento and built a home on Hock Farm on the Feather 
River, nine miles south of Yuba City. Here he planted a peach orchard, the 
first peach orchard in Sutter County. In 1860 John Briggs, P. L. Bunce, 
Dr. A. L. Chandler, and Dr. Eli Teegarden planted peach orchards in Sutter 
County. A. F. Abbott and Joseph Phillips planted fifty-five acres of cling 
peaches in 1882, about nine miles south of Yuba City. This orchard was 
extended in a few years to 425 acres, and in this orchard the famous Phillips 
cling, a chance seedling, was found in 1888. 

"B. F. Walton, now deceased, one of Sutter County's most progressive 
citizens, organized a cooperative association in 1883 and built a fruit- 


canning factory in Yuba City. The building of this plant, the Sutter Can- 
ning & Packing Company, stimulated the planting of cling peaches, so that 
in each year since, the production has grown by leaps and bounds. 

"Joseph Phillips imported some trees of a cling peach from Augusta, 
Georgia, about 1885. This was known as the Tuskenia, the name being grad- 
ually changed to Tuscan. This cling, now grown in cling-peach districts 
all over the State, was first grown in California in Sutter County. The 
Walton, the Johnson and the Hauss clings, popular midsummer varieties, 
ripening after the Tuscan and before the Phillips, originated in the orchards 
of P. A. Walton, J. Sander Jphnson, and Ferdinand Hauss." 

Abbott and Phillips 

To A. F. Abbott and Joseph Phillips, both now deceased, those who 
have kept in close touch with the history of Sutter County assign the credit 
for the great fruit industry of Sutter County. Abbott is often referred to 
as the real father of the industry. The widow, children and grandchildren 
of Abbott are now residents of Marysville. Phillips never married. 

Abbott was a resident of Sutter County in pioneer days, and in his 
youth was an employee of Gen. John A. Sutter at Hock Farm, where he 
first saw the possibility of fruit-culture. 

It was in 1882 that Abbott associated himself with Joseph Phillips, 
who had grown fruit on Feather River below Marysville. They trans- 
formed Abbott's extensive grain ranch on Feather River, nine miles below 
Yuba City, into one of the finest orchards in California. This proved a 
very fortunate combination, as each member of the partnership was un- 
equalled in his way. Abbott was a very successful fruit-grower, and owned 
500 acres of land unusually suited to the business of fruit-raising. He was 
active, intelligent, and one of the best business men in the county. 

On the other hand, Joseph Phillips, from' his youth, had been engaged 
in the nursery and fruit business, and at the time of planting the orchard 
was considered the leading authority in California on horticultural matters. 
He was a keen observer; a successful experimenter, trying out new varieties 
to test their adaptability to California conditions ; a hybridizer, crossing 
different fruits to produce new varieties ; and a close student of all matters 
pertaining to horticulture. 

Phillips imported from P. J. Berckmans, a nurseryman of Augusta, 
Ga., a cling peach called by Berckmans the Tuskenia. Phillips was the 
tirst to grow this peach in California. It is known now as the Tuscan, and 
is one of the leading canning peaches of the State. Several of the most 
valuable cultivated fruits were brought to the State by Phillips. 

In the year 1882 Abbott and Phillips planted fifty-five acres ; and they 
rapidly added to their orchard until they had 425 acres. This move was 
watched by the farmers, and the success of this enterprise stimulated land- 
owners all over the Sacramento Valley to plant orchards. In 1883 the 
farmers and business men of the county were so favorably impressed with 
the possibilities of fruit-growing that the Sutter Canning & Packing Com- 
pany was organized and a canning factory built in Yuba City the same year. 
The first fruit canned in Sutter County was grown and gathered in the Abbott 
& Phillips orchard. 

Birth of the Phillips Cling Peach 

Phillips was always on the alert for new and desirable varieties. In 
1888, he discovered in the orchard a chance seedling peach with so many 
good qualities that he budded a few trees. From that beginning, growers 
and nurserymen secured the now famous Phillips cling peach, which is now 
grown in every cling-peach district of California. 


The remains of Phillips now lie in an unmarked grave in the Marys- 
ville cemetery, a grave supplied by the generosity of a few friends who 
admired him during his lifetime and mourned his death. It has been sug- 
gested in recent years — and the movement promises to take form — that 
those who profited through the cling peach (and they are numerous), and 
who appreciate the good that Phillips wrought for the fruit industry of this 
section, contribute to a fund for the erection of a shaft to mark the grave of 
their benefactor. 

The full name of the originator of the Phillips cling peach was Joseph 
Duke Phillips. 

Other Pioneer Fruit Growers 

In another chapter we have listed the men w r ho pioneered in the grain 
era of Sutter County. Those also who paved the way to the great fruit era 
in which the county is now prospering should not be forgotten. Sharing 
early honors with A. F. Abbott, Joe Phillips, and Gen. John A. Sutter, who 
no doubt brought the first olive trees, fig trees, and vines to his place at 
Hock Farm, presumably from the California Missions, are the late P. L. 
Bunce and John Briggs, who had orchards south of Yuba City early in the 
sixties. The Bunce properties are still known as such, while the Briggs 
orchard is now known as the Dr. Jackson place. Besides making a success 
of deciduous fruits, P. L. Bunce pioneered in citrus fruits also, though not 
on a large scale. 

It was about the year 1867 that the Briggs orchard of 100 acres, then 
considered a large tract for fruits, became famous all over California, both for 
the quality of the fruit produced and for the many varieties cultivated. 
Briggs had pears, peaches, cherries, apricots, figs, prunes, nectarines, apples, 
and nuts on the place. It was from this orchard that the first carload of 
California fruit to be shipped to the East was picked in 1876. The buyer 
was Edwin T. Earl, who later organized on this coast the well-known Earl 
Fruit Company. Notable in the old Briggs orchard at the present time are the 
large and beautiful pecan trees which Briggs planted fifty-five years ago. 
These trees still are in bearing, although no one seems to benefit by their 
present efforts. They were the first pecans planted in California. 

Dr. S. R. Chandler also ranks as an early-day grower. As early as 
1857, he had a small orchard planted to peaches, pears, and some other fruits. 

S. J. Stabler, father of the present horticultural commissioner, and B. G. 
Stabler, an uncle of H. P. Stabler, each put out orchards in 1885. They had 
100 acres each, and their places were located a short distance west of Yuba 
City. In the same year Dr. S. R. Chandler added to his plantings. 

C. F. Butler of Yuba City, E. W. Hixson of Franklin Corners, and T. B. 
Hull, "down the river," became interested in horticulture about the same 
time. G. F. Starr followed with a large orchard planting on his place north 
of Yuba City, which tract now adjoins that of R. W. Skinner on the north 
and, like Skinner's, borders the State Highway. 

In 1886, the late B. F. Walton laid the foundation for the fruit industry 
that has spread widely in the Bogue section. He chose peaches, almonds, 
and prunes. Walton organized the first canning concern in Sutter County. 

The Cutts & Hudson orchard of 155 acres, located near Live Oak, was 
planted about this same time. 

About two years later, the late J. T. Bogue, after whom Bogue Station, 
popular fruit-shipping point, was named, put out forty acres of orchard and 
established a nursery. He was the first nurseryman to propagate the Phillips 
cling peach commercially. 


R. W. Skinner, now regarded as the leading cherry expert in California, 
first became prominent in the horticultural field about this time. He came 
to this section from San Jose about 1887, and was the founder of a local 
branch of the Golden Gate Packing Company. He previously had leased 
orchards, purchased crops, and engaged as a shipper in several sections, 
including the orange belt of Palermo, in Butte County. He is now interested 
in one of the largest cherry orchards of Sutter County, north of Yuba City. 

Plantings in the early nineties included the famed Giblin Brothers' 
cherry orchard, just south of Yuba City. Owing to the good care given 
to the sixty acres of trees planted on wonderful land specially adapted to the 
cherry, tremendous crops of this fruit were produced for years, and still 
are being harvested. 

Herman Berg, of Berg Brothers, early settlers, put out twelve acres 
of olives about this time, north of Yuba City, and Marcuse Brothers also 
planted 100 acres to fruits on the bank of Feather River, their place being 
east of Marcuse Station. 

About the same time, also, B. S. J. Hiatt planted a large acreage to 
pears on the bank of Sacramento River, near Kirksville. These plantings 
were preceded by a few years by one on Bear River, northeast of Nicolaus. 
C. P. Berry, who later became State Senator representing this district, was 
the founder of this orchard of peaches and pears. 

An interesting planting about this time was made by the late E. F. 
Thornbrough along the Sacramento River, south of Meridian. Thornbrough 
chose the "Robe de Sargent" prunes, now known as the "robe," among 
orchardists. They were the first of this variety of prune to be planted in 
Sutter County; and at. once the fruit grew into popularity. The trees 
planted by Thornbrough are still bearing profitably. 

The oldest prune orchard in Sutter County is that planted in 1890 by 
Wesley T. Wilson, who showed foresightedness by putting out a large tract 
to this fruit on the bank of Feather River southeast of Tudor. This orchard 
still has the record for production, yielding seven tons of dried fruit to the 
acre. The place is now owned by H. Cheim, of Marysville, and J. A. Ben- 
nett, of Sutter County. 

G. F. Starr also pioneered in prunes at his place north of Yuba City. 


To print a list of those now engaged in the peach industry in Sutter 
County would be to publish almost a complete census of the family heads 
of the county. County Horticultural Commissioner H. P. Stabler, to whom 
the compiler of this volume is indebted for much data on the history of 
Sutter County's fruit plantings, has iisted at the present time 637 growers 
of peaches; while of those cultivating fruits, of whatever variety, Stabler's 
census shows the number to be 1034. 

Quality, and Tonnage per Acre 

Sutter County's orchards are noted not only for the quality of the fruit, 
but also for the extremely heavy tonnage per acre. Miss Elaine Wilbur's 
orchard of cling peaches has became famous throughout the country. For 
two years Miss Wilbur has won the first prize in the annual peach contest, 
for quality, tonnage, and condition of orchard, on Tuscan and Phillips cling 
peaches. Her orchard, when five years old, had a record of twenty tons 
and two hundred forty-two pounds per acre, on a plot of thirteen and two- 
thirds acres, a record which then stood unchallenged. 


In F. S. AValton's orchard of Phillips clings, one acre of particularly 
fine trees produced twenty-six tons. L. A. Walton has had trees of Phillips 
clings which regularly produced 1000 pounds per tree. 

New Early-fruiting Midsummer Peach 

In the spring of 1923, Roy Van Tiger, a fruit-grower of the Encinal 
district, surprised the horticultural world with the announcement that 
peach trees planted by him in 1922 would produce early in the summer of 
1923. It proved to be so, though the crop was light. The newspapers in- 
vestigated and found the trees to be of the new midsummer variety known 
as the Palora, which had originated at Gridley, Butte County, by chance. 
The limbs were found to be showing an average of thirty-five peaches to 
the tree. Van Tiger had ten acres in his first planting. 

M. J. Newkom was the first grower to plant this new cling peach in 
Sutter County. He now has eight acres in full bearing. The peach is highly 
valued, as it carries exceptionally well to distant canneries and its pro- 
duction record is notable. At two years of age, Newkom's trees produced 
three tons to the acre, and nine tons per acre at three years. At four years 
the orchard produced fifteen tons to the acre. 

The Palora started from a chance seedling found in the yard of the 
Gridley cannery by a man named Dixon, who sent the buds to Linden, 
San Joaquin County, for propagation, where the people by whom he was 
employed had headquarters. 

County Horticultural Commissioner H. P. Stabler has said that the 
Palora is rapidly growing in favor with the growers, and will soon rank with 
any of Sutter County's midsummer varieties. It is the first to appear each 
season in that class. 


Sharing honors with the peach, the Thompson Seedless grape has done 
much to make Sutter County famous. From a few cuttings obtained by a 
man named William Thompson, who lived near Sutter City, the growing of 
this valuable grape has been developed in a little over a decade into one of 
California's leading industries. 

The seedless grape of commerce, known here as the Thompson Seedless, 
was first grown in this country in Sutter County. Its potential value was 
instantly recognized, and extensive plantings were made as rapidly as cut- 
tings could be procured. Other sections of California have adopted this 
grape, but Sutter County easily holds its position" as its home and principal 
producing district in the State. 

The Thompson Seedless lays claim to several superior qualities. It is a 
medium-sized, oblong white grape, grows in large clusters or bunches, and 
is entirely free from seeds. It has no equal as a raisin grape, and is also 
delicious when eaten fresh. It possesses a high sugar content and a luscious 
flavor, which together make it a favorite in any market. 

The Thompson Seedless is shipped as a fresh grape to the cities of the 
Pacific Coast, and growers are each year expectantly looking forward to the 
day when improved shipping facilities will permit its being sold in larger 
quantities than now, and delivered fresh in the cities of the East. Excellent 
prices are received for both the raisins and the green grapes. 

Many other varieties of table and wine grapes, including the well- 
known Zante currants, are grown in this county. 

Almonds at Home in Sutter County 

Almonds are particular about where they grow. California is the only 
State that grows almonds commercially ; and it is not everywhere, even 


within California, that this nut is at home. Sutter County is one of the most 
favored almond-growing districts, and this crop represents one of its most 
valuable industries. The almond is an inhabitant of temperate climes. It 
blossoms the earliest of all fruit trees, and will not stand much frost. One 
great advantage to the producer of the almond, as well as of other fruits, 
lies in the fact that the growers of California are well organized, and a 
central selling agency fixes the prices at which the crop shall be sold, which 
insures profitable selling prices and effectually checkmates any possibility 
of a combination en the part of the buyers to say how much the grower 
shall be paid for his crop. 

Prunes and Plums 

Prunes and plums are valuable fruit crops, although they do not repre- 
sent quite the acreage of peaches, grapes or almonds. The crops are at 
present harvested mostly from trees of comparatively recent planting ; but 
there are hundreds of acres of young orchards that are soon to come into 
bearing, and heavy plantings are being made as a result of the large and 
highly profitable crops from the older trees. 

The prune has always ranked as one of California's most important 
fruits. Many fortunes have been made from the much-abused prune, be- 
cause it is a highly dependable crop, and one that can be relied upon to run 
true to form year in and year out. 

Present-day growers who specialize in prunes are. The Herman Berg 
Estate, Frank Berry, Mrs. G. H. Taylor, Thorn Brothers, Henry Van Tiger, 
Leonard Walton, Glenn Walton, Eloyd Wilbur, Elaine Wilbur, E. A. Boyn- 
ton, Lester Clark, A. W. Cutts, A. W. Hincks, A. E. Bigger, M. J. Newkom, 
Glenn Onstott, J. A. Onstott, G. H. Stewart, Charles F. Rednall, C. C. 
Schell, T. H. Stafford, E. W. Stanton, and Rosenberg Brothers & Company. 

Growing and Packing of Figs 

Figs are an important product. One of the large dried-fruit packing- 
houses at Yuba City was built for the purpose of packing figs. The busi- 
ness grew to such proportions that dried figs were imported from surround- 
ing counties for packing. Nearly every grocery in the United States at 
this time sells figs packed in Yuba City. In Sutter County you can liter- 
ally "sit under your own vine and fig tree." 

Fruit Plantings in 1923 

During the planting season of 1923 the Sutter County acreage planted 
to trees, plants, shrubs, and vines was 5316 acres. Of this area, the acreage 
planted to cling peaches was 3705. The season eclipsed all previous records 
in Sutter County. The number of trees, vines, shrubs and plants inspected 
was 1,334,119. These figures are taken from the report of H. P. Stabler, 
horticultural commissioner of the county. 

The total of peach trees planted during that season was 378,764. The 
Phillips cling predominated, with 168,763 trees ; the Palora was next, with, 
68,882; and the Tuscan variety was third, with 50,438 trees. Other leading 
varieties planted were: Peaks, 22,579; Libbee, 13,905; Johnson, 12.233; 
and Sims, 11,157. Under the 10,000 mark were the Hauss, Guame, Walton, 
Harris, Selma, Flint, Albright, Muirs, Lovel, and seedlings. 

The number of prune trees set out during this season was 54,559, on 
546 acres. The French led, with 469 acres ; Imperials were next, with 36 
acres ; and the Robes were third, with 5 acres. Thirty-six acres were 
planted to seedling prunes. 


Other varieties of trees planted during this remarkable season were : 
Apricots. 4487; almonds, 11,316; walnuts, 852; pears, 4290; plums, 9590; 
and cherries, 9509. 

There was also a large planting in grapes, the total of vines put out 
being 233.005, distributed between the following varieties : Alicante Bou- 
schet. 90,550; Thompson Seedless, 95,705: Zinfandels, 38,950; Granache. 
6000: Muscat, 700; Emperor, 700; and Petit Sirrah, 400. 



Sutter and Yuba Counties have seen days other than care-free. During 
the years when the Sacramento Valley was menaced by the hydraulic mining 
process, stout hearts and willing hands were required to meet the exigencies 
brought about by the actions of the mountaineers. Strained relations grew 
up between the mountain and valley sections, and litigation in the courts 
was long-drawn-out. Owners of mines evaded, by every hook and crook, 
the court processes issued after the valley watchmen sent into the moun- 
tains had secured the evidence. 

Work of the Anti-Debris Associations 

To give strength to the cause of the valley in defending the homes 
of its citizens, the Anti-Debris Association of the Sacramento Valley was 
formed, and later on it became necessary to organize a State-wide bod)'. 
This latter was known as the California Debris Association. 

The complaints drawn by the attorneys employed by these associa- 
tions were voluminous. Always they pointed out that until the process of 
hydraulic mining was begun, the rivers were clear streams of water running 
in well-defined channels, between natural banks sufficiently high to confine 
the waters and protect the lands adjacent thereto and upon the margin of 
the streams from overflow and from damage by flood waters. The point 
was stressed that the grade of the rivers and their tributaries from the 
dumps of the hydraulic mines to where the stream debouched into the valley 
exceeded thirty feet to the mile, but that from there to the mouth of the 
stream the grade was much less, varying from one to five feet to the mile. 
The complaint also averred, with good ground, that the greater part of the 
tailings and debris from hydraulic mining operations was swept away and 
carried by the force of the water down through the defiles and canyons of 
the river into the valley, and that the deposit of the said mining tailings and 
debris in the headwaters of the rivers increased the grade of the stream 
and made it more uniform, and also made the bottom smoother by filling 
deep holes therein, and thereby facilitating the downward flow of the tail- 
ings through the mountain courses of the streams. 

It was made plain in the court papers that from the place of debouch- 
ment of the rivers into the valley down to the mouth of the river, owing 
to the great reduction in the grade of the stream, a large portion of the 
slickens, sand, clay, and small stones from the hydraulic mines, instead of 
passing through the channel of the river, choked and filled its channels and 
overflowed its banks and the adjacent lands. 


Hydraulicking Defined 

Hydraulic mining was defined, as then practiced, as a mode or process 
of mining for gold through which high banks of earth and gravel, usually 
composed of strata containing gold enough to pay for the washing, and 
strata which did not contain gold, were washed and removed from their 
natural position, after being shaken up and shattered by means of immense 
blasts of powder, into sluiceways and flumes, and thence into the natural 
watercourses and rivers, by means of large streams of water forced through 
iron pipes and thence discharged from nozzles attached to the pipes, with 
great force and velocity, against the banks of earth and gravel, by a heavy 
water-pressure of from 100 to 500 feet in height, the gold being separated 
from the earth, sand and gravel by the action of the water, and retained in 
the pavements of sluiceways and flumes, whilst the refuse matter, consist- 
ing of boulders, cobbles, stones, pebbles, sand and clay, generally known as 
"tailings" or "debris" from the mines, were washed into and down the 
natural courses and rivers and deposited in the beds and channels through 
their entire length, the heavier portion thereof being first deposited and 
lodged in the upper portions of the watercourses and rivers, whilst the 
lighter portions were carried further down and deposited in the lower por- 
tions of the streams. 

Magnitude of the Menace 

Mining by the hydraulic process had been practiced and carried on to 
some extent in the mountainous part of the State of California for twenty 
years prior to the commencement of the litigation. It attained great dimen- 
sions about the year 1876, and from that time was carried on extensively, 
principally in the counties of Butte, Yuba, Sierra, Nevada and Placer, 
and on a small scale in some other counties, as in the hilly parts of a few of 
the valley counties lying east of the Sacramento River. 

The tailings from a part of the hydraulic mines operated in Nevada 
County, and the tailings from most of those operated in Yuba County, were 
discharged into Bear River, which stream dumps into Feather River. This 
was interesting not only to Yuba and Sutter Counties, but also to Sacra- 
mento County. The three counties were for years contributors, through 
monthly payments made by the supervisors, to a fund for meeting the ex- 
penses of the valley watchmen sent into the mountains to investigate and 
make frequent reports of violations of the rule to "so use your property as 
not to damage that of your neighbor." 

Operators of certain mines and mining claims located in the vicinity 
of You Bet, in Nevada County, and near Greenhorn Creek, were among 
the most persistent offenders. Their tailings were dumped into Greenhorn 
Creek about a mile above its junction with Bear River. Some of the banks 
washed by water were as high as 150 feet, of which the upper two-thirds 
consisted of earth and sand and the lower one-third of coarse blue gravel, 
the latter material being impossible of being worked out without carrying 
with it superincumbent strata of lighter material. 

It was charged that about 2000 cubic yards of solid material composed 
of cobblestones, boulders, gravel and clay were dumped daily into the river 
and its tributaries. The ground sluice process, at the same time, was con- 
sidered as fraught with as much danger to the valley streams as the 
hydraulic process. At the time the hydraulickers were "putting in their 
best licks," the material being washed from the mines seemed almost in- 
exhaustible. The mine-owners usually claimed the right of mining by their 
processes, upon the theory that they had an easement to deposit their tail- 


ings in the rivers and streams. The earth they used during each mining 
season was estimated at 600,000 cubic yards. 

Not until the famed Sawyer decision against the hydraulickers was 
rendered, did the valley residents breath easily. Following the forced cessa- 
tion of hydraulic mining, through the court's injunction, the valley reaches 
of the rivers that had been choked up began perceptibly to cut out. or 
"scour." The United States government and the State helped out some 
through a plan of "river correction," placing wing-dams, and constructing 
cut-offs to carry the flood-waters and to help the rivers to "scour." The 
effect soon became very perceptible in the vicinity of Marysville and Yuba 
City. Both the Yuba and Feather Rivers, and also the Bear River, are now 
showing high banks that well control the waters. 

The change has permitted the safe planting of orchards and vineyards 
outside the levees. Young orchards may at this time be observed planted 
on lands where are buried the earlier homes and fruit tracts, to a depth of 
from twenty-five to thirty feet. The valley divisions of the rivers are 
gradually being restored to their former and original condition, with narrow 
and deep channels and hard bottoms, and with pure water running through 
them. In the course of a few years, if the regulations imposed by "the present 
laws are adhered to, the property along the lower reaches of the rivers 
will be immune from all injury of the character that prevailed in the days 
of the hydraulic-mining menace. 

Litigation in State Courts 

Suits carried through the State courts and other tribunals with little 
gained by the farmers, were numerous. The case of Keys against the Little 
York Mining Company and others was commenced in January, 1877. It was 
removed to the Circuit Court, remanded to the State court — the order remand- 
ing having been appealed to and affirmed by the Supreme Court — and 
finally tried in the State court, in which there was a decision for the com- 
plainant. The decree obtained was reversed on appeal in 1879, without a 
decision upon its merits, on the technical ground of misjoinder of defendants. 

In September, 1879, the city of Marysville commenced suit in the Dis- 
trict Court of Yuba County, presided over by Judge Phil W. Keyser. alleg- 
ing the same state of facts and asking similar relief as in other cases, A 
preliminary injunction was granted. Afterwards the North Bloomfield 
Gravel Mining Company, a defendant in the suit, with others, filed a petition 
for a writ of prohibition in the State Supreme Court, alleging that Judge 
Keyser was the owner of two lots in Yuba City, which place was subject 
to the same river troubles as Marysville. The Supreme Court, in July, 1881, 
held that Judge Keyser was disqualified to act in the case, as he was 

The suit of The People against the Gold Run Mining Company and 
others, followed in Jul}", 1881, to restore original conditions on Bear River. 
This resulted in a very able opinion by Judge Temple of Sonoma County, 
formerly a member of the Supreme Court of the State of California. Judge 
Temple's decision was in favor of the valley, but the miners remained 
obstinate and continued their operations under cover. 

The case of Sutter County against the Miocene Mining Company, 
started in June, 1881, was another battle from which but little good flowed. 

Relief in the Federal Courts 

Not until Col. Edwards AYoodruff, owner of the AYoodruff Block in 
Marysville, and of two tracts of land in Yuba County, came forward and 
permitted his name to be used as a non-resident, as recpiired by law, did 


the people of the valley make any headway. The Woodruff suit was started 
against the North Bloomfield Gravel Mining" Company and others, in the 
United States Circuit Court ; and through it came the permanent relief the 
valley men had sought through all the years of litigation. 

January 7, 1884, was the day they had been hoping for. That is the 
date upon which the famous Sawyer decision was handed down, perpetu- 
ally enjoining hydraulic mining operations in California. There were great 
demonstrations of joy throughout the valley, at the news of the decision in 
favor of the farmers. Strong men wept, as bells pealed and whistles blew 
the note of victory for the valley. Stores and business houses were illum- 
inated that night ; bonfires' blazed on every corner ; cannons roared, while 
the church and school bells chimed in. There was joy and delight every- 
where ; and real estate advanced 100 per cent in value. From every section 
of the State came press notices congratulating the farmers upon the attain- 
ment of their right to defend their homes and farms and families. As far 
south as Bakersfield, felicitations were printed in the newspapers. The 
people of Marysville and Yuba City could scarcely contain themselves. 

The Sawyer Decision 

The decision of Judge Sawyer is a voluminous one, broad and sweep- 
ing, yet tempered with sympathy for the losers. It can be found in full, 
by any person desiring to read it, in Volume No. 18 of Federal Reports, at 
page 753 et seq. These reports may be found in any well-appointed law 
library, such as is to be found at the Yuba County Courthouse. We quote 
from the concluding paragraphs of the lengthy document, as follows : 

"We are fully satisfied that the acts of the defendants complained of 
are not authorized by any valid custom or usage, or by any valid law, 
statute, or otherwise, by the State of California, or of the United States; 
and that complainant is entitled to such relief as shall fully and amply pro- 
tect him from any further injuries to his property and any further encroach- 
ments upon his rights. What shall the remedy be? It would be difficult 
to appreciate too highly the importance of the mining interests. The fact 
is patent that immense sums of money have been, and they are now em- 
ployed in this branch of industry. The boldness with which capitalists, and 
especially these defendants, have invested large amounts of capital ; the 
perfection to which those engaged in hydraulic mining have brought ma- 
chines and appliances for successful mining ; the vast enterprises they have 
undertaken and successfully carried out ; the energy, perseverance, great 
engineering and mining skill displayed in pursuing these enterprises, excite 
wonder and unbounded admiration. In view of these undisputed, indisput- 
able and well-known facts, no one could possibly be more averse than we 
are to applying any remedy to the grievances complained of that must put 
an end to hydraulic mining, if any other can be devised permitting of its 
continuance, campatible with the safety and rights of the public, the com- 
plainant and numerous others similarly situated, of whom he is a repre- 
sentative. We have therefore sought with painful anxiety some other rem- 
edy ; but none has been suggested that appears to us to be at all adequate 
to the exegencies of the case, or at least more available in the present 
stage of the case. Two were suggested in Mendell's report. First, the 
purchase of large tracts of low lands in the valleys, which are now or may be 
permanently covered with water without material injury to navigation, or 
other property-owners, and turning the entire Yuba, with its debris, into 
them, using them as settling reservoirs. Secondly, the building of immense 
impounding dams at suitable points on the river, to hold back the heavy 
portions of debris. 


"The first seemed to he regarded as too expensive to he feasible. The 
second is the only one suggested and urged in this case, and much testimony 
has been taken as to the practicability and safety of the plan. As is 
usually the case, the views of different engineers and experts distinguished 
in their profession differ widely upon points of practicability and safety. 
The larger number of witnesses called, and much the larger amount of 
testimony, so far as mere opinion goes, are doubtless in favor of the prac- 
ticability, if sufficient means is furnished. But all the practical experi- 
ments heretofore made, at great expense, under the supervision of the State 
and of competent engineers, have been lamentable failures. The dams con- 
structed were doubtless, in many instances, defective. But what guaranty 
have the court, and those whose lives and property are at stake, that any 
future works of the kind will not also be defective? As at present advised, 
with some knowledge of the operations of the tremendous forces of nature, 
we cannot undertake to say, upon the mere opinion of experts generally at 
variance, as in this case, however competent, that the scheme would be 
practical and safe. "YVe cannot define in advance what work shall be suffi- 
cient, and authorize the continuance of the acts complained of upon the 
performance of any prescribed conditions. 

"A great deal has been said about the comparative public importance of 
the mining interests, and also the great loss and inconvenience to those 
defendants if their operations should be stopped by injunction. But these 
are considerations with which we have nothing to do. We are simply to 
determine whether the complainant's rights have been infringed, and, if so, 
afford him such relief as the law entitles him to receive, whatever the con- 
sequence or inconvenience to the wrong-doers or to the general public may 
be. 'After an examination of the great questions involved, as careful and 
thorough as we are capable of giving them, with a painfully anxious appre- 
ciation of the responsibilities resting upon us, and of the disastrous conse- 
quences to the defendants, we can come to no other conclusion than that 
complainant is entitled to a perpetual injunction. But as it is possible 
that some mode ma}- be devised in the future for obviating the injuries — 
either one of those suggested or some other — and successfully carried out, 
so as to be both safe and effective, a clause will be inserted in the decree 
giving leave on any future occasion, when some such plan has been success- 
fully executed, to apply to the court for a modification or suspension of the 
injunction. Let a decree be entered accordingly." 

Judge Dead)- concurred in the decision. In so doing he used the follow- 
ing language, in part: 

"I fully concur in the learned and able opinion of the Circuit Judge in 
both its reason and conclusion. It exhausts the subject, and leaves nothing 
to be added, either by way of statement, argument, illustration or authority 

"I am by no means unconcerned or indifferent to the effect of this deci- 
sion upon the large capital invested in these mines. But it is a fundamental 
principle of civilized society, and particularly such as is based upon the com- 
mon law, that no one shall use his property so as to injure the rights of an- 
other — sic utere tuo ut alienum non laedas. 

"From this salutary rule no one is exempt — not even the public — and 
the defendants must submit to it. Without it the weak would be at the 
mercy of the strong, and might make right." 

Valley Men Who Stood in the Vanguard 

Fighting in the vanguard during all the years of the litigation were 
such men as Dr. Eli Teegarden, Dr. C. E. Stone. C. P. Berry, Daniel A. 
Ostrom, George Ohleyer, Edwin A. Davis, A. D. Cutts, Dr. D. P. Durst, 
A. C. Bingham, W. T. Ellis, and R. G. Stanwood. 


Other ardent and enthusiastic supporters of the valley cause were : 
Lyman Ackley, John C. White, W. T. Phipps, Hugh Morrison, C. K. Dam. 
B. F. Dam, Charles E. Sexey, E. A. Forbes, while filling the position of 
district attorney, and Eugene P. McDaniel, the present superior judge of 
Yuba County, who was promoted from the district attorneyship. 

Still others were Kirby S. Mahon, present head of the Sutter County 
Superior Court, A. C. McLaughlin, John H. Jewett, Peter Decker, N. D. 
Rideout, David E. Knight, T. R. Boyd, C. R. Bovd. C. E. AVilcoxon, 
and T. B. Hull. 

Firms that were ever ready with backing were : AY T. Ellis & Son ; 
White. Cooley & Cutts ; the J. R. Garrett Company ; and others. 

George Ohleyer 

Foremost among the defenders of the valley men's rights, having his 
own newspaper to mold opinion, was George Ohleyer, editor of the Sutter 
Count}' Farmer. In an editorial written on the day the news of the Sawyer 
decision was rendered, Ohleyer spoke his mind as follows : 

"The decision of Judge Sawyer is so clear and comprehensive, so full 
of common law, common sense and justice, and being most ably seconded 
by two other United States judges, it will prove to be a fruitless and hope- 
less task to attempt to secure a modification or reversal of the judgment 
of the United States Supreme Court. We, therefore, regard the conflict be- 
tween the respective parties settled beyond recall by this decision. We 
never had any doubt of the final result ; but it was siege of seven years' 
duration, hotly contested inch by inch, during which time the stoutest 
hearts were wont to weaken, if but for a moment. The struggle was for 
family, home, life and prosperity — all that is worth living for — and could 
not be abandoned except by cowards. 

"During this memorable contest, every engagement resulted in a par- 
tial victory for justice and the valley, except the first, and that was a drawn 
battle, made so by a cowardly court. It is needless to say we refer to the 
Keys case, where life and means were offered up as a sacrifice for that 
decision — evasion rather, for it was .no decision at all. Step by step the 
battle waxed hotter, and with each charge something was gained for the 
cause of right. Time nor space will permit us at this time to note the 
various incidents of the long siege. We will therefore confine ourselves 
to the AVoodruff onslaught. 

"It was one thing to secure an injunction in our State courts, but it 
was quite another to enforce it. The mandates of our courts were evaded 
and treated with the utmost contempt. This circumstance, pointed the way 
to the Federal courts, whose mandates were likely to be respected. AA^ood- 
ruff, a non-resident, was eligible to ask the protection of this court, and 
proceedings were instituted about eighteen months ago, since which time, 
considering all things, rapid progress has been made. The opposing forces 
sought to evade this process, but the court told them that if they did not 
come into court they would be at once enjoined. This had the desired 
effect, and a legal battle ensued in December, 1882 ; and defendants' plea of 
a misjoinder was in due process overruled, and they were notified to prepare 
for the final struggle. It now became apparent that their ship had become 
weak and leaky ; two of their chief commanders had abandoned the concern. 
Others were called in, less scrupulous, but bolder and more reckless. The 
course of the ship was condemned, and the new commander changed her 
course and ran her onto the breakers ; and on last Monday, the 7th of January, 
1884, the ship and her crew went to the bottom never to rise again. 

"'Thus, after years of backing and filling, crimination and recrimination, 
the issue has been settled by a court which has power to enforce its judg- 


ment. This is cause for rejoicing, as well by the mountain dwellers as by 
the valley residents. A new era will dawn on both sections, enterprise 
will develop whatever of good lies hidden in mountain and valley, and 
the rights of all will be guarded and respected. The agricultural capa- 
bilities of the mountain regions are very great, to the development of 
which the Farmer will be an industrious co-worker. Let the mountain 
press lead the way." 

The public life of Ohleyer was one of active service in whatever posi- 
tion of honor he was placed. A careful, conservative, conscientious, untir- 
ing worker, he was recognized as a man of more than ordinary wisdom 
and ability, and was given a place in the foremost rank in public affairs. In 
1874 he was elected supervisor of the county, and served one term ; and he 
also served as commissioner of Levee District No. 1. He was a member of 
the State constitutional convention, and served Sutter and Yuba Counties 
in the legislature from 1886 to 1888. 

In the service of the valley, in the struggle against the hydraulic-mining 
evil, he was one of the "fathers of the anti-debris movement." From its 
inception he was closely identified with the work, giving his time and best 
thought to the cause, as he did in all things. Among the first of the organ- 
izers of the old Anti-Debris Association of the Sacramento Valley, he served 
faithfully as manager during the active life of that body, and was then 
placed on the executive committee of the State Anti-Debris Association, 
which body took up the work where the Sacramento Valley Association 
laid it down. For the anti-debris cause and the improvement of the rivers 
of the State, he made three different trips to Washington ; and his able 
efforts there wrought much good. 

In connection with this service, in 1881, with other prominent men, 
he organized the Sutter Publishing Company, and founded the Sutter 
County Farmer, combining the Journal and the Banner. He remained as 
editor until 1890. Thereafter he continued as a fluent and able writer to 
the press of the State. 

To local enterprises and organizations he contributed freely of his time 
and his funds. He was founder of the Farmers' Cooperative Union, the 
history of which concern is presented in another chapter of this volume. 
He was interested in cannery and publishing companies for many years, 
and at the same time handled his farming interests. He was prominent 
in the State and local Granges, Patrons of Husbandry. 

George Ohleyer was called by death on Saturday evening, August 15, 
1896. In commenting upon his death, the editor of the Sutter County Farmer, 
formerly his paper, said : 

"The sad news of the demise of George Ohleyer came as a distinct 
shock to his many friends, wdio were rejoicing that he was apparently 
recovering from the amputation of his leg, made on the previous Thursday. 
A clot forming in the heart was the immediate cause of death. He was 
born in Alsace, France, in 1831. He came with his parents to the United 
States when two years of age, to Wayne County, New York, whence the 
family removed to Ohio in 1835. It was in 1852 that Ohleyer came to 
California and engaged in mining a short time ; then he worked on a farm 
in Solano County for two years, and returned to Ohio. In 1856 he came 
back to California and settled in Yuba County, where he lived until 1865, 
when he removed to Sutter County, remaining until death. He was married 
in 1855 to Miss Ellen Guthrie, of Ohio, who still survives him. There were 
left four sons and three daughters : George. Fred, Frank, Louis, Mrs. Anna 
Hausinger, Mrs. Mary r Frick, and Miss Ada Ohleyer." 


Funeral services were held at the Ohleyer home, August 18 at 1 p. m. 
Only a sheaf of wheat rested upon his casket, this at the request of his 
family. His remains are at rest in South Butte Cemetery, to which spot 
they were followed by one of the largest corteges in the history of Sutter 
County. At his grave the beautiful rites of the Patrons of Husbandry 
were read by the Worthy Manager of the State Grange, W. \V. Greer. 
Those who acted as pall-bearers at the funeral were : George W. Carpenter, 
Justus Greely, J. H. Kimball, L. P. Farmer, W. J. Gray, and T. B. Hull, 
all of whom have since joined him on the other shore. 

A Song of Victory 
In the Sutter County Farmer, shortly after George Ohleyer had written 
his editorial covering the Sawyer decision, the following verses were pub- 
lished from the pen of a contributor who signed himself "Cooley." 


Solid Fact: Perpetual injunction. ' * 

Golden Text: "Othello's occupation gone." 
Central Lesson: Grin and bear it. 

No more in torrents thick as mush 

Shall mud and gravel combine, 
To cover o'er fair fields and flowers 

And desolate this farm of mine ; 
The flume-led streams from pent-up lakes 

No longer level mountains high. 
Destroy our crops, or give us shakes. 

Good-bye, Slickens, good-bye ! 

Good-bye, Slickens, good-bye ! 
Good-bye, Debris, good-bye ; 
No more you'll devastate our streams. 
Good-bye, Hydraul, good-bye ! 

Polluted waters will soon get clear 

And property be worth its cost; 
Tho' 'twill be very long, we fear. 

Ere we get back what we have lost. 
We'll not be forced to pay our all 

To keep our levees mountain high ; 
High taxes soon will have a fall. 

Good-bye, Hydraul, good-bye ! 

Now let our brethren of the mines 

Accept the law — they'll find 'twill pay — ■ 
And "drift" or blast the gravel finds, 

Or mine it in some other way; 
So "use their own as not to hurt" 

The land of other neighbors nigh. 
They'll find 'twill lessen not their gain ; 

We'll both be richer bye and bye. 

Good-bye, Slickens, good-bye ! 

Good-bye, Hydraul, good-bye ; 

For mines and lands should both shake hands — 

Adios, old Slickens, good-bye ! 


The Caminetti Act 

Seeking some way out of their difficulties after the. Sawyer decision 
disturbed their plans, the miners succeeded in having a law made in Congress 
known as the Caminetti Act, named after Congressman A. Caminetti of 
Amador County, Cal. This act provided for impounding works and reservoirs 
to be built to the satisfaction of the California Debris Commission, so as 
not to interfere with the navigability of rivers and harbors. As was antici- 
pated by the people of the valley, the law proved to be a subterfuge. The 
dams built under its terms proved to be flimsy structures behind which 
the debris piled high in one season, causing other suits to be brought in the 
United States courts. The California Debris Commission finally came to 
realize that the cost of the real dam the Caminetti law provided for was 
prohibitive, and they made a rule not to give further permits for the camou- 
flaged sort, with the result that hydraulic mining was virtually put out of 
business. At the present time, however, $24,000,000 is being spent by the 
Yuba River Power Company in the construction of a dam at Bullard's Bar, 
in Yuba County, behind which it is proposed to rehabilitate hydraulicking. 
Those of the valley who remember the trying days of the seventies and 
eighties are inclined to view the enterprise somewhat differently from those 
who are strangers to the conditions of years agone. 



It may interest the reader of this volume in future years to know that 
at the present Sutter County is maintaining six of the most active clubs of 
the California Federation of Women's Clubs. These six clubs are : The 
Bogue Wednesday Club, a rural organization of 150 members holding meet- 
ings in their own club house twice each month ; the Live Oak Women's 
Club of Live Oak, having over fifty members, and meeting twice a month 
in their own club house ; the W r ilson Women's Club, an active country club 
of the southern part of the county, now planning upon its own club house, 
its membership being fifty-five, and meeting every other week; the Tierra 
Buena Improvement Club, another rural organization, with a membership 
of fifty, also meeting twice a month in a new $6000 house of their own 
building; the Ladies' Improvement Club of Sutter, at the foot of the famous 
Sutter Buttes, with a membership of forty-eight, meeting in their own 
community hall ever}- other week; and the Woman's Club of Meridian, com- 
prised of forty members, meeting twice a month in the auditorium of Meridi- 
an's fine new grammar school. These clubs are all doing active departmental 
work along federation lines, in music, art, health, conservation, legislation, 
home economics, Americanization, motion pictures, early California history, 
civic and social improvement, and community betterment. 

Bi-County Federation of Women's Clubs 

Together with the two federated clubs of Yuba County — the Marysville 
Art Club and the AVheatland Civic Improvement Club — these clubs met in 
May, 1920. and formed the Bi-Countv Federation of Women's Clubs. Three 


times during each year this Bi-County Federation has held an all-day conven- 
tion at various club centers. This organization has proven and bears out the 
State motto. "Strength United is Stronger." Concerted action in the depart- 
mental work has borne fruit along several lines, including better motion 
pictures, legislation and the restoration and preservation of historic land- 
marks. Sutter and Yuba Counties having many locations of historical im- 
portance, the Bi-County Federation planned the marking of these historic 
spots with bronze tablets or other suitable monuments as rapidly as funds 
could be obtained for the purpose. 

Unveiling of Monument to Fremont 

Sunday, April 15. 1923, witnessed the first important dedication of a 
landmark on the Sutter side of the river. On that date, beginning at two 
o'clock in the afternoon, in the presence of a large assemblage, the Bi-County 
Federation, of which Mrs. C. H. Dam of Wheatland was then president, 
unveiled a monument erected upon the spot in the South Butte Pass where 
Capt. John C. Fremont, the, "Pathfinder," camped in 1846. 

A newspaper printed on the following day contained the following story 
of the unveiling of the monument, which stands by the side of the road 
about a mile from Sutter City : 

"Credit for possessing the same adventurous spirit that inspired his fore- 
bears in France and America to face the unknown, and dare the seemingly 
impossible, was given Major-General John C. Fremont by Fred H. Greely 
of Marysville, Sunday afternoon, in an address which Greely delivered during 
the dedicatory ceremonies in connection with the unveiling of a monument 
to the memory of General Fremont on the DeAVitt place in South Butte 
Pass. In the center of the monument, which marks the spot where General 
Fremont, the 'Pathfinder,' camped for eight days in the year 1846, is a marker 
bearing this inscription : 

" 'In commemoration of Major-General John C. Fremont, United States 
Army, and his expedition, 

" 'Encamped in the Sutter Buttes in this vicinity. May 30, 1846, to June 
8, 1846, while on the march from Klamath Lake to Sonoma, where he repre- 
sented the United States government during the Bear Flag uprising, which 
resulted in the acquisition of California from Mexico. 

" 'Erected by the Bi-County Federation of AVomen's Clubs, Sutter and 
Yuba Counties, 1923.' 

"Greely, past president of the Native Sons of the Golden West, traced 
the career of General Fremont from his birth in Virginia, in 1813, to the 
days when he acquired from Senator Benton, who afterward was his father- 
in-law, the desire for exploration. Greely quoted Benton as predicting that 
'the fringe of civilization on the eastern coast of America was to stretch 
from sea to sea.' 

"General Fremont's three expeditions were described by the speaker, 
the first to the Rocky Mountains, and south of the Lewis and Clark line; 
the second beyond the Rockies ; and the third to California, supported by 
sixty-two of the finest marksmen in America, and with instructions from 
the government to hold the country against the Mexicans. When ordered 
by the Mexican governor, Castro, to leave the State, Fremont first defied 
him and then, in the way of acquiescing, moved north by way of the Kern 
River to Yuba City, thence to Klamath Lake. It was while returning south 
that he camped on the north side of the Sutter Buttes, remaining there only 
a few clays, and then moving to the spot where the marker was placed yes- 
terday, on account of a heavy wind. Behind South Butte he found shelter 
from the wind, and camped there eight days. 


"H. P. Peterson, field man for the landmarks section of the State Library, 
who followed Greely, confessed that some difficulty had been experienced 
in locating the spot where General Fremont first camped in the Buttes. Grad- 
ually, however, aided by Fremont's own memoirs, marks are being found 
which may yet uncover the spot. Peterson thanked the board of supervisors 
for their liberal subscription to the fund that made the Fremont marker 
possible, and also expressed his gratitude to the club women who worked 
so unceasingly in order that the monument might be erected. 

"Mrs. A. L. Miller of Marysville, past president of the Northern District 
Federation of California Women's Clubs, detailed the object of the clubs' 
department of history and landmarks of California. 

"In presenting the marker to the care of Sutter County, Mrs. C. H. 
Dam of Wheatland, president of the Bi-County Federation, handed to Super- 
visor Frank H. Graves, of Pennington, a deed to the ground upon which 
the monument stands. The deed shows that Mrs. Florence DeWitt, widow 
of the late W. G. DeWitt, donated the plat upon which the monument is 
erected. DeWitt Bros., sons of Mrs. DeWitt, donated the rock and granite, 
hauling all the material from the quarry, a mile distant. The deed to the 
ground is to the State of California, but the Sutter supervisors will con- 
stitute the caretakers of the landmark. 

"During the unveiling of the monument by Miss Ada Ohleyer and Miss 
Edna Hewitt, the Marysville Grammar School Boys' Band rendered 'The 
Star-Spangled Banner.' Fred H. Greely then said that it was peculiarly 
fitting and extremely fortunate that Miss Ohleyer should take part in the 
ceremony of unveiling. He referred to Miss Ohleyer as 'a daughter of a 
man who deserves the name of Preserver of the Valley.' Greely paid a warm 
tribute to the late George Ohleyer, newspaper man of Yuba City in his life- 
time, as 'a leader among the men who so valiantly fought for the valley and 
saved it from being buried in the silt from the hydraulic mining process.' 

"Among those who occupied seats of honor on the speakers' stand was 
W. C. Gibson, Grand Army veteran of Sutter City. Gibson served for a time 
with General John C. Fremont during the Civil War, being a member of 
Company I, Twelfth Kansas Volunteer Infantry. He is one of five surviving 
members of Corinth Post, No. 80, Grand Army of the Republic. Others 
occupying the stand were Rev. W. B. Redburn of Yuba City, who delivered 
the invocation ; H. P. Stabler, who told of meetings he had with General 
Vallejo ; Supervisor F. H. Graves ; Mrs. A. L. McPherrin ; and Mrs. C. K. 
Dam, of Berkeley, who is a pioneer of the Wheatland section. 

"Nevada County sent a delegation to the ceremony, comprising Mrs. 
Allison F. Watt of Grass Valley, a Past Grand President of the Native 
Daughters of the Golden West ; Mrs. Maud Waldron, president of Manza- 
nita Parlor of Native Daughters of Grass Valley ; Mrs. Beatrice George, a 
past president of the same parlor; and Ray George, a past president of 
Quartz Parlor of Native Sons of the same place. 

"It is estimated that 1000 people attended the exercises." 

After the successful termination of their campaign for the Fremont 
memorial, the clubs began to plan for a marker on the spot on Hock Farm, 
nine miles below Yuba City on the Feather River, where Gen. John A. Sutter 
built a fort and home in 1848. 

Cross to Surmount Buttes 

A movement to erect an immense cross at the peak of the Sutter Buttes, 
under which Easter-morn sunrise services may be held annually, has met 
with the approval of Rt. Rev. Bishop William Hall Moreland, of the Epis- 
copal diocese of Sacramento. For the past two years sunrise services have 


been conducted before a temporary cross erected on a convenient peak not 
far from Sutter Citv. On Sunday, April 22, 1923, Bishop Moreland issued 
the following' statement in advocacy of the movement for a permanent cross: 

"The erection of a great cross on the Sutter Buttes, which may be seen 
from every side, is a beautiful conception and should be carried out. A 
bountiful Creator has poured His blessings with a lavish hand upon Cali- 
fornia, and nowhere does the smile of His favor shine with more brilliancy 
than upon the rich fields and orchards, the fertile lands, the prosperous 
towns, happy homes, the schools, churches, hospitals and other evidences 
of His presence among men, that center about the city of Marysville. 

"The cross, standing out as a landmark over the countryside, will re- 
mind the thousands of residents, travelers and visitors that California is a 
God-fearing State ; that, amid their material possessions and prospects, 
our people do not forget that Christian character is the supreme achievement. 
It will lead to a more thoughtful, spiritual life, and be an educational influ- 
ence of great value to all, especially to the children." 

For the purpose of furthering the movement, the Sutter Butte Cross 
Association has been formed among the citizens of Yuba and Sutter Counties. 



Yuba and Sutter Counties, during the years of their existence, have 
always been closely affiliated politically, being in the same Senatorial and 
Assembly districts, and for a long time, in their early history, under orie 
judge of the Superior Court. Both are in the sixth Senatorial district, and 
in the eighth Assembly district. Butte and Yolo Counties also are in the 
sixth Senatorial district, while Yolo County alone figures with Yuba and 
Sutter in the eighth Assembly district. 

Those who have served in legislative positions since the organization 
of the districts in 1851 are: 

Senators of Sixth District (1851-1923) 

1851: E. O. Crosby, second session. 

1852: Philip W. Keyser, third session. 

1853 and 1854: Samuel B. Smith, fourth and fifth sessions. 

1855 and 1856 : P. C. Rust, sixth and seventh sessions. 

1857 and 1858: Jesse O. Goodwin, eighth and ninth sessions. 

1859-1863: W. H. Parks, tenth to fourteenth session. 

1863 (December): C. S. Haswell, fifteenth session. 

1865 and 1867: Eli Teegarden, sixteenth and seventeenth sessions. 

1869 and 1871 : S. C. Hutchings, eighteenth and nineteenth sessions. 

1873 and 1875: Stephen Spencer, twentieth and twenty-first sessions. 

1877: J. O. Goodwin, twenty-second session. 

1880 and 1881 : Edwin A. Davis, twenty-third and twenty-fourth sessions. 

1883-1887: Augustus L. Chandler, twenty-fifth to twenty-seventh session. 

1889: F. H. Greely, twenty-eighth session. 

1891 and 1893 : Daniel A. Ostrom, twenty-ninth and thirtieth sessions. 

1895 and 1897: Eugene Aram, thirty-first and thirtv-second sessions; 


1899 and 1901 : William M. Cutter, thirty-third and thirty-fourth sessions. 
1903 and 1905: Marshall Diggs, thirty-fifth and thirty-sixth sessions. 
1907-1913: A. E. Boynton, thirty-seventh to fortieth session. 
1915-1921 : W. E. Duncan, Jr., forty-first to forty-fourth session. 
1923: Dr. W. F. Gates, forty-fifth session. 


Members of the Assembly, Eighth District (1851-1923) 

J. AY. McCorkle, second session. 
A. G. Caldwell, third session. 
A. G. McCandless, fourth session. 
E. O. F. Hastings, fifth session. 

1855 and 1856: R. B. Sherrard, sixth and seventh sessions. 
1857: S. R. AYarrington, eighth session. 
1858: James O. Harris, ninth session. 
1859: C. L. N. Vaughn, tenth session. 
1860: J. L. Smith, eleventh session. 
1861 : Zach Montgomery, twelfth session. 
1862: C. E. AA'ilcoxon, thirteenth session. 
1863 : C. S. Haswell, fourteenth session. 
1863 (December): M. Bouleware, fifteenth session. 
1865 (December): F. Hamlin, sixteenth session. 
1867 (December) : B. R. Spilman, seventeenth session. 
1869 and 1871 : C. P. Berry, eighteenth and nineteenth sessions. 
1873 : A. L. Chandler, twentieth session. 

1875 and 1877: C. P. Berry, twenty-first and twenty-second sessions. 
1880 (January) and 1881 : A. L. Chandler, twenty-third and twenty-fourth 


Stephen R. Fortna, twenty-fifth session. 
AYilliam H. Parks, twenty-sixth session. 
George Ohleyer, twenty-seventh session. 
Daniel A. Ostrom, twenty-eighth session. 
H. P. Stabler, twenty-ninth session. 
D. P. Durst, thirtieth session. 

1895 and 1897: AVilliam M. Cutter, thirty-first and thirty-second sessions. 


C. B. Raub, thirty-third session. 
L. E. Schillig, thirty-fourth session. 
Alexander C. McLaughlin, thirty-fifth session. 
E. T. Manwell, thirtv-sixth session. 

1907-1911: A. H. Hewitt, thirty-seventh to thirty-ninth session. 

1913: J. A. Murray, fortieth session. 

1915: L. N. Tabler, forty-first session. 

1917: Louis Tarke, forty-second session. 

1919 and 1921 : Ed. Lewis, forty-third and forty-fourth sessions. 

1923 : Fred B. Noyes, forty-fifth session. 

Those who have served Sutter County in other capacities, official or 
professional, during its history are : 

District, County and Superior Court Judges 

District Judges : AYilliam R. Turner, Gordon N. Mott. AYilliam T. Bar- 
bour, S. M. Bliss, I. S. Belcher, and Phil W. Keyser. 

County Judges: Gordon N. Mott, T. B. Reardon, R. B. Sherrard. B. T. 
Hurlburt, AY. P. AY. McCall, Phil AY. Keyser, and J. H. Craddock. 

Superior Court Judges: Phil AY. Keyser, E. A. Davis, and Kirby S. 


District Attorneys 

W. Fisher. R. S. Messick, S. B. Smith, James Algeo, John S. Reardon, 
George May, William C. Stoddard, W. P. W. McCall, R. W. McDaniels, Zach 
Montgomery, W. P. Wilkins, I. C. McQuaid, J. L. Wilbur, N. G. Wvatt, 
S. J. Stabler, Frank B. Crane, J. H. Ray, M. C. Barney, M. E. Sanborn, 
K. S. Mahon, A. C. McLaughlin, Lawrence Schillig, and Arthur Coats. 

Sheriffs, Coroners, and Public Administrators 

Sheriffs : John Pole, Joseph Hopkins, M. F. Garr, S. E. Kennard, D. D. 
Stewart, J. A. Friend, T. B. Clark. T. Cooper, Sam McClure, W. P. Harkey, 
S. C. Deaner, Thomas L. Smith. J. K. P. Elwell, N. S. Wilson, F. B. Noyes, 
and B. B. Manford. 

Coroners: David Abdill. G. B. Upham, D. H. Redfield, O. C. Tinney 
G. W. Durkee, James Hart, A. Bronson, T. A. Stoddard, E. B. Smith, T. J 
Dunham, Charles A. Keyser, A. S. Long, E. Kellogg, Jonas Spect, R. V. S 
Ouiglev. P. E. Drescher, H. F. Schulte, W. C. Smith, W. Woodworth, H 
Bolton, A. H. Mitchell, Thomas Brophy, W. L. Short, Thomas Fox, W. J 
Murphy, and P. W. Rowe. 

Public Administrators : J. B. Lucas, A. S. Brown, E. Wilbur, A. Bron- 
son, Jackson Williamson, B. J. Nordyke, and Charles A. Keyser. The office 
of public administrator is now joined with that of coroner. 

Members of the Board of Supervisors 

Between the years 1855 and 1923 the following occupied seats on the 
board of supervisors, representing the several districts : David Abdill, Madi- 
son Bouleware, A. D. Davis, Samuel S. Stewart, C. L. N. Vaughn, Charles 
Justis, M. Jones, J. R. Dickey, W. H. Parks, M. F. Garr, D. O. Mahoney, 
John Matthews, Milton Ford, George W. Smith, Sumner Paine, J. H. 
Esselstyne, L. D. Hedge, E. B. Crouch, T. W. Gaither, C. P. Berry, J. W. 
Welsh, G. E. Brittan, W. H. Perdue, A. B. Van Arsdale, Eli Davis, George 
Ohleyer, T. J. Leary, T. Brophy. P. L. Bunce, I. N. Brock, G. W. Bailev, 
T. S. Metteer, S. R. Fortna, J. K. Wood, L. P. Farmer, Lifous Striplin, W. P. 
Smith, W. E. Humphrey, W. T. Spillman, W. H. Smith, L. Summy, John 
Burns, W. F. Hoke, L. D. Nash, T. E. Orr, Jacob Weis, W. P. Nelson, E. J. 
White, J. P. Glenn, Frank H. Graves, F. J. Michel, J. C. Albertson, Ernest T. 
O'Banion, W. J. Gray, A. E. Schellinger, Samuel Gray, G. H. Trevathan, John 
D. Heiken, John C. Ahlf and E. E. Reeves. 

County Assessors and County Treasurers 

County Assessors : William H. Monroe, Jonathan Williams, James M. 
Noble, George Scholifield, Augustus Moore, G. W. Durkee, D. H. Apperson. 
Richard Saye, D. E. Hamblen, T. B. Lowe, S. M. Clay, R. A. Clark, J. A. 
Friend, P. B. Chamberlain, H. Tillitson, J. H. McPhetridge, M. C. Hunger- 
ford, A. E. Clary, W. F. Peck, A. A. McRae, and Charles E. McQuaid. 

County Treasurers: Willard Post, W. S. Messick, George B. Upham, 
T. R. Dickey, F. H. Russell, Francis Walker, John B. Harris, Henry O. 
McArthur, G. W. Durkee, C. C. McClure, Thomas D. Boyd, R. Dinsmore, 
C. E. Wilcoxon, Jonas Marcuse, George W. Carpenter, A. B. Van Arsdale, 
Leroy J. Cope, C. D. O'Banion, and Fred H. Heiken. 

County Clerks and County Auditors and Recorders 

County Clerks (ex-officio Auditors and Recorders) : T. B. Reardon, G. 
W. Lawrence, J. S. Reardon, G. W. Lee, C. E. Wilcoxon, S. J. Stabler, S. S. 
Russell, J. M. Thomas and A. H. Hewitt. 


Count}' Clerks (when separated from auditor and recorder's office) : 
C. R. Wilcoxon, D. D. Green, Alvin Weis, and Albert B. Brown. 

Auditors and Recorders (when separated from county clerk's office) : 
A. S. McPhetridge, E. C. McPhetridge, S. J. Flanery, W. R. Carpenter, 
and H. C. Flanery. 

Other County Officials 

Superintendents of Schools : David O. Malonev, C. E. Wilcoxon, James 
Hart, A. S. Long-, T. L. Smith, S. S. Russell, T- E. Stevens, N. Furlong, 
E. B. Dtimvell, J. H. Clark, Moody C. Clark, O. F. Graves, G. B. Lyman. 
C. G. Kline, C. W. Ward, L. L. Freeman, Hobart W. Heiken, Lizzie Vagedes, 
and Minnie M. Gray. 

County Surveyors : S. W. Higgins, W. F. Nelson, Phil E. Drescher, 
T. W. Gaither, T. T- Pennington, George W. Smith, W. F. Peck, J. G. 
McMillan, T. Hamlin, Charles W. Guptill, Guy McMurtry, W. B. Ellington, 
L. M. Bunce, Edward Von Geldern, and William Shearer. 

Professional Men 

Yuba City Barristers : Early-day lawyers in Yuba City, practicing in 
Yuba County courts as well as on the Sutter side of the river, were : S. J. 
Stabler, J. L. Wilbur, J. H. Ray, M. C. Barney, and Richard Bayne. Later- 
day lawyers of Yuba City were: M. E. Sanborn, K. S. Mahon, Lawrence 
Schillig, A. H. Hewitt, Arthur Coats, and A. C. McLaughlin. 

Physicians : Early-day physicians practicing in Sutter County were : 
Drs. N. S. Hamlin, Thomas Dobbins, James G. Cannon, T. H. Ferguson, C. P. 
Devore, A. Fouch, J. R. Metlock, S. R. Chandler, William Banta, G. B. 
Lyman, Z. T. Magill, and John H. Wesscher. 

. Later-day physicians of Sutter County are : Drs. T. P. Perry, D. M. 
Addington, J. H. Barr, Smith McMullin, J. H. MacFadyen, E. V. Jacobs, and 
Sidney G. Goyette. Dr. Jacobs practices at Meridian, Dr. Goyette in Nico- 
laus, and Dr. Addington in Sutter City. The others have their offices in 
Yuba City. 




The land on which the original town of Yuba City was laid out was 
deeded by Capt. John A. Sutter. July 27, 1819, to Samuel Brannan, Pierson 
B. Redding, and Henry Cheever. This tract extended from opposite the 
mouth of Yuba River four miles down the stream, and was one mile in 
width. These gentlemen employed Joseph S. Ruth to survey the future 
citv. lav it out in lots, and make the map displaying streets, lots, blocks, 
public squares, etc.. measures usually adopted by the proprietors of the 
multitude of prospective cities in those days. By September 16, 1849, every- 
thing was complete : and Pierson B. Redding was appointed agent for the 
sale of lots. At this time the city of Marysville had not been laid out. 
and the little settlement there was known as Nye's Ranch. 

An early historian, referring to this stage in Yuba City's growth, says : 

"It was a generally conceded fact that a town laid out at the head of 
low-water navigation, at its nearest approach to the now rapidly developing 
mining region, would receive most of the vast trade of that section and be- 
come a city of great wealth, population and influence. The banks of Feather 
River at this point were high and well adapted for the purposes of a 
vessel-landing. Although no vessels had as yet stemmed the current farther 
than the ferry-landing at the little settlement of Nicolaus Allgeier. still it 
was evident that any vessel able to reach Nicolaus could also go to Yuba 
City. The land was higher there than at Nye's Ranch, and the proprietors 
also thought that this would largely- determine the location of the future 
city. So thought man}- others who bought lots by the dozen on speculation." 

The first store in Yuba City was opened in August, 1849, by Tallman 
H. Rolfe and Henry Cheever. Two advertisements by these enterprising 
men appeared in the Sacramento Placer Times on August 25, 1849. They 
read as follows : "Rolfe & Cheever, wholesale and retail dealers, Yuba City, 
corner of Water and B Streets." "Notice to Miners. Rolfe & Cheever, hav- 
ing established a store at Yuba City, will keep constantly on hand a large 
and general assortment of dry goods, groceries, provisions, etc., which will 
be sold low for cash or gold dust." 

Rivalry between Yuba City and Marysville 

But few locations were made that fall, but early in the spring of 1850 
a great many tents were clustered on the river bank — some used for stores, 
some for saloons and gambling houses, and still others for residence pur- 
poses. • George M. Hanson bought lots in the new city in the spring of 1850, 
and established the first ferry across the river. This spring there was great 
rivalry between Yuba City and Nye's Ranch, across the river, which had 
been laid out in lots in January and named Marysville. The proprietors of 
Marysville were the more enterprising; and when the steamer Lawrence 
made her appearance in January, they persuaded the officers of the craft to 
make Marysville the terminus of the route. This was the first great victory 
gained by Marysville, and it was a deciding one ; for, of course, travelers 


bound for the mines -would disembark at the terminus of the route, in pref- 
erence to any other point. There were, however, many who came across 
the country by way of Knight's Landing. These, arriving at Yuba City and 
finding a settlement there, and being assured by the proprietors that this 
was the site of the future city, and that Marysville would not, and could 
not, "amount to a row of pins." were easily induced to pitch their tents here. 
Some bought lots and went into business ; while others, after remaining a 
few days, struck their tents and went over to Marysville. Notwithstanding 
that Yuba City was on higher ground, and for several reasons had a better 
location for a city than her rival, yet she labored under a great disadvantage. 
a disadvantage her proprietors did not seem sufficiently to consider. She 
was on the wrong side of the river. The expense, difficulty and trouble met 
in crossing the river proved to be a serious drawback to the trade of the 
town ; for the traders from the mines would not take the trouble to cross over 
so long as they could procure their goods in Marysville at reasonable rates. 
In spite of this obstacle, however, the town steadily advanced; the business 
men and the owners of lots still had confidence in a prosperous future, and 
made every effort to further their interests. 

A correspondent of the Placer Times of Sacramento, in giving an ac- 
count of a trip made up Feather River, in April, 1850, says of Yuba City : 

"Yuba City is rapidly increasing. Several new stores have gone up 
within two weeks, and are already well stocked, and are enjoying an active 
trade. A meeting was held on Wednesday evening, to establish a ferry below 
the mouth of the YTtba, and to open a good communication through to the 
road that leads out to the lower diggings on the river ; all the shares were 
immediately taken up, and the money paid in. They opened a handsome 
bowling saloon there on the same evening." 

This scheme of easy and sufficient communication with the Yuba River 
mines was just the thing that the city needed to maintain her trade against 
the encroachments being made on it by the merchants of Marysville ; and 
had it been successfully carried through, Yuba City might have been the 
successful competitor for the mercantile prize. The difficulties in the way, 
however, seem to have prevented the completion of the enterprise, and the 
last hope of the young city was abandoned. 

In the spring, Harvey Fairchild was elected alcalde of Yuba City. He 
discharged the duties of that office until the courts were organized in June. 
Some of the principal owners of land in Yuba City in the spring of 1850, 
in addition to the original proprietors, were : Henry A. Schoolcraft, George 
Pierson, Tallman H. Rolfe, W. S. Messick, Richard N. Allen, Jonas Win- 
chester, Gordon N. Mott, George M. Hanson, Harvey Fairchild, Emil V. 
Sutter, and W. S. Webb. 

Early in 1850, the citizens and merchants of Yuba City being now con- 
vinced that Marysville was destined to be the city, there was a great stampede 
to that place, and Yuba City was nearly deserted. A few remained, how- 
ever, detained by their property interests and by the hope that the future 
had something better in store. These formed a nucleus about which others 
gathered, and in a year or two the town had again made a little advance- 
ment. The Sutter Banner, under the head of "Reminiscences and Prophecy," 
in its issue of September 17, 1870, has the following: 

"About the year of our Lord 1849 and 1850, Yuba City and Marysville 
were rival embryo towns, each striving for the supremacy and trade of the 
interior mining camps. At this period, the former town had the advantage, 
if any there was, excelling its neighbor at Nye's Ranch in trade, popula- 
tion, number of dwellings, beauty of location and scenery, etc. But the 
tide of fortune, which was not seized by its denizens at the flood, soon 


turned in favor of Marysville, and the glory departed, for the time being, 
from the flourishing young city located at the former capital of the ancient 
and lordly Yubas. A large number of its inhabitants left; many of its build- 
ings were removed to the neighboring town ; gone, but not forever, were its 
beauty and its strength. Like a young Samson shorn of his waving locks, 
there was a recuperative power left." 

At this time, the late John R. Ridge, the rightful chief of the Cherokees, 
the delightful poet, the accomplished writer and the genial companion, who 
had been a resident of Yuba City, removed to Marysville, and on the 29th 
day of April, 1851, published, in the Marysville Herald the following address 
to, or lament over, the nearly deserted city of his admiration. From his 
own manuscript the poem is printed, running as follows: 


(By Yellow Bird) 

"The Yuba City silent stands 

Where Providence has placed her, 

The glory passed to other hands. 

That should by right have graced her. 

"She stands with aspect sad but high. 

And gazes on the river 
That like a stranger passes by 

And nothing has to give her. 

"Alas, that beauty thus should fade 

Or live so unregarded, 
And all the efforts art has made 

Pass fruitless, unrewarded ! 

"Are not her groves most fair to see, 

Her paths most greenly skirted ? 
What has she said, or done, to be 

Thus doomed and thus deserted? 

"Though melancholy her decline, 

By mem'ries sweet 'tis haunted ; 
And living tones and forms divine 

Still make her scenes enchanted. 

"There love domestic reigned supreme, 

In deep and holy beauty, 
And like the smiles of Angels seem 

Parental, filial duty. 

"Her aged ones are good and mild, 

Her children fair and witty, 
But ""Caroline's the fairest child 

That charms the lonelv city. 

*The allusion here was to Miss Caroline Fairchild, daughter of Capt. Harvey 
Fairchild; she was subsequently married to George Pierson, w-ho later removed to 


"I've seen her at the morning' prime — 

The sky looked sweeter, bluer ; 
I've seen her at the evening time — 

The stars seemed bending to her! 

"Oh, Yuba City, 'tis a sin 

Thou art lonely and forsaken, 
AVhen uglier cities favor win 

And prosperous paths have taken. , 

"Who seek for loveliness will meet 
The picture where they find thee — 

The Feather River at thy feet. 
The lofty Buttes behind thee ; 

"And the) r will bless the quiet scene, 

That holds thee like a jewel, 
And weep that thou'st abandoned been 

To fortunes cold and cruel, 

"But, Yuba City, time will cast 

The changes in thy favor ; 
Then, in redemption of the past, 

Thou'lt stand, whilst others waver." 

It will be observed, by the last stanza, that the poet had a prophetic 
vision that Yuba City would ultimately recuperate — a prophecy the fulfill- 
ment of which has already commenced. 

Reminiscences of 1850 

Reminiscences of Yuba City's life in 1850 are found in a story published 
in the Marysville Democrat of April, 1899, from the pen of William Arm- 
strong, then a resident of Biggs, in Butte County. Armstrong related how 
the promoters of Yuba City, in 1850, were offering to give two lots to set- 
tlers who would agree to build on one of them. He accepted the offer and at 
once started to construct a home, the lots being located opposite the present 
courthouse. At that time lumber was selling at $500 per thousand feet. 
While his house was principally of oak shakes, it cost him $1000. Furniture 
was a luxury that few indulged in, most people then being satisfied, with a 
board for a table, and a seat and a bed made from the cheapest of lumber. 
A man was taken sick soon after Armstrong's house was finished, and his 
friends asked Armstrong to take him in, as there was no other place to which 
he could go. He agreed, and the friends bought a board from which to make 
a bed for the patient. This board cost $12, and the friends paid $21 a week 
for the sick man's room. 

At that time there was a camp of Indians just below Yuba City, a real 
"campoodie." Early that season a small river steamer came up to the junction 
of the Yuba and Feather Rivers. The captain was for a while undecided 
as to which town, Marysville or Yuba City, he would choose for a landing, 
but finally tied up at Yuba City. The Indians had never seen a steamer 
and were very shy of it. When the whistle sounded, they ran for their 
campoodie, and did not return. 

Armstrong and his wife attended a ball that season, given in the Covil- 
laud Hotel in Marysville, a two-story structure on the plaza. All the women 
in the town were induced to attend ; and when they were counted they 


numbered seven — one short of making up two dancing sets. This deficiency 
was supplied by dressing a slim young man in female apparel. He filled 
the requirement so satisfactorily that the miners believed him a new-comer 
to the camp. This young fellow was John Brazier. His experience made 
him quite popular; and when his identity became known to the miners, 
he was in demand for all dancing parties. Ball tickets for this first affair 
at the Covillaud Hotel sold for $16. and all considered that they got a good 
time for their money. Armstrong said he could remember the names of 
three of the women at that dance — Mrs. Mary Covillaud, Mrs. Caroline Fair- 
child, and Miss Marion Fairchild, all now passed to the Beyond. 

Early Development 

In 1852 Yuba City had one hotel, the Western House, one small grocery 
store, two saloons, one blacksmith shop, one justice of the peace's office, 
the post-office, fifteen or twenty dwelling-houses, and a population of about 
150. In the spring of 1853, A. S. Brown opened the Elk Horn House, across 
the street from the Western House. He kept no liquor in his establishment, 
an unusual thing in those days. 

The first school in Yuba City was one taught three months in the spring 
of 1854, the teacher being C. E. Wilcoxon, who later became the head of a 
large and respected family, and a member of the State Board of Equaliza- 
tion and the county board of supervisors. The first schools in the county 
had been opened some time before this, and were located at Kempton, on the 
Walker ranch, and at Nicolaus. 

The city was soon connected with Marysville by bridges. Later the 
Marysville Water Company and the Marysville Coal & Gas Company laid 
pipes to Yuba City, through which water and gas were conducted for many 
years. Yuba City now has its municipally owned water-works, with a record 
for such public institutions not excelled in any part of the State, for a place 
of the same size. 

The north part of Yuba City, known as "Hudson's Addition" for many 
years, was surveyed and laid out in -1869 by E. L. Wright. The tract had 
been bought from Gillespie, Messick and McDougal for $1600, by W. S. 
Webb, on May 24, 1855. 

Incorporation of the City 

In 1877, the business men and property-holders of the place began to 
agitate the question of incorporation. Some protection against fire was 
desirable as a precautionary measure, and also certain improvements of a 
public character in the city were thought desirable ; and the only way to 
secure these properly was to incorporate the city, and have a legal govern- 
ment that could pass and enforce the necessary ordinances, being clothed 
with the requisite power to levy and collect the taxes necessary to accom- 
plish the desired end. A bill to incorporate the city was presented to the 
legislature, was passed, and received the approval of the Governor, March 
30, 1878. By this act the town of Yuba City was incorporated with the 
following boundaries : 

Beginning on the right bank of Feather River at the intersection of the 
same by the south side of Oak Street, according to the map of the Hudson's 
tract, part of Yuba City, Sutter County, California ; thence along the south 
side of said street to the east side of Sonoma Street of said Hudson's tract; 
thence along the east side of Sonoma Street southerly to the north side of 
A Street, according to the map of Joseph Ruth of the original survey of 
Yuba City ; thence along the north side of A Street forty feet, more or less, 
to a point in range with the west side of Fourth Street, according to said 


original map of Yuba City ; thence across A Street and along the westerly- 
side of Fourth Street to the southerly side of G Street, according to the 
last mentioned map of Yuba City ; thence easterly along the southerly side of 
G Street to the right bank of Feather River ; thence up said right bank of 
Feather River to the place of beginning. 

The act provided for a board of three trustees, to be elected annually 
on the first Saturday in May, and whose term should begin the second Mon- 
day after election. They were to meet within ten days after election and 
choose a president and clerk from among their number. They were also to 
appoint a city marshal, and were given the power to levy a tax not exceeding 
one-half of one per cent, and a poll tax of one dollar, but were not allowed 
to create any debt beyond the amount of funds in their hands. An assessor 
and ex-ofncio collector was to be elected at the same time as the trustees. 
Under the provisions of this act, the board of supervisors called an election 
for Ma\' 25, 1878, to fill the offices mentioned in the act. 

The election was duly held, ninety-three votes being cast. By choice 
of the voters, W. F. Peck, S. J. Stabler, and J. B. Stafford were made trus- 
tees, and A. E. Clary was elected assessor. The trustees met, and after con- 
siderable discussion it was decided that the rate of tax allowed by the charter 
would not raise money enough to conduct the city government and defray 
the expenses of the fire department and the other desired improvements. 
Therefore it was decided to disband, and not attempt to organize the board. 
A committee of interested citizens was appointed, and an attempt made to 
raise by subscription a sum sufficient to purchase the necessary fire apparatus 
for the protection of the city. This was likewise a failure, and consequently 
the whole effort was abandoned. The city was reincorporated in 1908. 


Yuba City of today is faithfully portrayed in an article prepared by the 
Sutter County Chamber of Commerce and the community-development divi- 
sion of a San Francisco magazine. This article reads, in part, as follows : 

"Yuba City, the county seat of Sutter, is the largest town in the county 
and is incorporated. It is beautifully situated on the bank of the Feather 
River, and is a city of comfortable homes, with large gardens and wide 
streets shaded with orange, magnolia, olive, hawthorn, palm and walnut trees. 
On one of Yuba City's main streets may be seen the largest walnut tree in 
the world, which overlooks the surrounding buildings, with its topmost 
branches over 100 feet from the ground. The circumference of the trunk, 
four feet from the ground, is fifteen feet and four inches, and the greatest 
spread of branches measures 108 feet. This wonderful tree stands as an 
enduring and living monument to the productivity of Sutter County's soil. 

"Yuba City is a modern, progressive and flourishing city, nestled in the 
heart of one of California's richest fruit districts. There are a national and 
savings bank, hotel, flour mill, lumber yard, two newspapers, municipal 
water-works, churches, excellent school buildings, and the usual business 
institutions required to serve a community of its size. Both the Sacramento 
Northern, an electric railway, and the Southern Pacific have depots here, 
and these two railroads render a splendid transportation service. One large 
fruit-canning factory and two dried-fruit packing houses give employment 
almost the whole year round to several hundred men, women and chil- 
dren, many of whom make wages that compare favorably with those of 
the skilled mechanic." 

Municipal Water-Works 

Yuba City has good reason to be proud of its municipally owned water 
plant. Built in 1908-1909 at a cost of $30,000, it now feed's six miles of 


mains and has 655 patrons, the latter having doubled in the last three years 
New families are being added at the rate of sixteen a month, which, accord- 
ing to City Clerk and Collector Claude C. Kline, means an addition to the 
population of Yuba City, which is now in the midst, of a healthy boom, of 
at least 1600 a year. The plant has three deep wells, one sunk to the depth 
of 80 feet, another to 120 feet, and the other to a depth of 285 feet. 

The plant at present is paying six per cent on an investment of $47,000; 
pays all costs of maintenance, and a five-per-cent depreciation ; and retires 
$2000 of bonds each year. Besides this, it pays the interest on outstanding 
bonds, and would pay the tax, if a private corporation. Considering all this, 
it showed a net profit of $216 in 1922. In the last seven years, the plant 
has loaned the general fund of the town the sum of $20,000, which means 
a lowering each year of the municipal tax rate. The officials challenge 
any city of its size in the State to produce a better record for a municipally 
owned water-supply plant. 

Before the city erected its own plant, water was supplied from a private 
plant owned by the late C. B. Andross. 

Street-paving and Zoning 

Yuba City also lays claim to ranking first, for a place of its size, in 
the matter of street-paving. Few streets are now left to be paved. At the 
present time Yuba City has invested in street-paving work a sum represent- 
ing $151 per capita. The trustees at present serving aim to complete every 
street during their term of office. Several streets with "dead ends" are also 
to be opened up, and thus be changed into thoroughfares. 

The trustees also are planning on a zoning ordinance, necessitated by 
the rapid growth of the business and residence sections. Under that ordi- 
nance a building inspector will be employed, who will see to it that a permit 
is secured before a building is started. 

Memorial Park ', 

Yuba City Memorial Park was 'dedicated on Decoration Day, May 30, 
1922, as a tribute to the memory of the Sutter County soldiers and sailors 
who perished in the World War. Yuba-Sutter Post of the American Legion 
and the survivors of Corinth Post, No. 80, Grand Army of the Republic, ar- 
ranged the ceremonies, which were attended by a great throng. Hon. Peter 
J. Shields, of the Sacramento County bar, was the orator. 

A tree grows in the park for each youth who made the supreme sacrifice. 
The names of all the heroes are engraved upon a bronze tablet that occupies 
a conspicuous place in the park. Paths wind through the green lawns at 
the head of Bridge Street. At the rear of the park a stairway, wrought of 
stone and concrete, leads to the top of the Feather River levee. Handsome 
electroliers in front of the park give illumination by night. 

The idea of a memorial park in Yuba City was conceived by Dr. and 
Mrs. J. H. Barr and C. C. Kline. An appropriation from the board of super- 
visors of Sutter County made its establishment possible. The grounds were 
laid out and planned by Dr. and Mrs. Barr, City Surveyor Edward Von 
Geldern, and H. H. Wolfskill. 

Masonic Lodge 

Sutter County is distinctive in Masonic circles as being one of a few 
counties in the State of California having but one Masonic Lodge. This 
lodge has now been in existence for sixty-eight years. Its name and number 
are Enterprise Lodge, No. 70. 


Organized under dispensation on January 13, 1855, and granted its 
charter on May 4 of the same year. Enterprise Lodge celebrated its Golden 
Jubilee Friday evening, January 13, 1905. The souvenirs presented the 
members on that occasion show the charter members to have been D. H. 
Apperson, M. Bassett, J. A. Brown, E. Burson, A. F. T. Calley, S. Z. Cross, 
A. B. Davis, J. P. Dillon, J. M. Fronk. J. W. Gaither, D. B. Goode. G. M. 
Hanson, A. S. Hightower, A. G. Jones, [. B. Kvler, C. C. McClure, T. Nichols, 
D. G. O'Donnell, I. Ramsey, L. W. Taylor, C.L. N. Vaughn, G. W. Watson, 
and C. E. Wileoxon. Not one of these charter members is alive today. 

The first officers of the lodge were: C. E. Wileoxon, W. M. ; C. E. N. 
Vaughn, S. W. ; D. H. Apperson, J. W. ; C. C. McClure, treasurer; G. M. 
Hanson, secretary; D. G. O'Donnell, S. D. ; J. W. Gaither, J. D. ; and J. M. 
Fronk, tyler. 

The first meeting place of Enterprise Lodge was in the upper story of 
a schoolhouse on C Street, which building long ago was razed to make place 
for a residence. During the sixties, the lodge rooms were moved to the 
upper story of the building still standing at Second and Bridge Streets. The 
lodge owning one-half the lot. the members entered into agreement with C. E. 
Wileoxon and T. D. Boyd, who owned the other half, to construct the two- 
story brick building, with the understanding that the Masons should maintain 
the upper story and keep the roof over all. Here the lodge made its home 
until 1908, when the present Masonic Temple on Second Street was erected, 
at a cost of $35,000. 

Fire caused the members to plan on a new temple. That was in 1907, 
when Yuba City was visited by a disastrous conflagration that razed its 
only hotel and partially destroyed the old hall. 

The oldest Past Master of Enterprise Lodge is M. E. Sanborn, now a 
retired attorney living in San Francisco. Irwin Griffith, former resident 
of Sutter City, now living at a distance, is the only member of the local 
organization who has attained the thirty-second degree in Masonry. 

Odd Fellows Lodge 

Yuba City Lodge, No. 185, I. O. O. F., received its charter in January, 
1871. This charter was granted to the following: Stephen R. Fortna, P. 
G. ; Moody C. Clark H. J. Schults, D. E. Hamblin, W. R. Ink, Joseph Hardy, 
Thomas Brophy, John T. Ogden, L. Battler, J. Silverstein, Calvin Spillman, 
J. H. Gillenwater, and C. A. Glidden. The lodge met for many years in the 
upper story of the building at Second and Bridge Streets, renting from the 
Masons. In 1888 a two-story building was erected on the present site. In 
1907 this structure was razed by fire, compelling the members to hold their 
meetings temporarily in the Odd Fellows Hall in Marysville. The present 
two-story structure was built and dedicated in 1908. 

Progress has marked every year of the life of this lodge since its found- 
ing. At the present time there are thirty-nine Past Grands and ninety-one 
third-degree members in the lodge. The present officers are : Noble Grand, 
F. B. Hager; Vice-Grand, H. E. Cox; secretary, H. L. Hite ; treasurer, E. J. 
White ; Junior Past Grand, H. H. Herr ; and chaplain, George W. Littlejohn. 

The older records of the lodge were destroyed in the fire of October, 1907. 

Other Yuba City Lodges 

Yuba City also supports active' branches of the order of the Knights of 
Pythias and the Woodmen of the World. Shamrock Camp, Woodmen of 
the World, owns its own hall, and is considering the erection of a more 
modern structure on a new site. 


Resident Veterans of Corinth Post, No. 80, G. A. R. 

Yuba City is the home of five honored survivors of the Civil War, the 
remnant of Corinth Post, No. 80, Grand Army of the Republic, which 
for many years was among; the leading organizations of Marysville and fore- 
most in the celebration of Independence Day and in the program of exercises 
on Memorial Day each year. 

These veterans are: W. E. Tucker, justice of the peace of Yuba Town- 
ship, and W. C. Gibson. J. Ashley, Isaac Drake and J. Larrabee. 



While Yuba City is showing unprecedented growth, other places in 
the county — some new, and some of nearly the same age as Yuba City- 
are keeping pace with its development. All are farming communities, 
dotted with modern homes and peopled by energetic, prosperous citizens, 
whose enterprising spirit gives promise of a great future. 


This rapidly growing town lies in the extreme northern end of the 
county, in a locality that is noted for its alfalfa, dairying and fruit interests. 
Irrigation has transformed this community. Several subdivisions, including 
the Sunset and Live Oak colonies, and all supplied with water from the 
Sutter-Butte Canal, have combined to make this a thickly settled com- 
munity. There is almost no limit to the crops now grown within a dozen 
miles of Live Oak. To the west, rice is a recent addition to the many 
products of the unusually fertile and productive soil. AVith many thousand 
acres under irrigation, the town of Live Oak is fast assuming larger pro- 
portions, and is becoming a trade center of considerable importance. 

Alfalfa is the leading agricultural product, although almonds, prunes, 
peaches and grapes are being grown more extensively every year. After 
the first year, the average yield of alfalfa is five, and frequently six, crops, 
running from seven to ten tons per acre each year. 

Public Schools 

Because of increasing population, Live Oak has recently been compelled 
to add to its educational facilities a new grammar-school building, which is 
an ornament to the place. There is also a new high-school building, making 
the third high school in the county. 


Nicolaus, on the west bank of the Feather River, is now regarded as the 
shipping and commercial center for the southern part of Sutter County, that 
part which lies south of the Feather River and east of the Sacramento.' Here 
the raising of hops and alfalfa, and the care and development of prune and 
pear orchards, together with dairying, are now the leading industries. Some 
of the largest and finest dairy herds to be found anywhere are to be seen on 
the .rich bottom-lands that extend back from the rivers. Grain- and stock- 
raising are also important enterprises., yielding large returns. 


Judge Keyser's Reminiscences 

In a speech made by the late Judge Phil W. Keyser on the 4th of July, 
1876, that popular jurist made reference to early-day occurrences in Nicolaus. 
Among other things. Judge Keyser said : 

"A surveyor was employed, and early in January, 1850, a beautiful town 
(upon paper, like the rest) sprang into existence. Among the proprietors was 
Col. Dick Snowden, who was in February elected alcalde of the town, and 
who, like his brother judge, Colonel Grant, was fully up to what popular 
opinion requires a judicial officer to be, physically. Snowden was a man of 
quick and somewhat violent temper; but his natural abilities were above 
mediocrity, and he possessed social qualities that secured him many warm 
personal friends. His social, judicial and physical functions came very near 
receiving a sudden and tragical termination. There lived at that time, at 
Nicolaus, a wild, reckless fellow named Bell. He built, and for some time 
conducted, a hotel called the Bell House. He was the defendant in a suit in 
Alcalde Snowden's court; and while it was progressing, he suddenly came 
to the conclusion it was not going very favorably for him. No sooner did 
this idea strike him than he drew his six-shooter and blazed away at the pre- 
siding judge. The ball hit Snowden on the forehead but glanced off without 
doing him serious injury. This argument was so direct and convincing that 
judgment was immediately ordered for the defendant. 

"Another prominent character of Nicolaus was George C. Johnson. He 
came to the town in a full-rigged barque belonging to the government of the 
United States. The vessel had come around the Horn with government stores 
for United States troops. Johnson was commissary, and after discharging 
part of her cargo at Benicia, which was the principal military post at that 
time on this Coast, and a self-asserted rival of San Francisco, he brought the 
vessel to Nicolaus to deliver the balance of her supplies to the officers and 
men stationed at Camp Far West. This was a small military post established 
by the United States on Bear River, some ten or fifteen miles above Nicolaus, 
for the protection of the immigrants from any unfriendliness on the part of 
the Indians, who were numerous in that section in those days. The barque 
never again saw salt water, but she gave to Nicolaus the right to boast of 
being the only port of entry that has ever been established north of Sacra- 
mento — the only town north of that city that ever has had a full-rigged sea- 
going vessel lying at her landing. Johnson built quite an imposing block of 
frame houses almost opposite the site of the American Hotel, in one of which 
he carried on a lively produce and general merchandise business. He accu- 
mulated quite a fortune, with which he went to San Francisco, where he 
established a large iron foundry, or something of that sort. He was after- 
wards appointed consul for Norway and Sweden, of one of which countries he 
was a native. He died leaving an estate valued at over a million." 

First Christmas in California 

In the same address Judge Keyser outlined the history of Camp Far West, 
now marked by the Native Sons of the Golden West as a historic spot of 
California. He said : 

"I have mentioned Camp Far West. It was quite an important military 
post in those days. Pleasantly situated on the bank of Bear River, amid an 
undulating country that forms the base of the foo-hills, and which at that time 
was covered with tall pines and wide-spreading live oaks, the camp was an 
easy and delightful drive in the springtime from Nicolaus, while its accom- 
plished officers were the most agreeable and hospitable of hosts to the many 
visitors, to whom they always extended a hearty welcome. Captain (now, I 


believe, Brigadier-General) Day was the commander of the post. My ac- 
quaintance with him and his brother officers began before Nicolaus was 'in 
esse.' How well I remember the day! Charlie Fairfax (whom all Californians 
knew and loved). Uncle Dick Snowden, as we called him (he was Fairfax's 
uncle and the alcalde of whom I have spoken), a brother of mine and myself 
were on our way, in December, 1849, with provisions for the winter, to our 
log" cabin, which stood not far from Nevada and Grass Valley. We built it in 
October, 1849. We were packing our provisions on mules, but were delayed 
several days by high water. About Christmas, Bear River became crossable, 
and we loaded our pack train, saddled our riding animals, and started. Camp 
Far West was in existence at this time, and the officers had been invited to 
partake of a Christmas dinner by Charlie Hoyt, at Johnson's Ranch, which 
was the name of a large tract of land lying upon the northwest bank of Bear 
River and owned, or occupied, by Hoyt. There was an adobe house upon the 
land, standing upon a high, natural mound and surrounded by outhouses and 
corrals. Hoyt knew some of our party and invited us to join his military 
friends at the Christmas dinner. Of course we were not the boys to decline 
what we had every reason to believe would be a 'feast of reason and a flow of 
soul.' We were all there. Captain Day sat at the head of the table, and 
Charlie Hoyt at the foot. Before the former stood a splendid roast pig, while 
the remainder of the table was covered with good things. There was but one 
kind of wine (port), and a wretched fraud it was upon the name. But it an- 
swered the purpose. It stimulated the brain, loosened the tongue, and made 
us all eloquent, witty and hilarious. The festivities lasted till the small hours 
began to grow into large ones ; but of all the good things that were said, and 
the jovial songs that were sung. I remember only this : that, for the last two 
hours we were at the table, Day sang without ceasing : 

'Christmas comes but once a year, 
But when it comes it brings good cheer." 

Such was my first Christmas in California." 

Churches of the City 

For many years Nicolaus has supported a church of the Catholic denom- 
ination, the congregation owning their own edifice. For a time the pastor 
made stated trips from his home in Lincoln, Placer County ; but more re- 
cently the parish was made part of that at North Sacramento. They are 
now served by Rev. Father P. Murphy, of the latter place. 

The German Lutherans hold frequent services in the schoolhouse. 

At Fairview, about four miles distant from Nicolaus, there is a church 
edifice in which other denominations hold meetings. The Protestant ceme- 
tery fur this district is located at Fairview. 


This place is beautifully situated at the base of the Sutter Buttes. Its 
wide streets are shaded with palm, locust, pepper, oleander and other shade 
trees, which greatly enhance its attractiveness. It is surrounded by orchards, 
vineyards, grain fields and almond groves. This district is the second largest 
almond-growing section of the county. It was close to this place that the first 
Thompson Seedless grapes were developed. 

Sutter City has two churches, the Methodist and the Baptist. Each 
Sunday the members gather from the countryside to worship. 


Sutter City High School 

Sutter City has one of the best-equipped high schools in the county. 
The plant is known as the Sutter Union High School ; and it was the first 
high school established in the history of Sutter County. It is built along 
the Mission lines and has three wings. Courts for lawn tennis and croquet 
surround the buildings, dotting attractive grounds. At the rear is a manual- 
training building, the handiwork of the pupils in that department. Sutter 
retained the distinction of having the only high school in the county until 
recent years, when Live Oak and Yuba City added high-school plants, in 
the order mentioned. 


Meridian is a thriving town in the western section of the county, and is 
situated on the Sacramento River and on the Sacramento Northern Railroad, 
giving it advantages many a town of its size might envy. It is an important 
shipping- point for a large area of some of the most fertile land to be found 
anywhere in California. 

Adjacent to Meridian is Reclamation District No. 70. All of the 20,000 
acres of this district was formerly overflowed ; but since it has been reclaimed, 
it is a veritable garden spot, with thousands of acres of alfalfa, grain, and 
corn ; beans, melons, tomatoes, and other vegetables ; and richly productive 
orchards of fruit. The lands along the Sacramento River are excellent for 
beans; and' beans and alfalfa probably comprise the two most valuable crops 
of District No. 70. Sugar beets have also been grown extensively in this 
district, where they yield a very high percentage of saccharine. 

Meridian has one church, that of the Methodists, which has been in 
existence many years, and which has many faithful followers. Quite fre- 
quently, also, the community is visited by evangelists of the Pentecostal 
faith, and others. 

Settlement and Early Grov/th 

The Meridian of the early days was relatively, no less important. The 
first settler on the river at that point was Lewis O'Neil, who arrived in 1852, 
and built a house on the river bank. In 1857, John F. Fonts bought the place, 
and in 1860 established a ferry across the river. He also established a small 
store. In March, 1861, W. C. Smith purchased ten acres of land lying north 
of the road from A. H. Mitchell's place. The tract was covered with brush 
and timber at that time. Smith laid out the tract into town lots, and in 1864 
sold a corner lot to E. F. Thornbrough & Company, who built a store build- 
ing suitable to those days. Mrs. E. V. Jacobs, wife of Meridian's physician, 
is a daughter of one of the very earliest settlers in Sutter County. 

In 1860 a post-office had been established at the ferry, with John F. 
Fouts as postmaster. The name originally chosen for the office was Keokuk ■ 
but there being then another of the same name in the State, it was changed 
to Meridian. This name was selected because the first post-office was only 
one-fourth of a mile west of the Mt. Diablo meridian, United States Survey. 

In 1873 the Meridian Warehouse Company erected its first building for 
the storage of grain. It had a capacity of 1500 tons. 

The first school building of notable proportions was erected in 1876 at 
a cost of $3500. 


Lying to the north of the Sutter Buttes, and enjoying a remarkably mild 
climate, Pennington is situated in the most important almond-growing sec- 
tion of Sutter County. The large and constantly growing number of almond 
orchards to be seen here bear mute testimony to the adaptability of this 
locality to the profitable culture of this popular nut. 



This town lies on the very southeastern edge of the county, and is the 
center of an extensive grain and stock section. Plantings of alfalfa in the vi- 
cinity of Pleasant Grove in recent years give promise of dairying on a large 
scale in this section in the near future. It is a community of homes, with 
a school conveniently located. 


Four prosperous and growing towns are at the present time to be found 
along the Southern Pacific Railroad, south of Yuba City. These are Bogue, 
Oswald, Tudor, and Chandler. Each of these is in a favorite fruit district 
of Sutter County, and is mostly a shipping center for the extensive orchards 
and vineyards near by. 

Abbott, Marcuse, Sunset and Lomo are other shipping points on the 
Southern Pacific, while Tierra Buena, Nuestro, Encinal, Rio Oso, Catlett and 
Sankey are similar points on the Sacramento Northern Railroad. 

West Butte, as the name implies, is on the west side of Sutter Buttes. 
The town is surrounded by first-class grain, dairy and stock country. 

Kirksville and Vernon are on the Sacramento River, and are shipping 
points for rich areas of river-bottom lands. 



No section of these United States can truthfully boast a greater percent- 
age of Americanism shown during the World War, from 1914 to 1918, than 
was shown in the "twin counties" of Yuba and Sutter. Here the Red Cross, 
with all its auxiliaries — Canteen Workers, Surgical Dressings Department, 
and all — was firmly entrenched, working through all its avenues, by night as 
well as by day. Yuba-Sutter Chapter of the Red Cross had working head- 
quarters in the basement of the Packard Library. There, during the period of 
the memorable struggle, the women met and sewed and knitted, and packed 
service kits for the boys and thousands of cases of garments for use in the 
field. In every hamlet of Yuba Count}- there were branch meeting places for 
the volunteer workers ; and the same can be said of Sutter County. Both 
counties also remembered the refugees of Europe, to the fullest. Sutter 
County heads had sewing and packing headquarters in the Masonic Asylum, 
where patriotism knew no bounds. One purchasing agent bought the raw 
material that was shaped into garments on both sides of the river. 

Of the numbers of young men who made the supreme sacrifice during the 
unprecedented struggle, Yuba County was the home of twenty-six, Sutter 
County the home of ten. These must not be forgotten. 

In the work of keeping their respective memories alive, no one is 
deserving of greater credit than Mrs. G. AY. Harney, of Marysville, and 
Mrs. Hugh Moncur, of Yuba City. Through their efforts the complier 
of this history is able to give the story of each hero, the date of his enlist- 
ment, his cantonment service, the capacity in which he served on the field 
of action, and the engagement in which he fell, and also to present a portrait 
of each. Their work once lost, the history of these heroes could never be 
full}'- replaced, as the relatives of many whose records are given are now 
widely scattered. The accumulation of the data represents much research, 
as is evidenced by the wealth of detail presented. In presenting these records 
we wish again to accentuate the good work of Mrs. Harney and Mrs. Mon- 
cur, whom we heartily thank for permitting their use in this volume. Mrs. 
Moncur supplied the biographies of the Sutter County war heroes and also 
the photographs from which their cuts were made. 

The introduction to these sketches was written by Henry M. Rideout, 
well-known American author, and member of a pioneer California family. 

"Those wdio gave a soldier to our nation in the war against Germany un- 
derstand their gift, with an understanding deeper than words," says Mr. 
Rideout. "They know. Therefore to the families, above all the fathers and 
mothers, of the men whose memory the following pages would recall, no 
preface is intended. 

"If a stranger read this book, he will do well to think, more than once, 
not of what meets the eye, but of what is lacking. The stories are brief. All 
except a few contain beginnings only, promises of character, not deeds re- 
warded in this world. But their brevity means the greater honor ; for here 
a page of life least written upon may hold (so far as we shall ever know) the 
costliest sacrifice of things which might have been. And the sacrifice was 
for us. These boys of Yuba and Sutter Counties, California — boys either in 


age or in spirit — left everything, home, a pleasant land, work, hopes, to join a 
great company that on our behalf passed through the bitterness of death 
Youths have life before them. For the American Republic, at war against 
wrong, cruelty, and lies denying the existence of human kindness, they died 
that our children might grow up free, like them, to serve and follow truth." 


By Mrs. G. W. Harney 

Tester A. Bishop 

Lester A. Bishop, son of N. B. and Annie Bishop, was born at French 
Corral, Nevada County, Cal., December 17, 1899. He received his education 
in the public schools and at Notre Dame College, Marysville. From child- 
hood he was characterized by a kindly and noble nature, which prompted him, 
at the age of eighteen, to fight for his country. He enlisted on April 1, 1917, 
in Company I, 30th Infantry of the 128th, American Expeditionary Forces. 
He served in France. Wounded on August 10, 1918, he was taken to Base 
Hospital No. 34 at Nantes. On October 3, his mother, a resident of Marys- 
ville, received a letter from a Red Cross nurse in France, who said his wound 
was severe. He died four days later. On November 5, Mrs. Bishop was offi- 
cially notified by the War Department of her son's death on October 7. 

His coffin covered with flowers and draped with an American flag, Lester 
Bishop was laid away in French soil, with military honors, in the cemetery 
at Nantes. About a year later, the remains were removed to the Marysville 
cemetery. Marysville mourns the loss of a brave soldier, a young, generous, 
loyal citizen who will be remembered with pride. He took part in the first 
great drive against the Germans, when the Americans captured 2000 prison- 
ers in three clays and nights. 

Lewis J. Blodget 

Lewis J. Blodget, son of Moses H. and Florence Johnson Blodget, was 
born in Colusa County, Cal., September 11, 1889. On October 4, 1918, as a 
United States Marine, A. E. F., Lewis Blodget gave his life for liberty as the 
American forces made a strong thrust into the lines of the Huns, north of 
the Somme. The young man was a "Devil Dog," the name the Germans gave 
the Marines, from December 8, 1914, until the day he made the "supreme 
sacrifice" for democracy. He enlisted in the Marine Corps in Los Angeles, 
on the date given, after spending his boyhood days in Yuba and Shasta 
Counties, California. His parents for a time resided at Challenge, Yuba 
County, later moving to Folsom, at which place news of his death in battle 
reached his relatives. Blodget was a graduate of the public schools, and 
worked for a time for the Yuba Construction Company in Marysville, which 
position he left when he joined the Marines. He was the true-type American. 
He gave his life that right might endure. He played his part and is gone. He 
did not live, or die, in vain. 

Claude Bayne Boswell 
Claude Bayne Boswell, son of Mr. and Mrs. W. E. Boswell of Wheatland, 
Yuba County, Cal., so desired to serve his country and the world, in their 
struggle for universal freedom, that he attempted to enlist with the "Griz- 


zlies" on November 9, 1917. Because of a weak heart, however, he was not 
then accepted, although he was found to be available when, on May 20, 1918, 
he was drafted into the service and sent to Camp Kearney. It was while he 
was in training- at this camp that he contracted bronchial pneumonia, which 
resulted in his death on November 5. 1918. 

With the Stars and Stripes — emblematical of the loved country to which 
he had given his service and his life — draped about his coffin, he was laid to 
rest in the Wheatland cemetery on the 8th day of that month, exactly one 
year from the date of his first attempt to enroll. He was survived by his 
parents, and by seven brothers and four sisters. 

Fred T. Bottler 

On November 30, 1918. the sad news was received from Camp Kearney 
of the death on that day of Fred T. Bottler, Marysville young man and native 
of Yuba County, son of Frederick and Katharine Peters Bottler. The young 
man was educated in the public schools of Marysville, entering the employ 
of the Marysville Water Company shortly after he concluded his studies. He 
was with the water company when called to the colors on May 22, 1918. He 
spent four months at the Presidio at Monterey, from which point he was 
transferred to Camp Kearney. 

As a schoolboy, young Bottler showed traits that endeared him to his 
companions, being agreeable, kind-hearted, considerate and unselfish. The 
same traits appeared in his home life with his sisters and parents. They re- 
mained with him to the end. He was fond of youthful sports, and was made 
a member of the first Marysville baseball team because of his proficiency. In 
his last illness he was especially commended by the army doctors for his 
fortitude in battling against the ravages of influenza. Through his death 
his employers lost a valuable man ; his associates, a firm friend ; and the city 
of Marysville, a good citizen. 

James M. Brown 

Early in the month of June, 1918, news came to Yuba County of the 
death in France of James M. Brown, who, the report said, died of wounds 
received in action on the 30th of May. James, or "Jim",'' as he was familiarly 
known to his friends, was born in Malone, N. Y., twenty-six years before. 
He came to California in April, 1916. and obtained employment in the dredger 
fields in Hammonton. He was called to go with the first contingent which 
left Marysville for Camp Lewis on September 24, 1917. He was placed in 
charge of his comrades as train captain during the journey north. 

In a short time }-oung Brown was assigned to the 166th Depot Brigade, 
with a machine-gun company. Later he was transferred to Camp Merritt, 
New Jersey; and he sailed on December 11 for France. After a week in a 
British rest camp, three miles from Cherbourg, his division entrained in the 
little French box cars, in which nearly all troops had to be moved, and trav- 
elled across France to Montigny-le-Roi. After training behind the lines, the 
company moved up to the front and saw action in the Montdidier Salient on 
the Picardy battle-front, "where tactics had been suddenly revolutionized to 
those of open warfare, and our men, confident of the results of their training, 
were eager for the test." (Pershing.) 

In a letter of May 7, James reported that he was in good health and had 
come safely through two gas attacks; but on June 17 his parents received the 
following telegram from Washington : "Deeply regret to inform you that it 
is officially reported that private James M. Brown died May 30th, from 


wounds received in action." James was a perfect specimen of young man- 
hood, unassuming but deep and fearless ; and no better or truer lad faced the 
enemy in this war. 

Charles Fred Cassano 

Charles Fred Cassano was born in Camptonville, Yuba County, CaL, De- 
cember 31, 1892. He was the son of Mr. and Mrs. John Baptiste Cassano. 
There were eight children in the family, six girls and two boys, he being the 
fourth child. Charles attended school in Camptonville and lived there until 
young manhood. He was subject to the first draft, in June, 1917, and regis- 
tered; but in December he went to San Francisco, and on the 13th entered 
in the engineer corps. He was at Angel Island about a week ; then his com- 
pany was sent to Camp Meade, Maryland, where he received his military 
training in Company B, 27th Engineers. 

On February 14, 1918, Charles was taken sick with a severe cold, fol- 
lowed by measles. He was sent to the base hospital; but his illness resulted in 
pneumonia, and on March 7, 1918, he died, being in his twenty-sixth year. 
His body was sent back to California, and he was buried at the Presidio, San 
Francisco. His friends in his home town of Camptonville loved him, and now 
point with pride to his name on this honor list. 

Richard Norton Coupe 

Richard Norton Coupe, first of Yuba County's soldier heroes to repose in 
Yuba soil after seeing active service over seas, was born and raised at Chal- 
lenge, Yuba County, Cal. Prior to his entering the army he was a trusted 
employe of the Southern Pacific Company for five years, first in Fresno and 
later in Oakland. He enlisted at the latter place, August 9, 1917, as an avia- 
tion mechanic, and entered the service at Angel Island. After receiving two 
months' training at Kelly Field, Texas, he was transferred to the 94th Aero 
Squadron, which was scheduled for duty over seas. He sailed from New York 
October 21, and on arriving in France was put through a course of instruc- 
tion in Paris. Early in the spring of 1918, he went on the lines. Here he was 
Major Eufberry's mechanic, only flying in testing the machine. He witnessed 
the battle in which Major Lufberry was killed, and helped pick up the wreck. 
In July he transferred to the Tank Service, and soon qualified as a gunner 
and driver. September 12 he went "over the top" in the battle of St. Mihiel. 
During this battle he and his companions surprised thirty Germans and took 
them prisoners. 

September 26 he went "over the top" again, in the Argonne, and after 
several days was taken sick and sent back to the base hospital at Blois. Later 
he was transferred to a hospital at Langres, where he remained until he 
sailed for the United States in December. He arrived at Camp Merritt, in 
New Jersey, December 24, and died there January 21, 1919. His body arrived 
in Marysville under escort, and was buried in the Dobbins Catholic cemetery 
with military honors. 

Patrick Henry Dugan 

Patrick Henry Dugan, born January 6, 1896, at Poker Flat, received his 
education in Yuba and Butte Counties. From Yuba County, while engaged 
in farming and stock-raising, he was called, November 4, 1917, to service. As 
a private in the 41st, or Sunset, Division, he reached France on December 
30, 1917. After trench work in the Toul sector, service with the Signal Corps, 
and a transfer to Company E, 102nd Infantry, 26th Division, Patrick became 
a litter-bearer with the Medical Corps. He went over the top many times, 
and, except for a few weeks in hospital, after being gassed, saw continuous 
service at Chateau Thierry, Soissons, St. Mihiel, and the Argonne Forest. He 


took part in the battle of September 12 and 13, when "the advancing- host 
was stimulated to high endeavor by the fact that behind them lay their 
shrine of Domremy. where Joan of Arc was born, and which no German sol- 
dier shall ever profane by entering," and when in twenty-four hours the 
troops captured a salient held by the Germans for four years. 

On October 23, 1918, serving with his company as infantryman, Patrick 
Henry Dugan fell in battle on the Verdun Front. He is buried in Crepion 
Cemetery, Meuse. 

Frank Raymond Gengler 

Frank Raymond Gengler, son of Michel and Margaret Carl Gengler of 
Marysville, and nephew of former Mayor Mat Arnoldy of that place, was 
born January 2, 1894, on a farm near Cawker City, Kans. Most of his school 
clays were spent in Cawker City. In March, 1909, the family moved to Marys- 
ville, where Frank attended school a short while. For five years he was em- 
ployed as grocery clerk by the firm of Bryant Brothers. Later he entered the 
employ of the Marysville Fuel Company. 

It was on November 5, 1917, that young Gengler joined the boys in khaki 
at Camp Lewis. He was there only two days when he was sent to Camp 
Mills, New York. In three weeks, December 6, 1917, he sailed for France as 
a private in Company I, 161st Infantry. At Chateau Thierry he was gassed, 
and was obliged to spend several months in a hospital. A bayonet wound re- 
ceived at St. Mihiel in September sent him to Base Hospital No. 66. Of the 
details of his death, little is known. He succumbed to bronchial pneumonia, 
October 12. 1918. Faithful and conscientious in work, intensely patriotic as 
a soldier, Gengler gave his life for the triumph of justice and liberty. 

Lawrence Gray 

Lawrence Gray died of influenza while in the service of his country, at 
Mare Island Hospital, October 15, 1918. He was a son of William J. and 
Mary A. Gray, and was survived by his mother and the following brothers 
and sisters : Luella E., Gertrude V., William J., Albert D., and Dr. Everett 
E. Gray, all residents of either Yuba or Sutter County. 

He was born September 15, 1892, in Sutter County, and lived there until 
1911, when he moved to Marysville, remaining there until he entered the 
service. Young Gray was in the employ of the Yuba Manufacturing Com- 
pany when he enlisted in the Naval Coast Defense, in July, 1917. He was not 
called until February 18, 1918. After being stationed at San Pedro several 
weeks, he was transferred to Pier No. 7, San Francisco, where he was sta- 
tioned at the time of his death. He was a graduate of the Lincoln Grammar 
School, in Sutter County, and of the Marysville High School. 

Bert J. Hale 

Corporal Bert J. Hale was born in Fremont, Ohio, June 24, 1888, being 
the son of Henry and Serelda Hale. He attended the public schools of 
Fremont until twelve years old, when the family removed to Toledo, where 
he resided until reaching his majority. He then removed to Marysville, 
Cal., where he was residing when, on May 1, 1918, he entered the service 
of his country at Camp Lewis, Washington. 

Hale was sent over seas on July 4, 1918, and, as a member of Company 
B, 262nd Regiment, 91st Division, went into action on September 26, at the 
opening of the battle of the Argonne. Three days later he was killed in 
battle. He is survived by his mother, Mrs. Serelda Hale Rabold, of 
Shelbv, Ohio. 


Earl Dewey Hall 

On December, 16, 1918, to Marysville came the news of the heroic death 
of Earl Dewey Hall, twenty-one, son of Mr. and Mrs. Jackson B. Hall, of 
1028 Swezy Street, Marysville. He died in France, October 17, 1918. He 
received his military training at Camp Kearney with Company E, 104th In- 
fantry, enlisting in Sacramento, April 2, 1917. In July, 1918, he sailed for 
"over there" with Company A, 26th Division, better known as the "Yankee 
Division." Before the war he was in the employ of the Valley Meat Company 
in Marysville. 

Young Hall's letters from France indicated a brave spirit amid fierce 
fighting. He was shot by a sniper, October 17, while he and his comrades 
were cleaning out a machine-gun nest in the Hautmont Woods. Besides his 
parents, four brothers and a sister survive. 

Preston Francis Hendricks 

Preston Francis Hendricks, Yuba County hero, was born in Browns 
Valley, February 5, 1892. He was the eldest son of Joseph P. and Josephine 
Binninger Hendricks. When the war broke out he was engaged in fanning 
on his mother's ranch near Browns Valley. On June 28, 1918, he entrained 
with thirty-eight other Yuba and Sutter County boys for Camp Kearney. 
Assigned to Company D, 145th Machine Gun Battalion, he was soon after- 
ward sent to France. There, while bathing with other soldiers in a canal near 
the village of Torteron, Hendricks sustained an injury — the result of diving 
into shallow water — which proved fatal. He died September 6, 1918, and was 
buried at Nevers. 

Edward Hove 

Edward Hove was born in Westby, Wis., February 22, 1892. After 
receiving a practical education in his native county, he decided to join his 
brother, Oscar, who had preceded him to California because of the severe 
winters of the Middle West. Together the brothers bought a farm in District 
10, Yuba County, which they planted to prunes and grapes. 

He was called to the service August 30, 1918, and was ordered to Camp 
Lewis, Washington. After a short period of training, he contracted influenza, 
followed by pneumonia, which proved fatal. 

Arthur Eugene Linnell 

Arthur Eugene Linnell, only son of Mr. and Mrs. Frank Linnell of 
Marysville, left his home for Fort McDowell, California, on October 3, 
1918, being assigned to limited service as chauffeur and mechanic. In ten 
days from that time he was stricken with influenza. His parents were sum- 
moned to his bedside. Pneumonia developed, arid he died on October 21. 

The young man was born in Orangevale, Sacramento County, twenty- 
two years before. He secured his education in the Roseville and Orangevale 
schools. Before going to his parents' farm near Marysville, he was engaged 
with his brother in the garage business in Roseville. His death was the 
second great sorrow to visit the Linnell home in a period of eight months, 
the elder brother, Lloyd, having passed away on February 22, 1918. 

Charles William McConaughy 

Charles William McConaughy was born in Marysville, Yuba County, 
July 26, 1878. He was the son of James and Josephine Marie McConaughy. 
He first attended the Marysville schools, and his early education was con- 
tinued in San Diego, to which place the family moved. He entered the 


University of California with the class of 1901, but left in his senior year 
to accept a position with the Pacific Gas & Electric Company at Dobbins, 
Yuba County. While attending the University of California, he was Colonel 
of the University Cadets and was recommended for admission to examina- 
tion for appointment as Second Lieutenant in the United States Army. By 
education and training an engineer, he spent his business and professional 
life largely in association with W. P. Hammon, dredging promoter. 

When the government called for engineers, in June, 1918, he volun- 
teered. On October 21, 1918, he was commissioned Captain in the Engineers' 
Reserve Corps and reported to Fort Douglas, Utah, on temporary assign- 
ment. He was later given orders to proceed to Camp Humphreys, Virginia, 
for a course at the Engineer Officers' Training Camp. On the way to Camp 
Humphreys he was taken ill with influenza, and reported at once to the 
hospital. He died on November 18, of pneumonia. Of Captain McConaughy, 
his brother officers wrote: "His manly qualities and sterling character com-' 
manded our respect ; and his unselfish disposition, our affection." He was 
survived by his wife, Ann Swain McConaughy, daughter of William Cald- 
well Swain and Mary A. Swain, pioneers of Marysville, and by his daughter, 
Mary Josephine McConaughy. 

Lewis Melton McCurry 

Lewis Melton McCurry, son of Mr. and Mrs. L. W. McCurry of Wheat- 
land, Yuba County, was born at Whea^and, January 11, 1896. He received 
his education in the AVheatland Grammar and High Schools. On August 
10, 1917, he answered his country's call and enlisted in the Marines. "Surely, 
'Tobe' will return ; he was born under a lucky star," his friends, of whom he 
had many, said ; for he had come unharmed through many serious mishaps 
He was stationed at Mare Island for three months, and was then sent to 
Quantico, Va. ; and early in February, 1918, he sailed for France. He was 
in the fight at Chateau Thierry when the Germans attempted to break 
through to Paris In this engagement he was wounded, on June 6, suffering 
a compound fracture of the thigh, from machine-gun fire. He was taken to 
the Second Base Hospital in Paris, and on June 19 wrote a letter to his 
mother admonishing her not to worry, that he was doing fine. Then fol- 
lowed an official telegram telling of his death on June 25. 

Lewis McCurry was the first AVheatland boy to reach France. He 
was with the 51st Company. 5th Regiment, U. S. Marine Corps. He was a 
grandson of Dr. Lewis Melton, pioneer physician of Wheatland and a 
veteran of the Civil War. Surviving him, besides his mother, are four 
sisters and a brother. 

Wilton Llye McDonald 

Wilton Lyle McDonald, only son of Mrs. Lizzie McDonald of Wheat- 
land, Yuba County, was born in that place October 30, 1886. He attended 
school in AVheatland, and when quite a young man qualified for a teacher's 
certificate. He later taught in Siskiyou County, with marked success. 

AYhen the United States entered the war, he enlisted. That was in De- 
cember, 1917. He was assigned to the Quartermaster Service AVagon Com- 
pany, No. 304, and was soon made a Sergeant. On. August 6, 1918, he sailed 
for France, from Jacksonville, Fla. A letter received by his mother in the 
latter part of November, 1918, conveyed the sad news of Sergeant McDon- 
ald's death, of la grippe, coupled with pneumonia. 


Edward J. McGanney 

Edward James McGanney, born in Marysville, October 31, 1891; died 
October 5, 1918, near Montfaucon, France. The story of Edward James 
McGanney is the story of a young life given in splendid patriotism. When 
America demanded that her sons make the supreme sacrifice in the cause 
of human liberty, he answered, and his great adventure spelled death to 
him on the battlefield. At the time he was called to the colors he was a 
successful young farmer and stock-raiser of Smartsville, Yuba County, 
where he was reared and educated. 

He was one of the first contingent of selective service men to leave 
Yuba County. While in training — first at Camp Lewis and then at Camp 
Kearney — he was asked to remain on this side to instruct recruits, but he 
elected to go with his comrades over seas to France. He was assigned to 
the Supply Company of the 30th Infantry of the 3rd Division. He took part 
■in the Meuse-Argonne battles, the decisive engagements of the World War. 
It was while on a mission fraught with dangers to him known, that he fell 
at Montfaucon. He was buried where he fell. 

John E. Milligan 

John E. Milligan was born near Enterprise, Butte County, in 1898. 
Shortly thereafter the family removed to Marysville, where they have 
resided ever since. After graduating from the Marysville Grammar School, 
the young man attended high school for a time, and then gave his thoughts 
to pharmacy. In this he was encouraged by Marysville and Sacramento 
firms, until he enlisted in the United States Army Medical Department in 
1917. His aptitude for his chosen work was soon recognized. He was given 
time for study, and he passed a creditable examination before the California 
State Board of Pharmacy. He was then given charge of the Dispensary at 
Fort McDowell, and was given an honorable discharge in December, 1918, 
after the armistice was signed. 

He then entered the employ of a drug company in Sacramento and 
Stockton, holding a responsible position until failing health forced his 
return home, which was followed shortly by his being sent to a government 
hospital for treatment for tuberculosis. He failed rapidlv, and passed away 
at the hospital in Palo Alto in March, 1920. 

William Lee Norton 

William Lee Norton was a son of William L. and Mary Kelly Norton, 
and was born on his father's ranch in Linda Township, Yuba County. He 
was one of five children, there being three boys and two girls in the family. 
Willie, as a boy, attended the Brophy school, the little grammar school near 
his parents' home. As he grew to manhood his interests were centered in the 
farm, much to the gratification of his father. His mother had died two 
months previous to the time he was called to go to war, and four months 
previous to his mother's death one of his sisters had also passed away. 
Realizing his father's feeling, he said to him just before he left for the train- 
ing camp: "Never mind, Pa, I'll look out for you; when I get back, every- 
thing will be all right." 

Young Norton left Marysville September 6, 1917, in the first draft 
ordered to Camp Lewis. He was stationed with the 363rd Infantry, 91st 
Division. Later he was sent to New Jersey, and in May, 1918, went to 
France, where he was assigned to Company I, 128th Infantry. He took 
part in several fierce engagements, and was killed in action on October 
23, 1918. He carried an insurance with the government in the sum of 
$10,000, payable to his father. 


Horatio Devore Poole 

Date of birth. March 20, 1895: p'ace of birth, Sutter. California; father, 
Horatio Dallas Poole : mother, Mary Jane Dickey Poole. 

Horatio Devore Poole, one of Yuba County's best-known young men, 
made the supreme sacrifice in the service of his country. Always of a happy 
disposition and true blue to his friends, Devore Poole had many close to him 
who now greatly miss his congeniality and heart}- handclasp. Before enter- 
ing the service, he was foreman of the Rock & Young vulcanizing shop in 
Marysville, where he won the good-will of those with whom he came in con- 
tact. On September 1, 1918, he entered the Technical High training school in 
Oakland to do military mechanical work, and while there earned the highest 
credits in his work, which was nearly completed when he fell ill with 
influenza. He was removed to the Letterman General Hospital in San Fran- 
cisco, where he died of pneumonia on October 25, 1918, leaving, to mourn 
his passing, his. widow, formerly Mary Elizabeth Finnegan, and an infant 
son, James Dallas Poole. 

Wilfred Rudolph Smith 

Wilfred Rudolph Smith was born in Sacramento, January 22, 1889. Num- 
bered among the pioneers of the Sacramento Valley, Alexander R. Smith, 
his father, being a man of high worth and an excellent mathematician, was 
an honored and trusted employe of the Southern Pacific Company for forty- 
five years. The mother was Thelka Eugenia Hanson. Wilfred received his 
education in the schools of Sacramento. Working as an apprentice in the 
railroad shops, he became a skilled mechanic, possesing many of the sterling 
qualities which characterized his father. A lover of nature, he spent his 
leisure among the plants and flowers, and becoming an enthusiastic student 
of horticulture, he took delight in grafting the trees and beautifying the 
home garden. 

The young man worked at the Benicia Arsenal, and later at Sparks. 
Nev.. for the Pacific Gas & Electric Company, and was a faithful and effi- 
cient employe for four years for the Yuba Construction Company, in Marys- 
ville. While in the latter service, he was called to military duty, his position 
being guaranteed him on his return from war. He responded nobly to his 
country's call, enlisting in the Aviation Section, June 27, 1918. At Mather 
Field he was attacked by influenza on November 6, and died after a brief 
illness, November 16, 1918. 

Charles S. Waller 

In Base Hosiptal No. 18, at the edge of the Vosges Mountains, Charles 
S. AYaller, one of Marysville's brave lads, gave up his life for his country. 
Passing unscathed through the great battle of Chateau Thierry and others 
which followed, he was finally compelled to pay the price of "making the 
world" safe for democracy." An employe of the Yuba Manufacturing Com- 
pany in Marysville, Walter enlisted in the war with a Sacramento company 
of volunteers (the enlisting office in Marysville being closed), was sent to 
Camp Kearney, and became a member of the 159th Infantry. At the time 
of his death he was with the 38th Machine Gun Company, with which con- 
tingent he had fought valiantly on the AVestern Front. Early in October. 
Private Waller received a gunshot wound in the left leg, and also a fracture 
of the member. Amputation became necessary ; and though he received the 
best of care, he failed to rally. His death brought gloom to the com- 


munity where he lived in peace times, and sadness to the hearts of his 
many Marysville friends. 

Born in Fruto. Glenn County, April 15, 1893, Charles S. Waller was the 
son of Louis S. and Mary Caldwell Waller. He was survived by his mother 
and two sisters, the latter being Mrs. P. K. Wilcoxon of Marysville and Mrs. 
H. T. Seaman of Hilt, Siskiyou County. 

William Oliver White 

William Oliver White was born in Paisley, Ore. He was one of six 
children, and was the son of parrell W. and Hannah S. White. The family 
moved to Red Bluff, where William attended the public schools for several 
years. Later he chose Marysville .as his residence, living there until he 
enlisted in the World War in the army of the United States of America, 
with the 362nd Infantry, 91st Division. He was wounded soinewhere in 
France, dying in a hospital about September, 1918. He was twenty-one 
years of age when he made the supreme sacrifice. 

John Zvijerkoyich 

John Zvijerkovich, a native of Dalmatia, born February 14, 1887, gave 
his life on the battlefield, fighting in the ranks of his adopted country. The 
desire to make his own way in the world led the young man to leave Dal- 
matia at the age of fifteen for the lands across the sea, and in 1902 he went 
to Buenos Ayres, Argentina. After three years, he arrived in the United 
States, the haven of his youthful hopes, and the great country for which 
he was ultimately to make the complete sacrifice. With his brother George, 
he located in Marysville in 1913, and for a time the two young men aided 
their uncle in the restaurant business. ' Later the ownership of the estab- 
lishment passed to the brothers, and they conducted it with marked 
success, earning for themselves an exceptional reputation for industry 
and business integrity. 

John was drafted with the initial contingent from Marysville, Septem- 
ber 5, 1917, being one of the first five to leave for Camp Lewis. By reason of 
his experience, he was made head cook and later was promoted to the rank 
of Mess Sergeant. In a short time he was sent over seas ; and the testimony 
of his officers is proof of his efficiency in his work, and his courageousness 
as a soldier. One of his superiors, in a letter to the young man's family, 
said : "John was the best-liked boy in the company ; always cheerful, unflag- 
ging in energy, and ever ready with a kind act." 

Mess Sergeant John Zvijerkovich was killed instantly at MontfauQon, 
France, September 28, 1918, while dashing forward in the cause of humanity. 
He was a man of honor, as attested in his business dealings, a true patriot, 
a brave soldier, and he gave his all willingly for his fellow men. 



By Mrs. Hugh Moncur 


Trugva M. Bordsen 

Although not a native of this country, Trugva M. Bordsen gave his life 
in its service. Trugva M. Bordsen was born in Norway, August 7, 1894. After 
his graduation in both grammar and high school in his native land, he came 
to the United States and made his home with his sister at Sutter City, Sut- 
ter County, Cal. After three years he returned to Norway to visit his father, 
other relatives and friends, returning to Sutter County after a few months. 
At the time of his registration he was employed in a logging camp at West- 
wood, Lassen County. He came to Sutter County to submit to the draft. 
From Camp Lewis, Washington, he was sent to Camp Kearney, where he 
trained for eight months. He sailed for over-seas duty in July, 1918, with 
the 160th Infantry, later being transferred to the 127th Infantry. He was 
killed in action, October 18, 1918, aged 24. He was the youngest of a family 
of thirteen children. His Sutter City relatives are two sisters, Mrs. Ole 
Thomasen and Mrs. John Borson, and a brother, Tonder Bordsen. 

Joseph Miner Burns 

A Sutter County boy, Joseph M. Burns volunteered as a private and 
at the end of the war had attained the rank of Sergeant, having served his 
country faithfully and well from August 21, 1917, to June 8, 1-919. June 2, 
1919, he sailed from Bordeaux, France, for the United States ; and on that 
homeward trip he was drowned, on June 8. His body was not recovered. 

Among his personal effects on the boat was found this poem : 

"Just an old-fashioned letter that lay on 
the ground ; 
It came from a soldier boy's heart; 
Before he could send it, 
He had to end it. 
It was found without address — 
Not even a name — 
So the message will never be known ; 
Only God in His might 
Knows who is waiting tonight 
For the letter that lay on the ground." 

Joseph was born in Colusa, Colusa County, June 2, 1892. There he 
attended the Convent School. At the age of eight, he removed with his 
parents to a farm near Sutter City, in Sutter County. He helped in the farm 
work until he was twenty-one, by which time he had graduated from the 
Sutter Union High School. At majority he enlisted in the arm}- for seven 
years. After a year's service, he was bought out by his parents and given 
an honorable discharge, returning to Sutter County. 

For the AVorld War he enlisted in the Aviation Section. On crossing 
the seas, he saw desperate fighting as an observer in a balloon. On June 18. 
1918, he was gassed for the first time. On July 3, 1918, near the town of 


Survilla, in the Chateau Thierry section, there was brought down, under his 
supervision, the first Boche aeroplane. September 14, 1918, he was wounded 
while going over the top, and recovered. 

William Stewart Cannon 

Lieutenant William Stewart Cannon was born in San Francisco, Sep- 
tember 16, 1895. He graduated from the University of Santa Clara with 
the Bachelor of Arts degree in 1917, and took a postgraduate course, receiv- 
ing the degree of Juris Doctor. He entered the training camp at the Pre- 
sidio,. San Francisco, in the same year, and entered the army as a Second 
Lieutenant after having passed a highly creditable examination. He contin- 
ued with the work of training while awaiting the results of the examination. 

Lieutenant Cannon's first detail was to Douglas, Ariz., to join the 10th 
Artillery. Later he was transferred to the Cavalry as a regular U. S. Army 
officer. He went over seas in May, and, after being in active service at the 
front until the armistice was signed, was transferred to the Judge Advocate 
Department with headquarters at Ancy le France. Later he was made First 
Lieutenant and Acting Zone Major at that place. Leaving France the latter 
part of June, he was stricken with appendicitis aboard ship and died as the 
boat was entering the harbor at New York. He was, buried in Holy Cross 
Cemetery in San Francisco, with the highest honors the Catholic Church 
extends to the layman. He was twenty-four when the summons came. 

Manuel F. Gomes 

Manuel F. Gomes was born in Marysville, Yuba County, on December 
25, 1890. While he was attending the grammar school in that place, his 
parents removed to Sutter County, wdiere they followed farming. Until he 
was twenty-three, he aided his father on the farm, at the same time gaining 
graduation from the Yuba City grammar school. 

In April, 1917, he responded to -his country's call, enlisting for three 
years. After several months' training in the various camps in the United 
States, he was sent to France, a member of Company E, 109th Infantry, in 
July, 1917. He was killed in action, March 21, 1918. 

Herman L. Hansen 

Herman L. Hansen was born November 3, 1894, in Nicolaus, Sutter 
County. He was educated in the grammar school in that place, and in the 
Marysville High School, graduating with the class of 1914. He then spent 
three years on the farm helping his father. 

On November 5, 1917, he was sent to Camp Lewis, remaining but a few 
days, and then was sent to Camp Mills and on to France, where he was as- 
signed to the 2nd Division, Company A, 23rd Infantry. On October 3, 1918. 
he was awarded the Distinguished Service Cross for assisting a wounded 
comrade out of "No Man's Land." In the battle of Blanc Mont Ridge, 
Champagne Sector, he was mortally wounded on October 8, 1918, passing 
away on the same day. 

Paul John Langenbach 

Lieutenant Paul J. Langenbach, one of the Sutter County heroes after 
whom Bishop-Langenbach Post of Marysville, Veterans of Foreign Wars, 
was named, was born in San Francisco, September 15, 1895. He was a son 
of Paul J. and Clementina K. Langenbach. His earlier education was 


received in the grammar school of Encinal, Sutter County, where he 
graduated in 1912. He then attended the Marysville High School, complet- 
ing its course in 1915. 

The young man enlisted as a private with Company E, 2nd California 
Infantry, during the Mexican-border troubles in 1916, and reenlisted with 
the same unit in March, 1917, at President Wilson's call for volunteers in 
the World War. His command was ordered to Camp Kearney, and there 
merged with the 160th Infantry. Lieutenant Langenbach rose from the 
ranks and was commissioned Second Lieutenant on May 26, 1918, and as- 
signed to Company L, 160th U. S. Infantry. He sailed for over seas in July, 
1918, with his company. Upon his arrival in France he was immediately 
transferred to Company I, l02nd Infantry, which was known as the "Yan- 
kee Division." He fought in the battle of St. Mihiel, where the entire 102nd 
Infantry Regiment was awarded the Croix de Guerre by the French Govern- 
ment. He fought in the drive north of Verdun ; and on October 27, 1918, 
was killed while leading his troops in the great Argonne drive. 

Sidney Henry Lyall 

Sidney Henry Lyall was born in Verona, Sutter County, March 28, 
1897. He was a graduate of the Verona grammar school and afterwards at- 
tended Heald's Business College in Sacramento, and St. Mary's College in 
Oakland. He helped on the farm until June, 1917, when he enlisted in the 
navy. He was stationed for a -time at San Pedro, and then was transferred 
to San Francisco. During his stay there he contracted influenza, from which 
he never recovered. He passed away on October 28, 1917, at the age of 
twenty years and seven months. 

He was a bright and energetic youth, who had before him a brilliant 
future ; but the call to duty, to render service to his beloved country, meant 
more to him than a promising future. 

Harold J. Moore 

Harold J. Moore was born in Live Oak, Sutter County, April 18, 1894. 
He attended grammar school in Live Oak ; and after completing the course, 
he worked on the farm of his father, J. H. Moore, of that place. He was sent 
to Camp Lewis in the early days of the war, and from that point over 
seas. He was wounded in action, degree undetermined, on July 18, 1918. 
He died August 8, 1918, of meningitis. He was No. 2267878, of Company 
E, 23rd Infantry. 

Elmer Elwood Van Lew 

Elmer Elwood Van Lew, eldest son of Mr. and Mrs. Fred Van Lew, 
was born near Knights Landing, Yolo County, November 4, 1893. He lived 
on a farm with his parents, two sisters (Mrs. Eva Roth and Mae Van Lew), 
and one brother, Lester Van Lew. After finishing the grammar-school 
course, he took a course in a correspondence school. He also took up music, 
and was a cornet soloist in the Knights Landing Band. He was a member 
of the Foresters of America and the Modern Woodmen lodges. He started 
farming when a mere lad, and was so engaged when he was called in the 
draft and sent to Camp Lewis, December 9, 1917, for training. 

He remained in Camp Lewis until June, 1918, when he was transferred 
to an Eastern training camp. He went over seas as a private in July, 1918, 
with Company I, 361st Infantry, 91st Division. He was held in training in 


France until September 26, when the 91st Division was called into action 
in the battle of the Argonne, where they fought for nine days, to be 
relieved on October 4. After resting one day and one night, the 361st 
and 362nd Regiments were again called to the front. It was in this 
battle that our young hero was killed near Gesnes, France, October 9, by 
a machine-gun bullet. 

Everett Kelly Wisner 

Everett Kelly Wisner was the son of Olivia P. and the late Allen E. 
AVisner. He was born at West Butte, Sutter Count)', December 7, 1892. He 
attended the Noyesburg school, near the Sutter Buttes. He was an active and 
industrious lad, many times securing employment where others failed. 

On May 5, 1917, he was sent as an alternate to Camp Lewis, Washing- 
ton, and later to Long Island, New York, where he was placed in the Supply 
Compan)' in the 1st Division, 162nd Infantry. He sailed for over seas about 
December 12, 1917. There were seven in this convoy of transports; the one 
that young Wisner was aboard narrowly missed a torpedo. After arriving 
in France, he was made wagoner in the Supply Company. 

The last letter received by his relatives from him was received on July 
5, 1917. This was followed by a message dated in October, stating that he 
was killed about July 18, at Chateau Thierry. Shortly before that date he 
had been promoted to the Front Company L, 18th Infantry, 1st Division. 
Sergeant Calvin Wisner, a brother, an air-service machinist, arrived in 
Europe the day Everett was killed. 





Private Lester A. Bishop. 
Private Lewis J. Blodget. 
Private Claude B. Boswell. 
Private Fred T. Bottler. 
Private James M. Brown. 
Private Charles F. Cassano. 
Private Richard N. Coupe. 
Private Patrick H. Dugan. 
Private Frank R. Gengler. 
Cadet Lawrence Gray. 
Corporal Bert ]. Hale. 
Private Earl D. Hall. 
Private Preston F. Hendricks. 

Private Edward Hove. 
Private Arthur E. Linnell. 
Captain Charles W. McConaugfn 
Private Lewis M. McCurry. 
Sergeant Wilton L. McDonald. 
Private Edward J. McGanney. 
Private John E. Milligan. 
Private William L. Norton. 
Private Horatio D. Poole. 
Private Wilfred R. Smith. 
Private Charles S. Waller. 
Private William O. White. 
Sergeant John Zvijerkovich. 


Private Trugva M. Bordsen. Lieutenant Paul J. Langenbach. 

Sergeant Joseph M. Burns. Cadet Sidney H. Lyall. 

Lieutenant William S. Cannon. Private Harold J. Moore. 

Private Manuel F. Gomes. Private Elmer E. Van Lew. 

Private Herman L. Hansen. Private Everett K. Wisner. 


Fred Addington. 
Alexander Brown. 
Samuel H. Cabot. 
Richard Carifre. 
George Howard. 
L- W. Johnson. 

Waldo S. Johnson. 
Neil Jones. 
John Kail. 
Leslie Kimball. 
Henry A. Lubman. 
Dona'ld McDonald. 

John McDonald. 
Thomas Martin. 
William F. O'Brien. 
Andrew Skinner. 
Private Watson. 
Lester Wilbur. 

In Flanders fields the poppies blow 
Between the crosses, row on row, 

That mark their places ; in the sky, 
The larks, still bravely singing, fly — 
Are heard amid stilled guns below. 

They are The Dead : short days ago 
They lived, felt dawn, saw sunset glow, 

Loved, and were loved — and now they 
In Flanders fields. 

Keep up their quarrel witli the foe 
Of Liberty. They, falling, throw 

The torch. 'Tis ours to hold it high ! 

If we break faith with those who die, 
They cannot sleep, tho' poppies grow 
In Flanders fields. 



HALSEY H. DUNNING. — Not every interesting and instructive career 
of even an exceptionally public-spirited public man of the first importance so 
well illustrates the value of previous opportunity and experience in travel 
and observation as that of Halsey H. Dunning, known as one of the most 
aggressively progressive promoters of Northern California, and one of the 
most representative and influential citizens in Marysville. Having traveled 
throughout California, and particularly in the Southland and the San Joaquin 
Valley, and having acquired a practical, detailed experience in leading lines 
of business, he early detected the natural resources of Yuba and Sutter 
Counties, at a time when the potentialities of this region were not generally 
recognized. Upon his return from his tours, he manifested the liveliest in- 
terest in favor of development ; and this intelligent appreciation of Yuba and 
Sutter Counties' importance led to his appointment as director of the Sacra- 
mento Valley Development Association. The conscientious and successful 
discharge of the responsible duties connected with that position led to his com- 
mission as the representative for Yuba County at the Panama-Pacific Expo- 
sition in San Francisco, and also at the San Diego Fair. His study of modern 
conditions, and particularly of traffic problems, at these teeming centers 
proved in time the incentive to his giving to Marysville the largest and best- 
equipped garage, under one roof, in the State of California. 

Halsey H. Dunning was born at Moores Flat,. Nevada Count)-, on Au- 
gust 27, 1869, the son of an early settler, Zopher Dunning, and his good wife, 
who had been Sarah Hawthorn in maidenhood. Both 6f these worthy parents 
were born in Maine, the father at Bangor, and the mother at Thomaston, 
a little place in Knox County. In 1848, Zopher Dunning set out from his 
native State on a sailing vessel bound for Australia ; and having rounded 
Cape Horn on his rough and hazardous voyage, he reached the Golden Gate 
at last, and soon afterward went inland to the mines at Moores Flat, where 
for twenty years he went through the ups and downs of a miner's life. In 
1870 he came to Marysville; and until 1872 he was proprietor and manager 
of the old Denton House, where his excellent service and old-fashioned hos- 
pitality became well and pleasantly known. He had bought a ranch at Yuba 
Dam, about two miles from Marysville, and there, in connection with his 
farming, he conducted one of the best road-houses in Northern California. 
This old ranch has since then been cut up into subdivisions suited to the 
more modest operations of the small farmer, and sold to former employees 
and others, the estate thus continuing to be operated in the interest of the 
most intensive development of the section's resources. Both Mr. and Mrs. 
Dunning have passed away. They were most useful members of society, 
and were widely known and esteemed. They left a family of six children : 
Aurelia, now Mrs. Catland, of Santa Ana; Florence R., the wife of Charles 
Hastings; Iola T. ; Halsey H., of this review; and Louis and Abigail, now 
Mrs. Casey, also of Marysville. 

Halsey H. Dunning attended the Linda district school, having been 
reared in Yuba County ; and when school days were over, he learned the 


carpenter's and wood-worker's trade. He was thus equipped to take advant- 
age of the great building boom in Southern California, and going south to 
San Bernardino County, in 1889, he followed carpentering there until 1891. 
Returning north, he found employment in the operation of threshing machin- 
ery, and remained in Stockton until 1896. Then he 'removed -to San Benito 
County, where he successfully conducted a blacksmith shop at Paicines, and 
also one at Tres Pinos. Disposing of his holdings in 1905, he returned to 
Marysville. There, in partnership with his brother, he established a repair 
shop for harvesters, on C Street, the two forming a firm under the name of 
Dunning Brothers; and in 1907 they incorporated their business as the Dunn- 
ing Brothers Company, at the same time purchasing for their factory and 
headquarters the corner of Fourth and E Streets. Later they erected a two- 
storv concrete garage building, 73 by 160 feet in size, and while continuing 
the business of harvester-repairing, began also to give their attention to work 
upon automobiles. In 1912, Halsey Dunning bought out his brother's interest, 
and took into partnership with him his own sons ; and since then the' business 
has been continued as a close corporation, each of the members giving his 
undivided time, attention and best efforts to the establishment's success. The 
most marked prosperity of the firm dates from that year, 1912, when the 
Dunnings became the agents for the Ford automobile for Yuba and Sutter 
Counties ; and this agency led later to their handling the Lincoln car and the 
Fordson tractor. 

A member of the Sacramento Valley Development Association, organ- 
ized in 1900, Mr. Dunning was appointed by the board of supervisors of 
Yuba County both as a director and as the official representative, for which 
he was preeminently fitted, being familiar with local conditions, and alive to 
the possibilities of this section when once the advantages should be made 
known beyond the county and State. Intensely interested in hastening devel- 
opment of the fertile valley, he faithfully fulfilled the duties connected with 
his position, despite the cost of fatiguing effort and valuable time. It was 
very natural, therefore, that when the Panama-Pacific International Exposi- 
tion was launched in San Francisco, the supervisors of Yuba County should 
appoint Mr. Dunning sole commissioner for the county on the commission 
representing the Sacramento Valley, and to this commission he also gave 
unstintingly of his time in promotion of the interests of the section he repre- 
sented. Finding', however, that the new responsibilities conflicted with his 
onerous work in the Sacramento Valley Development Association, he 
resigned his position with the latter body to give more time to Exposition 
work. Hardly had he undertaken the San Francisco budget when he was 
also commissioned to represent the Sacramento Valley exhibit at the San 
Diego Fair. This double program compelled him to spend part of his time in 
the Bay City in the North, and considerable time in the Southern city. But 
he was well rewarded by the results, for so well received were the Sacramento 
Valley exhibits that the entire section undoubtedly gained wide repute there- 
by. Provision had been made to pay the members of the commission for their 
time and expenses, but Mr. Dunning, with characteristic liberality, refused 
to accept any such remuneration. He continued active on the commission 
until the closing up of all business matters, and then he returned the balance 
of money on hand to the supervisors — the only instance in the State's history 
when any public money was returned after an exposition. 

It was while Mr. Dunning was in the Southland that, he had a chance 
to compare the possibilities of the Sacramento Valley, and its natural re- 
sources, with other portions of the State, and this comparison deepened and 
broadened his insight into the greater opportunities awaiting the counties 
of Yuba and Sutter. With A. L. Conard and others, he became one of the 


organizers of the Lassen Volcanic National Park Association, in which he 
is now a director. This association was organized in order to gain govern- 
mental recognition and secure appropriation from the government with 
which more rapidly to improve the Lassen Volcanic National Park. The 
originators of the movement went before the State legislature as well, and 
secured an appropriation of $8000 for development work. Mr. Dunning's 
first-hand experience and personal observation in both the Southland and at 
San Francisco, as commissioner, materially aided him in the development of 
his own business interests, and gave him the incentive to provide a thoroughly 
up-to-date garage and automobile service for Marysville. Following the 
selection of the Dunning Brothers Company as agents for the Ford products, 
the company found their quarters inadequate, as the population increased 
and their trade developed ; and in 1918 Halsey Dunning built the California 
Garage, at the corner of Fourth and I Streets, a structure 160 by 240 feet, 
the largest garage on one floor in the State. After conducting both establish- 
ments for a while, however, they gave up their old location, on January 1, 
1921, leasing the well-known building for stores. From that time on they 
concentrated their efforts and energies in the highest development of their 
main enterprise. The marked increase of business once more necessitated 
enlargement, and in 1923-1924 they built a two-story extension, 80 by 160 feet, 
to their California Garage, making a total floor space of 67,000 square feet, 
occupying a whole block facing I Street, and extending from Third to Fourth 
Street. This establishment is the most complete of any in the State, each 
department being confined to separate rooms, and each run under the man- 
agement of an acknowledged expert. There is a salesroom for the Ford and 
the Lincoln cars, another for trucks and bodies, and a third for tractors and 
tractor equipment. There is an electrical and battery shop, a radiator and 
sheet-metal department, and also a vulcanizing shop. In addition to these, 
there are an accessory department, where everything for the Ford and Lin- 
coln cars, and the Fordson tractor, is to be found ; trimming and top and 
paint shops ; a used-car sales department ; a modern machine shop, with a 
most complete blacksmith shop ; and a body-building shop. In fact, every- 
thing for the car and tractor, for repairs of every kind, and for the best of 
service, is to be found under their vast roof, with a storage room besides. 
To supply the service station, which is in charge of four girls, Mr. Dunning 
purchases gasoline in car-lots ; and he has an individual pipe-line running to 
the spur on the Western Pacific Railroad, by which the gasoline is brought 
by gravity to his storage tanks at the station, the auxiliary tanks giving him 
a capacity of 18,000 gallons. This simple process of handling eliminates 
waste, evaporation and extra expense, so that the firm is enabled to sell 
gasoline three cents per gallon under the prices of competitors, and still 
make a fair profit. The offices of this establishment are located on the 
mezzanine floor, in the center of the building, overlooking the whole garage. 
Adequate space is set apart for rest rooms, and balconies are arranged for 
the comfort of patrons, even a play-room for children of tourist-patrons being 
provided. There is also a cafeteria, with electric cooking apparatus, and a 
noonday meal is supplied to employees at a cost of twenty-five cents per plate. 
From even this brief description it will be seen that the Dunning Brothers 
Company have not overlooked a single item to render service of the worth- 
while sort to appreciative patrons, looking after their welfare and comfort 
as well as after the best interests of the employee. The company also main- 
tains a branch garage at Wheatland, in Yuba County, in their own building, 
44 by 90 feet in size, and another branch at Live Oak, in Sutter County, 
60 by 100 feet in size, near the center of the town and both catering to the 
fast growing traffic speeding through on the great State highways. 


At Sacramento, in 1888, Mr. Dunning- was married to Miss Sarah E. 
Manning-, a native of Folsom, Cal., and an accomplished lady, and a social 
favorite. They have been blessed with five children: Encil M., Don L., 
William Glenn, Jack, and Ada Elizabeth. The four sons are associated with 
their father in business. Mr. Dunning has been active for years in both civie 
and fraternal circles; in 1915-1916 he served as president of the -Marysville 
Chamber of Commerce. He is a director and vice-president of the Rotary 
Club, and a member of Marysville Lodge No. 783, B. P. O. Elks. He is a 
Democrat, and a member of the Democratic County Central Committee, of 
which he has been chairman ; and he has been a member of the Democratic 
State Central Committee for years. He is distinguished as one of the most 
enterprising citizens of Marysville, with the broadest vision and exceptional 
courage and nerve to build for the future, an excellent judge of business 
conditions, and an optimist of the most hopeful and helpful kind. As a first- 
class "booster," he was one of the first promoters of the new hotel, and has 
become one of the largest stockholders ; and he has always been conspicuous 
for his championing of every local undertaking for the beautifying of the city 
and the development of its resources. He deserves especial credit for his 
great work in laboring for improved roads, for which he has accomplished 
much in this part of Northern California. Marysville has never had a 
more public-spirited citizen, nor one more deserving of the public's confi- 
dence and gratitude ; nor could any community in the Pacific commonwealth 
hope to have a more unselfish, untiring worker at home for the community's 
good, or a more fearless and unremitting champion abroad, of the commu- 
nity in which he lives. 

PETER J. DELAY.— Peter J. Delay, author of this History of Yuba 
and Sutter Counties, was born in Marysville, Yuba County, September 8, 
1865, and has resided continuously in the county. His first employment 
was delivering newspapers in the era when one train a day reached the city 
from the larger centers, which arrival was the big event, and everyone who 
was at leisure went to the railroad sta-tion to note the arrivals and departures. 
Peculiarly enough, after ten years of store life, starting at the age of seven- 
teen, he drifted back into newspaper work and at this writing has been con- 
nected with the "fourth estate" for thirty years. 

In 1893 he took the position of city editor of the Marysville Democrat, 
evening paper, holding the same for seven years. Early in 1900, he entered 
the employment of the Sacramento Bee, as a special correspondent to the 
Superior California department of that paper, covering Yuba, Sutter and 
adjoining counties. 

Representing the State controller's office in the inheritance-tax depart- 
ment, he has served under three regimes — under those of A. B. Nye and the 
late John S. Chambers, and at the present writing under State Controller 
Ray L. Riley. 

In March, 1904, Peter J. Delay was elected, without opposition, a mem- 
ber of the Common Council of the City of Marysville, representing the third 
ward. At the close of a two-years term he was reelected to the same office. 

In March, 1908, he was chosen Mayor of his native city in one of the 
warmest municipal elections in the city's history. At the end of his term 
he retired from political life. A fellow journalist living at a distance, com- 
menting upon Mr. Delay's success at the polls, expressed wonderment, 
editorially, as to how a man with a name denoting anything but force, 
and with the burden of a newspaper man to live down, could accomplish 
such a feat. 




Wk •**, 


k i ^H Hl^. 



HON. FRED HENRY GREELY.— In many capacities Fred Henry 
Greely has served the public, always doing able and conscientious work in 
every position to which he has been elected. He is now serving as recorder 
and auditor for Yuba County, having been continued in those offices for the 
past twelve years. He is one of California's native sons and was born at 
Galena Hill, July 5, 1856, of the marriage of Justus and Margaret (Rideout) 
Greely. His grandfather, John Greely, lived and died in Palermo, Waldo 
County, Maine, being the seventh, as our subject is the ninth, in lineal 
descent from Andrew Greele (as he spelled the name) of Salisbury, Mass.. 
the records of the town first mentioning his name as a resident of the place 
in 1640, though he may have been in Massachusetts at an earlier date. John 
Greely was born in 1801 and died in 1886. Members of the family, quite 
generally, have been of advanced age when they passed on. The emigrant 
Andrew Greele built the first mill in Salisbury. General A. W. Greely and 
Horace Greeley were of the same family, and members of the family served 
in the Colonial and Revolutionary Wars. The first four generations resided 
at Salisbury, Mass. ; thereafter members of the family moved to Newcastle, 
Maine, and later to Palermo, Waldo County, Maine. 

Justus Greely, the father of our subject, was born in Palermo, Maine, and 
was twenty-one years of age when he came to San Francisco, via the Nica- 
ragua route, in 1851. He came on to Yuba County and mined at Parks Bar 
on the Yuba River. In 1854 he returned East and was married to Miss 
Margaret Rideout, a sister of N. D. Rideout, later the banker of Marysville. 
Immediately returning to California with his bride, he and N. D. Rideout 
were partners in mining at Galena Hill. In 1860 Justus Greely returned to 
Maine with his family and engaged in the wholesale and retail grocery busi- 
ness near his old home, later locating in Portland, Maine, where he continued 
the business for three years, when he sold all of his holdings and returned to 
California with his family on one of the early overland trains. In July, 1869, 
he located in Marysville and purchased an interest in the old Buckeye Mill, 
engaging in manufacturing flour ; and in time buying out the other partner, 
he became sole owner and incorporated the Buckeye Milling Company, 
enlarging the business as his trade grew. Later he consolidated it with the 
Pioneer Mill in Sacramento, and the two did business together for many 
years. When the Sperry Flour Company was organized, it absorbed both of 
these companies as well as others. Justus Greely was a member of the 
board of directors of the Sperry Flour Company until his death on April 6, 
1911, at the age of eighty-one. He was levee director in Marysville for mam- 
years and was one of the prime movers in the building of the permanent 
levees that today so well protect the city; he did not believe in doing things 
by halves, but wisely builded the levees much higher than the limit of high 
water. He was also city treasurer for many years. The mother, Margaret 
Rideout, also came from an old Maine family and was of English descent. 
Her three brothers, Henry, Benjamin and Ransom, were all river captains in 
Maine. Benjamin and Ransom Rideout came to California in pioneer days 
and were captains on the Sacramento River; and their sons followed in their 
footsteps and are captains on the Sacramento River at the present time, as 
well as some of their grandsons. Mrs. Justus Greely died in 1904 at the 
age of seventy years. This worth}- pioneer couple had two children, Fred H. 
and Margaret, who resides in Berkeley and is now the widow of Dr. David 

In 1860 Fred H. Greely accompanied his parents via the Isthmus of 
Panama to Maine, attending school there until 1869, when the family 
returned to California. Here he graduated from the Marysville High School 
in the first graduating class, of which .Mr. Greely is the only member now 


living. He then went East and at Kents Hill fitted for Harvard, from 1874 
to 1876; but he decided instead to enter a smaller college, and so matricu- 
lated at Wesleyan University, at Middletown, Conn., continuing his studies 
for two years, when his eyesight became impaired and he had to give up his 
studies for the time. Returning to California, he took a position in the 
Buckeye Mills and became secretary of the company, a position he filled for 
many years. When the Sperry Flour Company absorbed the mill, he became 
a director in this company, continuing as such for many years until he sold 
his stock. He took up the study of law in the office of W. H. Carlin of 
Marysville, and on March 13, '1900, was admitted to the bar of California. 

On beginning his professional career, Mr. Greely became associated with 
his former preceptor, Mr. Carlin, a relationship that was continued until 
September, 1901, when he withdrew from the partnership and began practic- 
ing independently. His ability in solving intricate legal problems soon 
became recognized and led to his selection for the office of district attorney, 
which he filled from 1907 to 1911. Meanwhile, in 1886, he had been chosen 
mayor of Marysville, and in 1889 he was elected to represent his district in 
the State Senate. For seven years he served on the board of trustees of the 
Normal School at Chico, under appointment of Governor Markham, and in 
1903 he was appointed register of the United States Land Office at Marys- 
ville, with which he was connected until the removal of the office to Sacra- 
mento in 1906. In December, 1910, the then incumbent, S. O. Gunning, 
auditor and recorder of Yuba County, who had just been elected to the 
office to succeed himself, died and Mr. Greely was appointed by the board 
of supervisors to fill the vacancy, serving out his full term until January, 
1915. In the meantime, in the fall of 1914, he was nominated and elected 
county auditor and recorder by a big majority. In 1918 he was reelected 
without opposition, and in 1922 he was again reelected, also without opposi- 
tion. He is giving these offices all of his attention, his long retention in the 
office being proof of his efficiency and trustworthiness. He is a member of 
the County Recorders' Association of the State of California. All this time 
he has also been engaged in ranching and cattle-raising. From 1889 to 1914 
he owned about 3000 acres in Yuba County. Selling this, he then bought a 
1400-acre ranch in the valley of Yuba County, which he also sold at a profit ; 
and he now owns a ranch in Sutter County devoted to the growing of olives, 
grapes and prunes. 

On October 5, 1879, Mr. Greely was united in marriage to Miss Eettie 
Bost, and they have a large circle of friends in Marysville. Mrs. Greely was 
born in Marysville, a daughter of Jacob M. Bost, who was born in Ohio and 
there married Sarah White. Coming to California across the plains by ox- 
team in 1854, he became a pioneer of Marysville and engaged in teaming for 
several years, until he began ranching. He is now living retired, with our 
subject, and is hale and hearty at the age of ninety-one. Mrs. J. M. Bost 
died in 1891, aged fifty-nine years. Eettie Bost, their only daughter, was edu- 
cated in Marysville, and her entire life has been spent here. She is a 
member and treasurer of the Woman's Improvement Club. The union of 
Mr. and Mrs. Greely was blessed with two children : Helen, Mrs. Waste of 
Marysville ; and Donnell, who was assistant cashier of the Rideout Bank on 
the outbreak of the World AVar, when he entered the officers' training camp 
at the Presidio. He was commissioned second lieutenant in 1918, and was 
promoted to first lieutenant at Camp Fremont. He went over seas with the 
13th Regulars and did not return until after the armistice. He is now Cap- 
tain of Headquarters Company, 91st- Division, U. S. Reserves. He is inter- 
ested with his father in ranching: and horticulture. 


Fred H. Greely is a member of Marysville Parlor, No. 6, N. S. G. W. 
He is a Past President, and also served as Grand President of that order in 
1885, and is also Past Exalted Ruler of Marysville Lodge, No. 783, B. P. O. 
Elks. He is intensely interested in preserving- the old historical pioneer land- 
marks in California. He was one of the four-minute speakers, making over 
600 speeches, or one a day, during the "World War, and was active in selling 
the Liberty Bonds and boosting the county over the top each time. He was 
for ten years a member of Company C, 8th Infantry, N. G. C, serving on 
General Montgomery's staff as Major Inspector of Rifle Practice, himself 
holding a record as one of the crack shots of old Company C. He has closely 
studied the questions and issues of the day, and believing that the principles 
of the Republican party contain the best elements of good government, he 
has ever labored for its success. He stands high in his profession, and at all 
times has been actuated by an unselfish spirit of devotion to the general good. 

JAMES RILEY GARRETT.— The wholesale and retail merchandising 
business of the J. R. Garrett Co., of Marysville, stands forth as one of the 
most substantial and influential of its kind in the State of California. It is 
by far the largest in Marysville, and has greater facilities for handling and 
shipping grain, provisions, groceries and general produce than any other 
concern in the Sacramento Valley. At its head was a man who had worked 
his way up without missing any rounds of the ladder, and whose splendid 
achievement went hand in hand with profound respect on the part of his 
fellow men. He came to the West with the special attributes of the mer- 
chant ; and these have made his specialty pay, through persistency of pur- 
pose and minute attention to details. 

J. R. Garrett was born on a farm near South Trenton, Oneida County. 
N. Y., July 19, 1837, his family having been established in New York by his 
paternal grandfather, Peter Garrett, whose youthful ambitions found an 
outlet in running away from his home in England, and in some way pro- 
curing passage on an American-bound ship. He lived on a New York farm 
for the remainder of his l